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Jeffrey A. Hughes


(fl c. 1615–58).

Indian miniature painter, son of Aqa Riza and brother of Abu’l-Hasan. Both his father and his brother worked for the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Although ‛Abid probably began working in the royal atelier c. 1615, all of his known signed works are datable to the reign of Shah Jahan (reg 1628–58). His style varied somewhat from that of his celebrated older brother, but ‛Abid’s work also stayed within the strict formalism of the Persian-derived courtly concerns for symmetry, technical perfection and minute detail. Within these constraints, ‛Abid’s portraits of court figures are injected with an animation that creates characterization of individual personalities and intensifies the narrative. ‛Abid was an accomplished colourist, whose vivid use of colour seems to contrast with the realism of his subjects, primarily battle and court scenes. His known paintings are relatively few; most are from the Padshāhnāma of c. 1636–58 (Windsor Castle, Royal Lib., MS. HB.149, fols 94...


J. P. Losty

(b 1588; fl 1600–30).

Indian painter.

In 1618 the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27) wrote in his memoirs that Abu’l-Hasan’s ‘work was perfect…At the present time he has no rival or equal… Truly he has become Nadir al-Zaman (“Wonder of the age”)’. Some of this artist’s paintings are among the greatest in Mughal art. He was born in Jahangir’s household in 1588, the son of the erstwhile Safavid artist Aqa Riza. Abu’l-Hasan’s earliest known work, a drawing based on Albrecht Dürer’s St John and executed when he was only 12 (Oxford, Ashmolean), already shows in its naturalism the trend of his mature work. A single painting in a manuscript of the fable-book Anvār-i Suhaylī (‘Lights of Canopus’), probably done in 1604 (London, BL, Add. MS. 18579), develops the naturalism of his portraiture but still contains a Safavid landscape based on his father’s work; his sense of respect for the latter is indicated by his signing himself here ‘the dust of Riza’s threshold’. He maintained throughout his career the meticulous finish of the Safavid style (...


R. Nath, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

[‛Ādil Shāhī]

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1489 to 1686. Its founder, Yusuf ‛Adil Shah (reg 1489–1509), had come to India from Persia and was appointed governor of Bijapur under the Bahmani family rulers. He declared his independence when that dynasty declined. Yusuf had a prolonged conflict with the Portuguese, who were able to secure Goa in 1510. The ‛Adil Shahis and their rival states in the Deccan formed a series of alliances and counter-alliances in the struggle for hegemony. For example, in 1543 a confederacy of Ahmadnagar, Golconda and Vijayanagara attacked the ‛Adil Shahi capital Bijapur, but Ibrahim ‛Adil Shah (reg 1534–57) maintained control. His successor ‛Ali ‛Adil Shah (reg 1557–79) joined an alliance that destroyed Vijayanagara in 1565. ‛Ali ‛Adil Shah was an enlightened prince who built a large number of public works, including the Jami‛ Mosque at Bijapur. The dynasty reached its zenith under ...


Robert Skelton

[Muḥammad ‛Alī Muzahhib]

(fl c. 1600–10).

Persian painter, active in India. He has been identified from three inscribed works bearing his name: a Seated Poet (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.), a Seated Youth (Washington, DC, Freer) and the drawing of A Girl in the Binney Collection (San Diego, CA, Mus. A.). The latter, signed Muhammad ‛Ali Jahangir Shahi with the presumed regnal date 5 (ad 1610–11), shows that he worked for the Mughal emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27) early in his reign. The painting of a Young Prince Riding (Geneva, Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan priv. col.) has also been attributed to him. This is close in style to the painting in the Freer Gallery of Art, and the two share a competent but bland indebtedness to the work of Farrukh Beg. The equestrian portrait of Ibrahim ‛Adil Shah II, attributed to Muhammad ‛Ali by S. C. Welch, is now known to be a signed work of ...



Walter Smith


City in north-west Rajasthan, India, founded by Mina tribesmen in the early 10th century ad and taken by the Kachchhwaha Rajputs c. 1150. Amer is dominated by the palace complex located halfway up a hill crowned by massive fortifications. Below, a maze of buildings constitutes the town. The palace complex was built along a north–south axis over a period of c. 100 years. Raja Man Singh (reg c. 1590–1614) built the original palace at the southernmost end, a central courtyard surrounded by a rectangle of even, uniform structures. Below the palace in a funerary monument are some of the earliest surviving Rajasthani wall paintings. They lack inscriptions but relate formally to late 16th-century miniatures from Mewar and Amer.

