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Cathedral in Co. Galway, Ireland, dedicated to St Brendan. The rubble walls of the pre-Romanesque nave (10th or 11th century) originally formed a simple rectangular church. The rectangular chancel, with its paired east windows, was added in the early 13th century, and in the Late Gothic period the building was enlarged with transept-like chapels and an elegant square belfry, similar to those in Irish friaries, above the west end of the nave. The cathedral is renowned chiefly for the 12th-century sandstone doorway inserted into its west façade (see Romanesque, §III, 1, (v), (e)).

The decoration of the doorway consists of an extraordinary range of motifs, of both foreign and Irish derivation, forming the most idiosyncratic of all Hiberno-Romanesque portals. Jambs, archivolts, and a high-pitched ‘tangent gable’ were exploited as fields for a dense array of pattern-making. Following ancient Irish custom, the decorated jambs are inclined inwards. They support seven orders of deeply cut voussoirs, ornamented with interlace, bosses, scallops, geometrical designs, and beast heads. The beast heads bite a roll moulding and are comparable to those on the west portal of the Nuns’ Church at Clonmacnois (Offaly). The gable contains an arcade and a series of triangular compartments filled alternately with carved human heads and floral motifs. The five heads that peer out from the arcade may have had painted bodies, possibly emulating the enamelled figures with cast bronze heads found on contemporary Limoges plaques. Among the many delightful details are the rows of tiny beast heads on the lower faces of the abaci. Characteristic of the Hiberno-Romanesque is the juxtaposition of shallow carving, as is found here on both the jambs and pilasters, with much deeper cutting, as on the archivolts. Although this eclectic and exotic design was once attributed to the 1160s, most scholars now prefer a date of ...

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Michael W. Cothren

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame at Evreux, in the département of Eure, France, 80 km west of Paris, known primarily for its collection of stained-glass windows. Begun after fire destroyed its predecessor in 1119, it was not completed until the 17th century, and its appearance reflects several phases of the Gothic style, with richly decorated Flamboyant traceried windows and a late 16th-century west façade. The cathedral has an aisled nave with a two-tower façade and transepts leading to a chevet with ambulatory and chapels. It was severely damaged in 1940 and was subsequently restored.

Although glazing survives from building campaigns from the late 13th century (south nave chapels, parts of the nave clerestory) to the 16th (north transept clerestory and rose window), the most important windows date from the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the choir clerestory, whose glass is dated c. 1320–1400. The exact dating, patronage, and original disposition are controversial. The iconographic emphasis is on the Virgin Mary and the patron saints of the donors. The latter constitute some of the most powerful Normans of 1320–40 (...

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Hans-Joachim Kunst

[Ger. Hallenkirche]

Term introduced in Wilhelm Lübke’s Die mittelalterliche Kunst in Westfalen (1853) to define a church in which the aisles are the same, or almost the same, height as the nave, so that the nave is lit indirectly by the aisle windows. The hall church differs from the basilica, the distinguishing characteristic of which is the fact that the nave is higher than the aisles and is lit by a clerestory. A variation of the hall church is the Staffelkirche or Stufenhalle (Ger.: ‘staggered hall’), in which the main vessel is higher than the aisles but there is no clerestory.

In all European countries, from the early Middle Ages (e.g. Bartholomäuskapelle, Paderborn; 1017) to the 20th century (e.g. Erlöserkirche, Cologne-Rath; 1954), the hall church has, with the basilica and the centrally planned church, been one of the basic church types as defined by art historians. The hall church was, however, most widespread in ...

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Gordon Campbell

High-relief glass decoration. The effect is achieved by the difficult method of wheel-engraving in cameo rather than intaglio (Tiefschnitt). The process was first used in Islamic glassware and was then used in 17th- and 18th-century Germany, where its finest exponents were Gottfried Spiller (1663–1728), who worked at the Brandenburg glassworks (e.g. covered goblet, ...

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Hookah  

Gordon Campbell

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Jane Campbell Hutchison

Broek, Jan van; Bruck, Johannes von; Brugge, Johannes von]

(b Ghent or Bruges, c. 1501–2; d Basle, 1556).

