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Article

(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...

Article

Ian North

(Foster)

(b Burnside, Adelaide, Dec 23, 1881; d Adelaide, Sept 13, 1951).

Australian painter and printmaker. She worked in an undistinguished tonal Impressionist style following her studies at the South Australian School of Art and Crafts, Adelaide, from c. 1909 and from 1915 at Julian Ashton’s Sydney Art School. Between 1927 and 1929 she learnt a more modern style and philosophy at the Grosvenor School of Art, London, and André Lhote’s academy in Paris, supplemented by lessons with Albert Gleizes: paintings such as the mildly Cubist Mirmande (c. 1928; Adelaide, A.G. S. Australia) were the result. Black was particularly influenced by the artistic theories of Clive Bell and at the Grosvenor School by the linocut teacher Claude Flight (1881–1955). In 1929 she returned to Sydney, where she attempted to promote the linocut as an original art form that the ordinary person could afford. Black’s most notable linocuts were produced between 1927 and 1937, for example Music (1927)....

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Mount Barker, March 24, 1911; d Adelaide, May 15, 1995).

Australian painter, printmaker, potter, teacher and art critic. Chapman studied at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (1928–32) and became a fellow of the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA) while still a student. Ivor Hele (1912–93) was a notable influence on her and when he became a war artist, Chapman taught his life-drawing and painting class at the school from 1940–41. From 1942–5 Chapman served in the Australian Women’s Army in army education in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. In 1945 in Sydney she married the artist James Cant (1911–82). With Cant she was a co-founder of the Studio of Realist Art (SORA). While supporting realist artists as secretary–organizer of SORA, Cant experimented with abstraction and surrealist automatism. She exhibited abstracts works with the Contemporary Art Society in 1947–8.

From 1949–55 Chapman and Cant lived in England, but she did little painting, being then and later the main breadwinner in her marriage. They returned to Australia and settled in Adelaide in ...

Article

Robert Smith

(b Melbourne, Oct 4, 1913; d Melbourne, July 5, 1986).

Australian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, sculptor, cartoonist and illustrator. Largely self-taught, he began printmaking in 1931 and worked as a caricaturist, cartoonist and illustrator for the weekly and left-wing press, his outlook influenced by experience on the dole and political struggle during the Depression. In 1941 he began oil painting, his first pictures being mainly a celebration of Australian working-class tenacity during the 1930s: for example At the Start of the March (1944; Sydney, A.G. NSW). A founder-member of the Contemporary Art Society in 1938, he initiated its 1942 anti-Fascist exhibition and helped organize an Artists’ Unity Congress, receiving awards for his paintings of miners in the ensuing Australia at War exhibition in 1945. From 1939 to 1940 he was in New Zealand and from 1949 to 1952 in Europe, mostly London. Later he made frequent trips to Britain and France, as well as visiting the USSR and Mexico.

Counihan’s imaginative and creative versatility enabled him to produce extended pictorial metaphors for inherent contemporary crises, embodying potent artistic responses to specific conditions of oppression and discrimination, the nuclear threat and attendant social alienation. From the late 1960s he created images in numerous interrelated series challenging Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War, for example ...

Article

Jim Barr and Mary Barr

(b Wellington, NZ, Dec 27, 1930; d Wellington, NZ, July 24, 2005).

New Zealand painter and printmaker. After training as an art teacher he was awarded the National Art Gallery travelling scholarship in 1957 and studied at the Central School of Art and Design in London. His initial interest in textile design shifted to printmaking and he gained wider experience from 1960 to 1961 in printing workshops in Paris. He was one of a number of New Zealand artists working in England at the time, including Melvin Day (b 1923), Patrick Hanly and Don Peebles (b 1922). He was commissioned to produce a large mural for New Zealand House in London, completed in 1963.

Drawbridge returned to New Zealand in 1964 to teach in the School of Design at Wellington Polytechnic. He continued to produce both paintings and prints, particularly the group Tanya Coming and Going (1967; Canberra, N.G.). He also completed further major official commissions. One was a kinetic work for the New Zealand pavilion at Expo ’70 in Osaka, Japan: a rotating dish behind the mural caused light passing through perspex rods to ripple across the work’s surface. A similar effect was achieved when this mural was reworked for installation in the National Library, Wellington (...

