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R. Nath

[Bahmanī; Bahmanid]

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1347 to 1527. ‛Ala al-Din Hasan Bahman (reg 1347–58) threw off the administrative control that the Tughluq dynasty had exerted in the Deccan and established the Bahmani kingdom with its capital at Gulbarga. Hasan Bahman was followed by Muhammad I (reg 1358–75), who streamlined the administration and raised a number of buildings, notably the Jami‛ Masjid at Gulbarga. From 1375 to 1397 there was a succession of five rulers; the notable monuments of this time are the royal tombs at Gulbarga known as Haft Gumbaz. Taj al-Din Firuz (reg 1397–1422) brought stability to the Bahmani dynasty. Firuz was a noted patron of the arts and founded a city called Firuzabad on the Bhima River. His reign was marked by an influx of Persians, Arabs and Turks from West Asia and the emergence of an eclectic Deccani culture. The friction between the immigrants and native Deccanis (both colonists from Delhi and local converts to Islam) was a source of tension at court....

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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

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Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual centre of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its 57 separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...

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Heather Elgood

Two groups of Hindu temples of the 10th–15th centuries ad on the edge of a small lake near Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. The complex is enclosed by undecorated walls similar to those at Baroli. The main temple at Eklingji is dedicated to Shiva and houses a linga regarded as the guardian deity of the Sisodia Maharanas of Mewar. However, the earliest temple in the complex is the Lakulisha Temple (971–2), a simple building consisting of a sanctuary (vimāna), a hall (maṇḍapa) and a porch. One wall niche contains an image of the goddess Sarasvati (see Indian subcontinent §V 7., (iii), (a)), and inside the sanctum is a seated sculpture of Lakulisha, founder of the Pashupata sect; the doorway has a similar image on the lintel. Although the hall is square, its supporting columns form an octagonal space. Niches on its outer walls contain relief sculptures of a variety of goddesses. The main Eklingji temple dates from the 15th century. The principal sanctuary and the two-storey hall are constructed of marble, and there is a curved tower over the sanctuary. Inside the sanctum is a highly decorated silver doorway and screen preceding the central image, a black marble four-faced Shiva ...

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Hoysala  

J. Marr

Dynasty that ruled the southern Deccan, India, from the early 12th century to the mid-14th. The name refers to a story of the dynastic founder Sala (reg mid-11th century) killing a tiger (hoy) that was menacing a Jaina ascetic. Dates for the earlier rulers are uncertain. Bittiga (also known as Bittideva or Vishnuvardhana) for example reigned, according to various sources, c. 1106–42, c. 1132–41 or c. 1106–56. Originally feudatories of the Ganga rulers, the Hoysalas were established at Belur and controlled the large tract between the Kaveri River and the Tungabhadra River. The Chennakesava Temple to the god Vishnu at Belur, founded by Bittiga, was completed by Narasimha I (reg c. 1156–73), with pierced screens and doorways being added later. The Hoysalas also built such renowned temples as the Hoysaleshvara Temple to Shiva at Halebid and the Keshava Temple to Vishnu at Somnathpur. In the late 12th century and early 13th, as the Chalukyas of Kalyana declined, the Hoysalas became increasingly powerful. Narasimha III (...

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J. Marr

[Kākatīya]

Dynasty that ruled portions of the eastern Deccan, India, from the 11th century to the 14th. Originally feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyana (see Chalukya §2), the Kakatiyas emerged as a power of note under Parola I, a tributary of Someshvara I (reg c. 1043–68). Parola II (reg c. 1115–58) asserted independence after the death of Vikramaditya VI (reg c. 1076–1126) and ruled the territories between the Godavari River and the Krishna River, with capitals at Hanamkonda and Warangal. Unusually for India, the capital at Warangal had circular ramparts and four roads converging at a temple of Shiva in the centre of the city. The extant monumental gates of the ruined temple are reminiscent of those at Sanchi. The Kakatiya king Prataparudra (reg c. 1290–1326) faced an attack on Warangal by armies of the Khalji sultanate of Delhi led by Malik Kafur in 1309–10...

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Khalji  

R. Nath

[Khaljī]

Dynasty of Afghan Turks who ruled northern India from 1290 to 1320. Jalal al-Din Khalji seized the throne in 1290 from Shams al-Din Kaimuth, the last Mamluk ruler of Balban’s line. The third Khalji ruler, ‛Ala al-Din (reg 1296–1316), extended sultanate authority into the Deccan and captured important forts in Rajasthan. ‛Ala al-Din’s ambitious architectural projects in Delhi included a new walled city called Siri and enlargements to the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque. Only the gate known as the ‛Alaاi Darvaza is preserved intact; it is characterized by the use of spearhead or lotus-bud fringes on the arches and inscribed marble bands set against a red sandstone fabric. ‛Ala al-Din began, but was unable to complete, a huge minaret at the Quwwat al-Islam that would have been twice the size of the Qutb Minar; only the first storey is preserved. During the reign of ‛Ala al-Din his son Khidr Khan is said to have constructed the Jama‛at Khana Mosque near the tomb of Nizam al-Din Auliya. Its architectural style is closely related to the ‛Ala’i Darvaza. The last Khalji ruler was Qutb al-Din Mubarak Shah (...

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R. Nath and Robert Irwin

[Arab. mamlūk: ‘slave’]

Name applied to two distinct sequences of Islamic rulers in northern India and the Levant from the 13th century. Many but not all of the rulers were manumitted slaves of Turkish origin, hence the common names of the lines.

R. Nath

This quasi-dynastic line of Turks conquered and ruled northern India from 1206 to 1290. The line of sultans is known as the Mu‛izzi Mamluks of Delhi because Qutb al-Din Aybak (reg 1206–10) was originally a slave of the Ghurid king Mu‛izz al-Din Muhammad; two later sultans, Shams al-Din Iltutmish and Ghiyath al-Din Balban, were also manumitted slaves. As a trusted lieutenant, Qutb al-Din extended Ghurid power over the Gangetic doab. In Delhi he initiated the construction of the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque (see Delhi, §III, 1) and in Ajmer the Arhai Din ka Jhompra Mosque. These are the earliest and most important monuments of the Sultanate period. ...

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Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

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Pandya  

Michael D. Rabe

[Pāṇḍyas]

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from about the 4th century bc to the 14th century ad. With a continuous history of at least 18 centuries, the Pandyas were possibly India’s most enduring dynasty. Early references to them include that of a Greek emissary to the Maurya court in the 4th century, who noted Pandya control of pearl fisheries in the straits between India and Sri Lanka. The centre of Pandya rule was the city of Madurai; Tamil literary sources indicate that before the rise of the Pallava dynasty (late 3rd century ad) the Pandyas controlled an area between that ruled by the Chola dynasty of the Kaveri delta to the north and that of the Cheras (hence Kerala) along the Malabar coast to the west. Regular exchanges of influence and power were also maintained with Sri Lanka.

Whether it is appropriate to speak of a discrete idiom of Pandya-commissioned art is open to question. The oldest cave temples of the region controlled by the Pandyas share affinities with better-known and roughly contemporary Pallava excavations of the 6th–8th centuries. The finest ...

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