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Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Barry Bergdoll

(b Marseille, Nov 26, 1787; d Marseille, Feb 8, 1879).

French architect and writer. The designer of many of the principal public buildings of Marseille, he also published the first accurate records of the Islamic monuments of Cairo, North Africa and the Middle East—a central interest of mid-19th-century architectural theorists and ornamentalists.

After studying both engineering and drawing in Marseille, Coste began his career in 1804 as site inspector and draughtsman for the Neo-classicist Michel-Robert Penchaud, a municipal and departmental architect, for whom he worked for a decade. In 1814, on the recommendation of the architects Percier & Fontaine, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the ateliers of Antoine-Laurent-Thomas Vaudoyer and Jean-Baptiste Labadye (1777–1850). An encounter in Paris with the geographer Jombert, who had been a member of the scientific mission that accompanied Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798, was to influence his subsequent career. In 1817 Jombert recommended Coste to Muhammad ‛Ali, Khedive of Egypt (...

Article

Stefan Muthesius

[Wenzel]

(b Ehrenbreitstein, Nov 23, 1775; d Weimar, Oct 4, 1845).

German architect. He worked under Christian Friedrich Schuricht in Dresden in the 1790s before studying in Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique (1800–04) under Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand; he visited Rome in 1804–5. Most of his life was spent in Weimar, where he was appointed Oberbaudirektor (1816) to the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, one of the smaller and poorer of the German states, for which most of his work was undertaken. This included the Erfurter Tor (1822–4), the Bürgerschule (1822–5), the Wagenremise (1823) and the Hoftheater (1825–9; destr. 1905), plain buildings strongly influenced by Durand. Coudray also founded a school for building workers, the Freie Gewerkschule (1829). Weimar’s most eminent citizen, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, took a close interest in Coudray’s work, including his only major Greek Revival building, the Fürstengruft (1823–7). This mausoleum was commissioned by Grand Duke ...

Article

Adrian von Buttlar

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], Feb 5, 1766; d Berlin, Oct 3, 1811).

German architect. He studied drawing and architecture in Berlin from 1782 under Karl Philipp Christian von Gontard and Asmus Jakob Carstens. Between 1790 and 1795 he travelled to Italy, England and France, spending three years in Rome and studying Greek temples at Paestum and in Sicily. From 1798 he was Professor of Civic Design at the newly founded Bauakademie in Berlin and in 1810 was appointed Court Building Adviser. Together with his brother-in-law Friedrich Gilly (see Gilly family, §2) and Carl Gotthard Longhans, Gentz was the most prominent representative of Neo-classicism in Prussia prior to Karl Friedrich Schinkel. His chief work was the Royal Mint (1798–1800; destr. 1886), Berlin, which also housed the Bauakademie and the Chief Building Department until 1836. The cuboid corps de logis had a battered and rusticated lower floor surmounted by a frieze carved in sandstone and bronzed to a design by ...

Article

Julius Fekete

(b Stuttgart, July 1, 1840; d Nuremberg, Nov 19, 1884).

German architect and teacher. He studied at the Stuttgart Polytechnikum under Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92) and then became a railway engineer in Württemberg (1860–61). His study of Renaissance architecture on a visit to Italy (1861–2) strongly influenced his subsequent work. He spent three years (1863–6) in various architectural offices in Vienna, taught briefly at the Stuttgart Baugewerkschule (1866–7), then moved to London (1867–9) to work for the Arundel Society, preparing a book on the tombs in Venice and Verona.

In 1870 Gnauth became professor at the Stuttgart Polytechnikum as a result of the success of his Villa Siegle (c. 1868; destr.) in Stuttgart, based on the Early Renaissance Villa Carlotta on Lake Como. Gnauth collaborated on the villa’s decoration with the painter Ludwig Lesker (1840–90), with whom he edited the Maler-Journal from 1875. They collaborated on several further commissions, including the Palais Engelhorn (...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Copenhagen, Jan 21, 1801; d Christiania [now Oslo], March 4, 1865).