Article

Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...

Article

Anne Gray

(b Alfredtown, Victoria, Sept 3, 1880; d London, Jan 21, 1938).

Australian draughtsman and printmaker. In his formative years he worked as a caricaturist for several Australian magazines. He moved to London in 1910 where he worked as a cartoonist for the Labour newspapers, the Daily Herald and New Age, and achieved great success with his biting cartoons (e.g. ‘Give Us this Day’; Cartoons, 1913), which made him a leading figure among English intellectuals. He worked in the humanist tradition of Honoré Daumier, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen and Jean-Louis Forain. He was a determined satirist calling for a better world, concerned with political hypocrisy and social injustice, and his cartoons were admired for their apt captions as well as for the hard-hitting images that accompanied them. Dyson visited the Western Front as an Official War Artist during World War I to record the Australian involvement in the war. He worked in the trenches among battle-weary soldiers and was wounded, though not seriously, at Messines and Passchendaele. He made numerous compassionate and frank watercolour-wash drawings of the ordinary soldier (e.g. ...

Article

(b Birmingham, March 15, 1863; d Waverley, Oct 1, 1930).

Australian painter, etcher and illustrator, also active in England. In his formative years he undertook illustrative commissions for the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia, as well as for the Australian Town and Country Journal and other publications. For a time he painted with his friends Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder at their camps around Mosman, or on trips to Richmond and along the Hawkesbury River. In his best paintings of this period he achieved a lyricism and sure handling of paint that resembles the work of Conder. During this period he also became interested in etching. In 1900 he moved to New York and the following year he travelled to London, where he continued to work as a black-and-white artist with the London Graphic and Black and White. He painted landscapes depicting picturesque sights and developed an interest in monotypes, using the delicacy of this medium to create soft, low-key images of atmospheric subjects. He worked in the tradition of English landscape painters, such as John Constable and John Sell Cotman, producing calm, quiet, understated images....

Article

Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Mildura, Victoria, Jan 30, 1927; d 1999).

Australian painter, printmaker, teacher and glass artist. He was first employed as an apprentice by the prominent stained glass firm Brooks, Robinson & Co. in Melbourne. During his ten-year association with this firm, he undertook part-time studies in painting and drawing at various Melbourne art institutes, including the Art School attached to the National Gallery of Victoria and the Technical College, and at the privately run George Bell School, which at the time presented a more progressive approach to the subject than was espoused at the larger institutes. With his training Gleeson was well-placed to investigate the innovative use of glass as a medium for artistic expression. In line with the notion of truth to material, he virtually abandoned the traditional process of staining glass in favour of a method of creating abstract compositions by overlaying, fusing and acid-etching sheets of coloured glass. Using these techniques he was able to achieve a subtle tonal range. Although Gleeson was awarded an impressive sequence of window commissions including the cycles for the Burwood Presbyterian church, Victoria (...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Zólkiew, Jan 28, 1933).

Polish printmaker, painter and embroiderer active in Australia. Groblicka studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków (1951–7), graduating with a Fine Art Diploma. She was taught by Ludwik Gardowski, a leading Polish printmaker, and she specialized in woodcuts. Groblicka lived in London (1958–65), where she married Tadeusz Groblicki (b 1929) and had a son. They migrated to Sydney in 1965, first living at Bradfield Park migrant hostel and then settling in Adelaide in 1966. There Groblicka joined the Royal South Australian Society of Arts and was elected a Fellow in 1973. She exhibited with the Contemporary Art Society and the Print Council of Australia.

Groblicka is a master of technique and has an unerring sense of composition and design in printmaking and oil painting. Her early prints, done in Communist Poland in the 1950s, were socialist realist finely cut depictions of rural peasant life. In London, using linocut, her prints were broader. In Australia she returned to the medium of finely detailed woodcuts (e.g. ...