South Netherlandish glass painter and religious sect leader. First mentioned in Delft, where he married and settled in 1524, Jorisz. was trained as a painter of stained glass. A convert first to Lutheranism and later to Anabaptism, he was arrested for blasphemy in 1528 and was fined, whipped and had a hole bored in his tongue. He was then banished from Holland and sentenced (in absentia) to be hanged. Calling himself ‘the Third David’, he founded his own Anabaptist sect, took his family and followers to Basle and passed himself off as a Dutch nobleman, ‘Johannes von Bruck’. Living on funds from his Dutch publications—including the Wunderboeck (Deventer, 1542), illustrated with his own woodcut designs—and from secret donations, he lived in the Spiesshof on the upper Heuberg in Basle, and in a series of castles in the countryside. Although quite a few citizens of Basle seem to have known his real identity, he was not denounced until three years after his death, when his body was exhumed and burnt under the gallows, together with a portrait and his heretical writings....

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Srdjan Djurić

Church on the west bank of Great Prespa Lake in the Republic of Macedonia, 2 km from Kurbinovo village. It was founded in 1191; except for the two large lateral windows added in the 19th century, all later alterations were removed during the 1960s when the church was restored to its original basilical form with a wooden roof. The north, south and west façades are articulated with doors surmounted by lunettes. The west façade bears wall paintings of imperial portraits and frescoes imitating fine stone and brick masonry, while painted scenes from the life and martyrdom of St George decorate the south façade.

Almost all the interior fresco decoration has survived intact; it is divided into three zones, with prophets in the uppermost zone, and the festive cycle and single standing figures, including a procession of bishops, in the middle and lowest zones respectively. Among the scenes depicted are the ...

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Jean-Pierre Babelon

[Ange, Etienne Martel]

(b Lyon, 1568/9; d Paris, Oct 3, 1641).

French architect, painter and draughtsman. He was the grandson of a painter of stained glass and son of a painter from Lyon, and he began his own career as a painter. Martellange trained in Italy from 1586 to 1587 with François Stella (1563–1605), and in 1590 he entered the Jesuit Order at Avignon, with the title of Pictor, taking his vows as a coadjutor brother at Chambéry in 1603; he was not, however, ordained a priest.

Martellange worked throughout France, producing architectural plans and some competent watercolour views of Jesuit establishments where work was in progress. Drawings and estimates were sent to the Jesuit Order in Rome and served as a basis for decisions by the leaders of the Order on the building projects in hand. From the study of his drawings (Paris, Bib. N.) it is possible to reconstruct a list of more than 20 Jesuit houses and colleges on which Martellange worked. His active career began in ...

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Gordon Campbell

Ornamental glass shade for an oil lamp, designed to be hung in a mosque. It is usually shaped like a vase, with a bulbous body, a flared neck, a flat base, and applied glass loops from which it was suspended. The form emerged in late 13th-century Syria, and many of the finest examples come from Syria and Egypt. From the 16th century mosque lamps were made in Europe (notably Venice) and exported to the Islamic world.

The inscriptions on mosque lamps generally mention the donor and include the opening lines of the ‘Verse of Light’ in the Qur'an (24.35), which likens God, the light of the heavens and the earth, to a glass lamp. Over a dozen mosque lamps from the three reigns of al-Nasir Muhammad (reg 1294–1340 with interruptions) represent the summit of 14th-century enamelled glass. A band of tall script at the neck with blue lettering on a gilded ground decorated with polychrome scrolls, leaves and buds contrasts with another band on the body inscribed with gold letters on a blue ground with scattered gold blossoms. At least 50 lamps inscribed with the Light Verse and the name of Hasan (...

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Ogive  

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Gordon Campbell

German glass manufactory. In 1866 the German glassmaker Fritz Eckert (c. 1840–c. 1905) founded a factory in Petersdorf, Silesia (now Pieszków, Poland). At first the factory specialized in historical styles ranging from Islamic designs to enamelled 17th- and 18th-century German Humpen. In 1890 a group of original designs in opaque glass known as ‘Cyprus glass’ was introduced, and from ...

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Situla  

Pippin Michelli

Bucket-shaped vessel, often used in a Christian context to contain holy water. Late Antique examples include two fine glass situlae in the treasury of S Marco, Venice: one, probably dating from the 4th century ad and made in Rome or Alexandria of purple glass, bears deeply carved Dionysiac figures; the other, perhaps of 6th- or 7th-century date, is decorated with hunting scenes. The most elaborate surviving situlae, however, are Ottonian. Made from a single piece of ivory and lavishly carved, these four examples range in height from 145 mm to 185 mm (Milan, Tesoro Duomo; Aachen, Domschatzkam.; London, V&A; New York, Cloisters). They are difficult to date precisely on grounds of style, inscription, or iconography, although they can be associated with Ottonian imperial circles.