Norwegian architect of Danish birth. He was educated at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, where his father, Heinrich August Grosch (1763–1843), a landscape painter and engraver of German origin, worked as an instructor. From 1820 to 1824 Christian Heinrich studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Art under C. F. Hansen. On his return to Christiania, he worked as a draughtsman under Hans Ditlev Franciscus Linstow from 1824 to 1827, and in 1828 he was appointed City Architect of Christiania, where he also served as a teacher at the Royal School of Design. In 1814 Norway had been liberated from Danish rule, and although the country was still united with Sweden under a common king, its new political status created a need for public buildings. Grosch was therefore soon awarded important public commissions in Christiania, of which the first was the state hospital (1826–42; destr.). He demonstrated a secure grasp of the classical idiom in the Stock Exchange (...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Hamburg, Dec 15, 1826; d Christiania [now Oslo], Dec 12, 1882).

Norwegian architect, sculptor and painter of German birth. He studied at the Hamburgische Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Künste und nützlichen Gewerben (1840–43), afterwards training, still in Hamburg, as an architect under Alexis de Chateauneuf and then as an architect and sculptor in Cologne (1849–50). In 1850 von Hanno followed de Chateauneuf to Christiania to assist him with the construction of Trinity Church (1850–58). De Chateauneuf returned to Hamburg in 1851 because of failing health; von Hanno completed the building, simplifying de Chateauneuf’s design because of economic, as well as structural, problems. The church presents an unusual combination of a centralized, domed plan and a Gothic Revival style, much drier and heavier in detail than originally intended. Remaining in Norway for the rest of his life, von Hanno became one of Christiania’s leading architects. In collaboration with Heinrich Ernst Schirmer (1814–87), with whom he was in partnership from ...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b St Gall, Oct 1, 1858; d Lucerne, Jan 11, 1927).

Swiss architect. After studying architecture for two years (c. 1876–8) at the Hochschule, Stuttgart, under Adolf Gnauth and Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92), he travelled in Italy and France. From 1879 he worked primarily in St Gall, but he also worked elsewhere in Switzerland. He won a gold medal at the Vatican Exhibition (1887–8), and in 1888 he was made a Knight of St Gregory the Great by Pope Leo XIII. Hardegger was an eclectic architect, using all the traditional historicist styles. His designs were often asymmetrical and irregular in both plan and elevation, as in the church of St Martin (1908–10), Olten; they also incorporated painting and sculpture, for example in the Haus zum Bürgli (before 1890), at St Gall, and they emphasized regional traditions, as at the parish church of Göschenen (1898–9). Following the construction of the parish church at Gossau (...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Kemalettin Bey]

(b Istanbul, 1870; d Ankara, July 1927).

Turkish architect. He studied at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul, graduating in 1891, and at the Charlottenburg Technische Hochschule in Berlin (1896–8). After his return to Turkey in 1900, he taught at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul and became chief architect of the Ministry of Pious Foundations (1909), entrusted with the restoration of historical monuments and the design of new buildings. This work enabled him to analyse the principles of Ottoman architecture and formulate a revivalist idiom. He built mosques, mausoleums, office blocks, schools, prisons and hospitals; the small mosque (1913) at Bebek, Istanbul, is a fine example of his revivalist style. The Fourth Vakıf Han (1912–26), a large seven-storey office block in Istanbul’s Bahçekapı district, epitomizes Ottoman revivalist architecture, also known as the First National Architectural Style (see Islamic art, §II, 7(i)). Its well-ordered stone façade with rich carvings and coloured tiles hides a sophisticated steel framework. His last building complex in Istanbul, the Harikzedegan apartments (...

Article

S. J. Vernoit and Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

[‛Abdallāh Khān]

(fl c. 1810–50).

Persian painter and architect. Trained in the apprentice system in royal workships, he rose through the ranks and in 1839 he was appointed by Muhammad Shah Qajar (reg 1834–48) painter laureate (naqqāsh bāshī), court architect (mi‛mār bāshī) and supervisor of royal workshops in charge of painters, architects, designers, enamelers, masons, carpenters, potters, blacksmiths, spearmen, candlemakers, keepers of the palace, glass-cutters and gardeners. His major work was a large mural with 118 life-size figures covering three walls in the interior of the Nigaristan Palace at Tehran (destr.; see Islamic art, §VIII, 11(i)). On the end wall the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834) was depicted enthroned in state surrounded by his sons; on the side walls he was attended by a double row of courtiers and foreign ambassadors, including the British ambassador Sir Gore Ouseley (1770–1844) and Napoleon’s envoy C. M. Gardane (...