Further additions were made to the palace in the 17th and 18th centuries. Two sets of courtyards and structures, showing rich cross-fertilization between the Mughal and Rajput styles, were added along the northern axis by ...



Philippa Vaughan

(fl 1584–1611).

Indian miniature painter. Trained in the studio of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), he blossomed under Akbar’s successor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Anant is known through two sole compositions in the Tīmūrnāma (‘History of Timur’; 1584; Bankipur, Patna, Khuda Bakhsh Lib., fols 182r and 206v, and, as colourist, fol. 115v)) and as a colourist in the first Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’; c. 1590; London, V&A, I.S.2. 1896.117) but eventually specialized in allegorical illustrations. The ‛Iyar-i danish (‘Book of fables’; c. 1590–95; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib.) and Anvār-i Suhaylī (‘Lights of Canopus’; 1596–7; Varanasi, Banaras Hindu U., Bharat Kala Bhavan) were the prelude to his best work in the Anvār-i Suhaylī completed for Jahangir in 1610–11 (London, BL, Or. Add. 18579, fols 6r, 130v, 169r, 197r and 267r). Although he was capable of fine natural history studies, in this manuscript he concentrated on the symbolic function of animals to communicate the moral of the tale. The simple, open compositions reflect the studio style of the early 17th century....


John Seyller

[Bālchand; Bālacanda]

(fl c. 1596–1640).

Indian miniature painter , brother of Payag. Balchand began his long career in the imperial Mughal atelier with figural illuminations on at least three pages (fols 17r, 33v, 60v) of the Bāharistān (‘Spring garden’) of Jamiz of 1595 (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Elliot 254). The small, repetitive figures in two lightly coloured illustrations in the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’) of 1596–7 (Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., MS. 3, fols 152v–153r; alternatively dated c. 1604) also bear the mark of youthful apprenticeship. Among the few works known from the next two decades are a single illustration ascribed to him from a dispersed Shāhnāma (‘Book of Kings’) of c. 1610 (ex-Colnaghi’s, London, 1976, no. 88ii), a border decoration in an album prepared for Jahangir between 1609 and 1618 (Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes., Libr. pict. A117, fol. 13v), a portrait of the Dying ‛Inayat Khan...


R. Nath

[Barīd Shāhī]

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1527 to 1619. It was one of five successor states that emerged in the Deccan as the Bahmani family kingdom disintegrated. Qasim Barid, a Turkish slave who became a powerful noble under the Bahmani rulers, declared himself chief minister as the dynasty collapsed. His son Amir Barid (reg 1527–43) raised a succession of puppet rulers to the Bahmani throne. When Kalimullah (reg 1526–36), the last Bahmani, fled, Amir Barid threw off any pretext of allegiance and established the Barid Shahi dynasty, ruling from the Bahmani capital of Bidar. ‛Ali Barid (reg 1543–79), the first to assume the title Shah, was a patron of arts and letters. Architectural achievements of his reign include his own fine tomb and the apartments of the Rangin Mahal in Bidar fort, which he had renovated. The rival Nizam Shahi and ‛Adil Shahi family dynasties coveted the territory of Bidar and made several attempts to annex it in the 16th century. In ...



Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....


Robert Skelton and Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

(b c. 1547; d after 1615).

Persian painter, active in India. He went to India at the age of 39. His year of birth, ah 954–5 (ad 1547–8), has been calculated from an inscribed painting, executed when he was 70 in ah 1024. His ethnic origin has been given by Abu’l Fazl as Qalmaq and elsewhere as Qaqshali (a misreading of Qashqa’i?). He evidently received his training in Khurasan, probably from artists associated with the production of a manuscript of Jami’s Haft awrang (‘Seven thrones’; Washington, DC, Freer) for Prince Ibrahim Mirza, governor of Mashhad 1564–77. His earliest surviving work comprises four miniatures in a simplified Khurasani style in a manuscript of Amir Khusraw’s Khamsa (‘Five poems’; Cambridge, King’s Coll.) dated ah 978–9 (ad 1571–2) at Herat. This manuscript evidently travelled to India because the attributions include the title Nadir al-‛Asrī (‘wonder of the age’) bestowed on him by the Mughal emperor Jahangir (...