The Milan Situla (showing the Virgin and Child and the Evangelists under an arcade) may be the earliest of the four. Its style and detail are closely comparable with a plaque (Milan, Castello Sforzesco) and the two are probably contemporary. The plaque shows Otto II, Theophano, and their infant son adoring Christ. Its inscription, ...

Article

Sarah Ferguson

Wall composed of two outer skins of ashlar, enclosing a rubble core supporting a passage through the thickness of the wall; it can also be called a double wall, or a thick-wall passage. The outer shell is usually a solid wall pierced by a window while the inner is a more open arcade. The two are connected at the bottom by a flat floor and at the top by a vault or slab (see fig.). Thick-wall structures are found in both Romanesque and Gothic buildings throughout Europe, where they are used for both structural and aesthetic purposes, and for circulation.

Although originating in Late Antique buildings, thick-wall structures first became an important architectural feature in 11th-century Anglo-Norman architecture. The earliest surviving Anglo-Norman examples are found in Normandy, in the transepts of Bernay Abbey and Notre-Dame (c. 1040–50), Jumièges (see Jumièges Abbey, §3), where they serve the practical purpose of providing access from the stair-turrets at the transept ends to the main crossing tower. It was at ...

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Lauritz Opstad and Gordon Campbell

(b 1806; d 1890).

Norwegian silversmith. He established a mechanized workshop in Christiania in 1838 and began to manufacture decorative elements in various styles in silver die-stamped from sheets. He also combined silver and glass in domestic wares (e.g. pair of salt-cellars, 1847, Oslo, Kstindustmus.) and produced enamelled silver of considerable distinction. The objects made in Tostrup's workshop were usually in the historicist styles popular during the late 19th century. The firm's leading designer was Torolf Prytz (...

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Tracery  

Allan M. Brodie and Nicola Coldstream

Stone framework to hold sheets of glass in place within a window opening. Tracery is a particularly characteristic feature of Gothic architecture, appearing first in the late 12th century as a means of creating enlarged window openings. The term is derived from the stage in the construction process in which a window pattern was traced out on a bed of plaster laid on a tracing floor (see Tracing floor), as can still be seen at York Minster (see York, §III, 1, (i)). Individual tracery bars were then cut and laid in position on this surface before being inserted into the window-frame. By the early 13th century the patterns created for windows were extended to decorating wall surfaces. Construction techniques were perfected by c. 1230, allowing architects to concentrate on developing increasingly complex patterns. Tracery remained in widespread use until the end of the 16th century. Though initially and primarily a technique in ...

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Leif Østby

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Oct 7, 1859; d Lillehammer, Feb 10, 1927).

Norwegian painter . He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway c. 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–81) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a pupil of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a pupil of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–9 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882; Oslo, N.G.), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local colour, as in the ...

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Margaret Graves

Architectural opening to admit light and air that may be covered with a screen, grille, glass or shutters, or left without covering depending on the surrounding environment and climate. Windows in Islamic architecture frequently, although certainly not always, take the form of an Arches in Islamic architecture ; such arch forms come in a dizzying varieties of types.

The use of marble or alabaster window grilles was adopted by Islamic architects from the Byzantine building tradition (see Islamic art §II, 3, (ii) ), and has become a distinctive and often spectacular feature of Islamic architecture: for example, the stone window grilles of the Great Mosque of Damascus (705–15; see Damascus §3 ) and those in the Friday Mosque in Ahmadabad , India (1424). Wooden window grilles made up of pieces of turned wood arranged in intricate geometric patterns (Arab. mashrabiyya) became a characteristic of windows in many parts of the Islamic world, especially Egypt. Metal examples also exist, for example in the 15th-century madrasa and mausoleum of Amir Mahmud al-Ustadar in Cairo, although these tend to be less intricate. Panels of carved stucco were also used as ornate window grilles. Such stucco screens were carved away from the building site and then fitted to the window; they could consist of an outer unglazed screen and an inner layer containing colored glass, or of a single stucco panel ornately carved, such as those seen in the Mosque of Sunqur Sa‛di in Cairo (...