Article

(b Vienna, Nov 7, 1811; d London, April 17, 1901).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and lithographer, active in Australia. He was the son of Bernhard von Guérard (d 1836), a miniaturist who was court painter in Vienna to Francis II (reg 1792–1806). In 1826 he left with his father for Italy, and from 1830 he studied for a period in Rome. In 1832 they went to Naples and travelled extensively in southern Italy. After his father’s death, he returned to Germany in 1838 and studied at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf from 1839/40 to 1845/6, including landscape classes under Johan Wilhelm Schirmer. Sometime before 1852 he travelled to London; while there he succumbed to the lure of the Victorian Gold Rush, the subject of much excitement in England, and in 1852 he emigrated to Australia. He recorded his goldfield experiences of 1853–4 in a series of sketches (Ballarat, F.A.Gal.) and years later produced an important painting, ...

Article

Kyla Mackenzie

[William]

(b Christchurch, 1947).

New Zealand painter and printmaker. Hammond is best known for creating haunting dreamworlds inhabited by hybrid human–bird figures. He attended the University of Canterbury School of Fine Arts from 1966 to 1968. In the 1970s he worked in a sign factory and designed and manufactured wooden toys. From 1981 Hammond painted full-time, using supports such as door panels, wooden dressing screens, wallpaper, and loose canvas. A drummer as well, he referenced music throughout his oeuvre. His paintings from the mid-1980s are strongly graphic, often with yellows, greys, and blood reds and featuring pulsating, surrreal scenes of contorting humanoid creatures in disorientating perspectives (e.g. The Look of Love Plus the Sound of Music, 1986; Christchurch, NZ, A.G.). His works are diversely informed: by cartoons, comics, including Japanese manga, video arcade and computer games, 1980s advertising, Hieronymus Bosch and medieval art, Munch, and de Chirico.

An expedition to the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands in ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Adelaide, Sept 6, 1939; d Adelaide, Dec 1, 1991).

Australian printmaker, painter, novelist and teacher. Hanrahan studied at Adelaide Teachers College and the South Australian School of Art (1957–63) and Central School of Art, London (1963–6). She lectured in art at Western Teachers College and the South Australian School of Art in Adelaide and in England at Falmouth School of Art and Portsmouth College of Art. Hanrahan was a prolific printmaker and novelist whose two oeuvres are related both thematically and in the richness of detail. Her printmaking was inspired by the teaching of the German artists Udo Sellbach (b 1927) and Karin Schepers (b 1927) at the South Australian School of Art in the early 1960s. Always a diarist, her professional writing began in 1971 in London, when Hanrahan used memories of Adelaide for her first novel.

Hanrahan’s prints and paintings comprise many-layered social comment, particularly on the life of women and relationships between the sexes. Her main stylistic influences were William Blake, Georges Rouault, Victorian illustration, German Expressionism and Pop art. Combining figures, text, interior and exterior realities and working directly in her medium of etching, woodcutting, linocutting and screenprinting, Hanrahan produced decorative yet confronting imagery. This was the intuitive side of her expression, which became more intellectualized in the novels, which were based on extensive archival research as well as personal recollections. Hanrahan lived for extensive periods in London between ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Middlesbrough, Cleveland, July 30, 1891; d Adelaide, Aug 26, 1978).

Australian painter, designer, teacher, printmaker and writer of English birth. Harris grew up in Scotland and in 1913 graduated from Edinburgh College of Art having specialized in design. She worked as an art teacher (1915–21), but then migrated to Australia with her parents. In Adelaide she taught at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (1922–53).

Harris was an inspirational art teacher, with an eclectic approach and love of symbolism. Accepting Keat’s ideal of truth being synonymous with beauty, she taught her students to appreciate art from any period, including modernism. She was not dogmatic about style or technique, but spiritual content was important. A practising Quaker, she was an advocate of social justice and a peace activist.

Her influence was significant in the Girls’ Central School of Art, a secondary school within the larger art school. There she edited the school paper, The Forerunner...

Article

Anne Gray

(b Kisumu, Nov 4, 1938).

Australian painter, draughtsman and printmaker of Kenyan birth. He studied art at the Chelsea School of Art, where he gained a strong command of drawing, together with perceptive powers of observation and an intelligent understanding of the formal traditions in painting. He moved to Perth in 1962, where he taught at various art colleges and had a significant impact on a generation of students. He is a determined colourist, creating paintings that refer to the visible world, or to flickering apparitions from it. He has depicted a range of subjects—rural and urban landscapes, interiors and people—and is interested in portraying movement. However, within these diverse subjects there is the unifying theme of his delight in the physical world, in people and their interrelation with their generally prosperous environment. His varied interests have led him to work in a variety of styles and to experiment with technique, but he has been primarily concerned with layering rich, vibrant intense colours in bold strokes, to convey intense light, shade and atmosphere, or to express a sensuous delight in the world around him....