Article

Gjergj Frashëri

(b Korçë; fl 1770–1807).

Albanian architect. He graduated as an engineer and was the chief architect (1800–07) of Ali Pasha Tepelena (1741–1822), ruler of an Albanian state based at Ioannina, Greece. Chroniclers of the time attribute to Korçari many projects, among which are the seraglio (1804; destr. 1819) in Tepelenë Castle, Tepelenë Bridge (1804; destr. 1807), the palace (1800–07) in the village of Karkalopulo, near Ioannina, and a palace, several houses and a mosque at the castle of Suli (1805), near Parga, Greece. His greatest project was the architectural ensemble at Ioannina Castle (1805; destr. 1822), consisting of five palaces (seraglios), of which the Litharici and the Qoshk were recorded as the most beautiful. As in all his palaces, the ground floors had very high and thick stone walls, characteristic of the ‘Albanian tower’ type of house (see Albania, §II...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Hørsholm, Denmark, March 4, 1787; d Christiania [now Oslo], July 10, 1851).

Norwegian architect of Danish birth. He was educated as a mining engineer and officer in Copenhagen, where he also attended drawing, painting and possibly architectural classes at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, and in Kongsberg, Norway, from 1812 to 1815. He began teaching drawing at Christiania’s Royal School of Design in 1819 and taught architecture there from 1822 to 1840. Despite his relative lack of formal architectural education, Linstow’s works are distinguished by artistic ability and solid historical knowledge. Numerous churches throughout Norway were built after Neo-classical pattern drawings prepared by him (1838–41). His major project, the Royal Palace in Oslo (1823–48), is a reduced version of a much larger original project, with Baroque details inspired by Nicodemus Tessin the younger’s Royal Palace in Stockholm. The Palladian building, facing Karl Johans Gate and the city, is dominated by a central pavilion with giant Ionic columns of Norwegian marble. The interiors, like those of C. F. Hansen’s contemporary Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, were influenced by the classicism of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, whom Linstow visited while in Germany in ...

Article

Jeanne Sheehy

(b Dublin, Jan 6, 1817; d Dublin, Feb 6, 1882).

Irish architect. He was educated at the Christian Brothers’ School, Dublin, and entered the Figure and Ornament Schools of the Royal Dublin Society in 1834. In 1837 he moved to the Architecture School and in the same year began to exhibit designs at the Royal Hibernian Academy. He was articled to the architect William Farrell (d 1852). He probably spent the years 1843–6 in England, where he came under the influence of A. W. N. Pugin and the Ecclesiological movement. By 1846 he was back in Ireland and embarked on his first major commission, St Kevin’s, Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, which he described as ‘the first uncompromisingly true church of the old type erected in the archdiocese of Dublin’. It followed Ecclesiological recommendations for a small rural church, with a nave and carefully differentiated chancel, a bell cote, south porch and a sacristy, and was built of local granite with limestone dressings. He planned a richly decorated interior, with rood screen, sedilia and founder’s tomb, stained glass, encaustic tiles and stencilled walls, but little of this was achieved. St Kevin’s launched McCarthy on a successful career. His religion was no disadvantage, as the Catholic church began a vigorous building campaign. McCarthy was a skilled self-publicist, writing about the new architecture in Duffy’s ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(Hansen)

(b Stange, Jan 1, 1848; d Christiania [now Oslo], May 23, 1898).