D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual centre of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its 57 separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...



John Seyller


(fl c. 1615–50).

Indian miniature painter. Bichitr’s career spanned the reigns of the Mughal emperors Jahangir (reg 1605–27) and Shah Jahan (reg 1628–58). What are apparently his earliest works show the same accomplished technique and surface brilliance that characterize those from the end of his career. Only three examples have inscribed dates: two paintings of 1631 (see below) and a drawing of 1645 (untraced). His remaining works are dated by external evidence, usually the estimated age of the personages depicted or the probable chronological limits of a historical event.

In Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaykh to Kings (c. 1615–20; Washington, DC, Freer, 42.15) Bichitr apparently depicted himself immediately below the two kings whom the Emperor is spurning. The unparalleled prominence of this self-portrait led Ettinghausen (1961) to propose a royal Hindu identity for the figure, but the act of tendering a painting is now recognized as a convention reserved for artists (...


Anand Krishna

(fl c. 1580–c. 1604).

Indian miniature painter. Not to be confused with the contemporary master Farrukh Beg, he was a middle-rank, prolific painter who contributed to most of the major illustrated manuscripts produced for the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), starting from the Dārābnāma (‘Story of Darab’; c. 1580; London, BL, OR 4615) and ending with the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’; c. 1590; London, V&A, IS.2:1896). His personal style can be detected in certain leaves of the Hamzanāma (‘Tales of Hamza’). He seems to have been a disciple (chela) in Akbar’s new religion, the Tauhid-i Ilahi. He sometimes used the epith khurd (‘younger’), which would distinguish him from another Farrukh with the epithet kalan (‘elder’), presumably Farrukh Beg.

Like other painters of Akbar’s court, Farrukh Chela must have been fully trained in the given style when he entered the imperial studio, yet he retained his personal (perhaps traditional) style, which is well projected in his paintings. A single-handed painting from the ...


R. Nagaswamy

[Cidambara, Chirrambalam (Skt and Tamil: ‘Consciousness as space’)]

Temple site in Tamil Nadu, India, sacred to Shiva in his form as Nataraja, the Cosmic Dancer. The Nataraja temple occupies an area of about 16 ha and consists of a complex series of walled enclosures containing shrines, halls and gateways built between the 12th and 20th centuries. The temple’s origin is ascribed to the sages Vyagrapada and Patanjali, and it has become associated with Appar and other southern saints. The Chola kings, from whose time the earliest surviving portions belong, were devoted to Nataraja and held their coronation ceremonies in the precinct. The active religious and artistic life of Chidambaram continues to the present day.

At the centre of the Nataraja complex are the Chid Sabha and Kanaka Sabha, two small wooden buildings with hipped gable roofs sheathed in copper. While based on earlier prototypes, these structures probably date to the 17th century. Shiva is worshipped here as Nataraja and as the ...


Milo Cleveland Beach

[Bishan Dās; Viṣṇudāsa]

(fl c. 1583–1645).

Indian miniature painter, nephew of Nanha. He is known mainly for his portraits, in the finest of which he not only conveyed a likeness of the people he painted but also showed an interest in the psychological penetration of his subjects and the exploration of the emotional currents and interactions among figures, even minor ones. He worked on several imperial commissions at the end of the reign of the emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) but came to maturity under the emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27), his skill at portraiture being particularly responsive to the new emperor’s taste. Jahangir stated in his memoirs, the Tūzuk-i Jahāngīrī, that Bishan Das had no equal as a portraitist.

Bishan Das’s early works show the gradual development of his talents. As a young artist he worked with his uncle, who was also known for his portraits. In an illustration for a Bābarnāma (‘History of Babar’; ...


Asok Kumar Das


(fl c. 1580s–1609).