Article

Paula Furby

(b Sept 28, 1884; d Adelaide, Oct 22, 1972).

Australian painter, printmaker and commercial artist. Henty studied in Adelaide at the School of Design, Painting and Technical Arts with H. P Gill (1855–1916) and Archibald Collins (1853–1922) and at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts taking life classes with Marie Tuck (1866–1947). Henty exhibited with the Australian Academy of Art, the New South Wales Watercolour Institute, the Contemporary Art Society (CAS), Group 9 and the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA).

Henty is a relatively unacknowledged Adelaide modernist, who chafed under the conservatism of its art world. As a young woman she worked full-time as a ticket-writer and designer. She was a member of Archibald Collins’ Adelaide Drawing and Sketch Club in the 1920s and contributed line drawings to its magazine The High Light. Around 1924, after the club closed, Henty went to Sydney, again working as a commercial artist, but hoping for artistic inspiration from Sydney exhibitions. However, inspiration came in ...

Article

(Franz)

(b Hamburg, Oct 8, 1877; d Hahndorf, nr Adelaide, July 2, 1968).

Australian painter and printmaker of German birth. His family settled in South Australia in 1884. Having attended the Norwood Art School under James Ashton (1859–1935), he studied in Paris at the Académie Julian, Colarossi’s academy and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and travelled in Europe. He was particularly influenced by Constable, the Barbizon school, George Clausen, Ernest Atkinson Hornel and Frank Brangwyn. In 1904, after returning to Adelaide, he sold major oils to the National Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney (Coming Home), and the National Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide (Mystic Morn). In 1908 he moved to Hahndorf in the Adelaide Hills. Heysen recorded the labours of the German farmers who had settled in the area, in oils, watercolours, drawings and (occasionally) etchings: for Heysen the rural labourers of Hahndorf were the equivalent of Millet’s Fontainebleau peasants. This aspect of his work reached its peak in ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Adelaide, Dec 8, 1919; d Adelaide, May 11, 2004).

Australian painter, printmaker, enamellist and teacher. Hick studied at the Girls’ Central Art School and South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (SASAC) (1934–7) and Adelaide Teachers College (1939–40). She later taught at SASAC between 1941–5 and 1962–4. Hick was a leader in the modernization of South Australian cultural life in the 1940s. She was a founder-member of the Contemporary Art Society (CAS) and the Adelaide Theatre Group. She helped to revive printmaking in Adelaide and she also exhibited jointly with Jeffrey Smart in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney and with the CAS, the Royal South Australian Society of Arts and with Dorrit Black’s Group 9.

Hick studied and travelled in London and the Continent in 1948–50 and made a study tour of the USA in 1968. She then lived in Adelaide except for 12 years in Brisbane between 1978–90. Her work is figurative, often with humorous or trenchant social comment. Her major theme was the dispossession of indigenous Australians. Hick’s art is notable for its technical brilliance and depth of feeling expressed (e.g. ...

Article

Anna Rowland

(b Frankfurt am Main, July 11, 1893; d Sydney, Jan 7, 1965).

German painter, printmaker and teacher, active in England and Australia. From 1912 to 1914 he attended the progressive school run by Wilhelm von Debschitz in Munich and studied art history at Munich University. His training was then interrupted for four and a half years by military service. In 1919 he enrolled at Adolf Hölzel’s pioneering academy in Stuttgart. Hölzel communicated to his pupils, who also included Johannes Itten and Oskar Schlemmer, his interest in abstract formal relationships and colour contrasts. At this time Hirschfeld-Mack is known to have been working in the style of the German Expressionists.

In October 1919, attracted by Walter Gropius’s Bauhaus Manifesto, Hirschfeld-Mack enrolled at the Weimar Bauhaus. After taking the Vorkurs devised by Itten, he enrolled in the printing workshop, where he soon emerged as one of the most important apprentices. He worked closely with the Form Master, Lyonel Feininger, helping to prepare Zwölf Holzschnitte von Lyonel Feininger...