Norwegian architect. He trained first at Wilhelm von Hanno’s School of Design in Christiania and later as an architect in Hannover, Germany, from 1872 to 1877. He started his own practice in Christiania in 1878 and became a teacher at the Royal School of Design in 1885. From 1897 to his death he served as city architect for Christiania. With Henrik Nissen the elder (1845–1915), Munthe designed a number of important Renaissance Revival buildings in Oslo, such as the former Commercial High School, which has a red brick façade with granite and plaster details. He is best known, however, as the creator of the ‘Dragon style’, a fusion of the Chalet style (known in Norway as the ‘Swiss style’) and traditional Norwegian timber architectural forms, such as the characteristic two-storey front of the rural loft (Norw.: ‘store-house’). The name of the style is derived from the use of dragon heads (a motif taken from medieval stave churches) to crown the gables. Munthe’s bathing house (...

Article

Michael Eissenhauer

(b Oels, Silesia, June 18, 1831; d Hannover, Sept 6, 1880).

German architect. He enrolled at the Polytechnische Schule in Hannover in 1849. His career was furthered especially by Conrad Wilhelm Hase; after completing his studies in 1853 he worked in Hase’s practice where he was able to design and supervise his first independent architectural projects. He was influenced by Hase in his preference for medieval styles of building, especially Gothic. In 1856 he went to Paris where he spent some time working for Viollet-le-Duc’s office. Oppler returned to Hannover c. 1859 and started his own architectural practice there. In his short working life he produced a substantial body of work comprising c. 100 individual design projects, most of which were realized, innumerable interiors including furniture and household equipment, and finally seven annual issues of the periodical Kunst im Gewerbe, which was virtually based on his own designs and articles. His clients were businessmen, representatives of the upper-middle classes and members of the nobility. He built large-scale houses, villas and business premises for them, as well as imposing blocks of flats in Hannover, Bonn, Baden-Baden, Nuremberg and elsewhere. Oppler carried out extensive exterior and interior alterations at the Marienburg (...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez and Liliana Herrera

[Buix, José Domingo ]

(b Petrés, Valencia, June 9, 1759; d 1811).

Spanish architect and Capuchin monk, active in Colombia. He trained with his father, the stonemason Domingo Buix. Joining the Capuchin Order in 1780, he was sent to Murcia, where he studied at an art school directed by Francisco Salzillo y Alcarez. In 1792 he was posted to Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia, where he took over and concluded the work on the hospice of S José and quickly achieved a well-deserved renown in the viceroyalty of New Granada. He provided designs for S Domingo, Bogotá (1794), and the basilica of the Virgin of Chiquinquirá (1796–1823), where his use of an ambulatory recalls the work of Diego de Siloé at Granada. He designed Bogotá observatory (1802) and the cathedral of Zipaquirá (1805), 40 km north of the capital, but his masterpiece is Bogotá Cathedral (1806–14), which he rebuilt in the Neo-classical style. Petrés also undertook civil engineering work, such as the conduits and basin for the fountain of S Victoriano, and several bridges, including that of El Topo at Tunja (...

Article

Peter Boutourline Young

(b Milan, 1739; d Milan, 1825).

Italian scientist, philosopher, writer and architect. His early education took place in Milan, Monza, Rome and Naples between 1756 and 1765. Having joined the Barnabite order in 1756, he became a member of the regular clergy of S Paolo, Milan. In 1766 he was appointed professor-in-ordinary of mathematics at the Università di S Alessandro in Milan, where he also taught chemistry, mineralogy and canon law, and in 1772 he became professor of natural history. While best known for his work in geology and natural history, he is also remembered for his treatise Dell’architettura: Dialoghi (1770), which includes all the plans of the church of S Giuseppe at Seregno. Pini himself designed the Neo-classical interior of the church, which was completed by Giulio Galliori (1715–95). The treatise is arranged in the form of two Socratic dialogues by mathematics students in Milan and Longone. The first deals with the dome and the centrally planned church. The students exchange opinions on the mathematical calculation of domes, arches and vaults; Francesco Borromini is praised for his great technical ability, while his successors, in particular the French, are condemned for being responsible for ‘depraving the good taste of architecture’. The students conclude that intrinsic beauty is to be found in simple geometric shapes and that architecture can derive examples from the classical repertory. The second dialogue deals with fortifications and is of considerable importance for the study of the engineer ...

Article

Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...