Indian miniature painter. Although he was not included in Abu’l Fazl’s list of 17 leading painters of the workshop of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), starting as a colourist in the 1580s he matured into a top-class painter, producing many superb miniatures in the last decade of the 16th century. He worked as a colourist to Kesav Das in a miniature of the Harivamsa volume of the Razmnāma (‘Book of wars’; c. 1586; Jaipur, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Mus.). In the companion volume of the Rāmāya ṇa (1589), also in Jaipur, he assisted Basawan in two miniatures and Lal in one. The painting illustrating the abduction of Sita in the Rāmāya ṇa composed by Basawan and completed by Dharm Das is one of the finest of this period. Basawan took him as assistant for Nizami’s Khamsa (Pontresina, Kier priv. col.), the Akbarnāma (London, V&A) and the dispersed copy of the ...


Philippa Vaughan

[Kesu; Kesu Kalan; Keshava Kalan]

(fl c. 1570–c. 1602)

Indian miniature painter. A Hindu, he is best known for his copies and adaptations of European prints, of which the most famous is St Matthew the Evangelist. Signed Kesu Das and dated ah 996 (ad 1587–8), this is based on an engraving by Philip Galle after Maarten van Heemskerck. Kesu Das’s understanding and transformation of European techniques in rendering volume and space made a decisive contribution to the evolution of the studio under the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). Named fifth of the seventeen painters listed in order of seniority in the Āyin-i Akbarī, a contemporary account of Akbar’s administration as it was c. 1590, Kesu Das was well established by the early 1580s and thus would have worked on the great Hamzanāma (‘Tales of Hamza’; c. 1567–82, alternatively dated 1562–77). In the Dārābnāma (‘Story of Darab’; c. 1580–85; London, BL, Or. 4615, fol. 46r...



John Seyller

(fl c. 1596–1640).

Indian miniature painter. He began his career in the imperial Mughal atelier under Akbar (reg 1556–1605) and became a major painter during the reign of Jahangir (reg 1605–27), specializing in portraiture. His early works, which appear in the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’) of 1596–7 (London, BL, Or. MS. 12988 and Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., MS. 3; alternatively dated c. 1604) and the Bāburnāma (‘History of Babur’) of 1597–9 (New Delhi, N. Mus.) are distinguished by clusters of narrow-shouldered, voluminous figures and a bright palette intensified by pronounced contour shading. His facial types are quite individualized, but share dark features, full cheeks and large, staring eyes, the latter frequently directed at the viewer. An unusual self-conciousness marks even Daulat’s earliest works. In addition to the customary scribal ascription in the lower margin, one of his three illustrations in the Akbarnāma and three of his four illustrations in the ...



Jeffrey A. Hughes


(fl c. 1580–1620).

Indian miniature painter. At least two signed early works are known by the Mughal painter Ghulam (Pers.: ‘slave’). Inscriptions on paintings reading ‘the slave of Shah Salim’ (e.g. Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A., L.69.24.259) indicate that he worked for Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir (reg 1605–27), who took the title Shah in 1599, holding court in Allahabad from 1599 to 1604. Later signatures, in which Ghulam is preceded by the honorific mīrzā, occur, for example, on three works in an Anvār-i Suhaylī (‘Lights of Canopus’; 1604–10/11; London, BL, Add. MS. 18579). Ghulam’s style is derived from Iranian sources and bears similarities to that of the Persian artist Aqa Riza (see Aqa Riza). His figures tend to be generalized, showing little concern for the actuality of the physical world. Several paintings within the sphere of artists related to Aqa Riza have been attributed to Ghulam....



Walter Smith and Christopher Tadgell

Fort c. 132 km south-west of Madras in Tamil Nadu, India. The fort was begun under the Chola dynasty, who erected a citadel on the hill known as Rajagiri. By the mid-15th century the hills of Rajagiri, Chandragiri and Krishnagiri had been incorporated into a triangular complex by an outer curtain wall that defends all three. Inside, a further system of walls protects the citadel on Rajagiri and the usable high ground on Chandragiri and Krishnagiri. Supplementary walls seal off the outer wall halfway between Chandragiri and Krishnagiri, and a series of diagonally disposed gates, moats and courts make the fort difficult to enter and easy to defend. The fortifications at Gingee were repaired and extended by viceroys of the Vijayanagara kings during the early 17th century. Most of the buildings in the fort, including the multi-storey, temple-like Kaliyana Mahal, the temple of Ranganatha and several stone granaries also date from this period; their architectural style recalls that of Hampi (anc. Vijayanagara). In ...