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Article

(b Orléans, March 7, 1817; d Paris, Feb 26, 1878).

French painter. He was taught at the school of drawing in Orléans by a local painter, François Salmon (1781–1855). On 9 October 1837 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, first in the atelier of Sebastien Norblin de la Gourdaine (1796–1884). A year later he became a pupil of Paul Delaroche, from whom he acquired his understanding of dramatic composition.

Antigna exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1841 with a religious canvas, the Birth of Christ (untraced), and showed there every year for the rest of his life. Until 1845 his exhibits were primarily religious scenes and portraits. Influenced by the effects of industrialization and the sufferings of the urban working class, which he witnessed at first hand while living in the poor quarter of the Ile St Louis in Paris, he turned towards contemporary social subjects dominated by poverty and hardship. The ...

Article

Hilary Morgan

[Fr. L’Art pour l’art]

Concept that emphasizes the autonomous value of art and regards preoccupations with morality, utility, realism and didacticism as irrelevant or inimical to artistic quality. It was the guiding principle of the Aesthetic Movement.

In France the phrase ‘l’art pour l’art’ first appeared in print in 1833, but the concept had been popularized earlier by Madame de Staël’s De l’Allemagne (Paris, 1813) and Victor Cousin’s philosophy lectures at the Sorbonne, Du vrai, du beau et du bien (1816–18; pubd Paris, 1836). Théophile Gautier was its main literary publicist, especially in the preface to his novel Mademoiselle de Maupin (Paris, 1835). Studies of l’art pour l’art, such as Cassagne’s, concentrate on the Second Empire literary movement (1851–70) that included Charles Baudelaire, Gautier, Edmond and Jules de Goncourt and the Parnassian poets. The application of the term to art criticism and visual art is uncharted, but it seems to have been used sufficiently loosely to embrace stylistically opposed artists. ...

Article

Gabriel P. Weisberg

French family of painters. Jean-Antoine Bail (b Chasseley, Rhône, 8 April 1830; d Nesle-la-Vallée, 20 Oct 1919) was largely self-taught, but he received some training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon before showing the intimate, monochromatic Artist’s Studio (Saint-Etienne, Mus. A. & Indust.) at the Salon there in 1854. He subsequently showed works at the Paris Salon, beginning in 1861 with The Cherries (untraced), and he exhibited at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français, Paris, until 1898. He was recognized by contemporary critics as the artist who best exemplified the realist tradition in provincial themes. He used models who posed in his studio on the Ile St Louis for his paintings of cooks and maids, and many of his interior scenes, with their intimate figural groupings and close attention to detail, display an awareness of Chardin and Dutch 17th-century painting. Sensitive portraits such as the ...

Article

Valérie M. C. Bajou

(b Montpellier, Dec 6, 1841; d Beaune-la-Rolande, Nov 28, 1870).

French painter. The son of a senator, he was born into the wealthy Protestant middle class in Montpellier. He soon came into contact with the contemporary and still controversial painting of Eugène Delacroix and Gustave Courbet through the Montpellier collector, Alfred Bruyas. In response to his family’s wishes he began to study medicine in 1860. He moved to Paris in 1862 and devoted his time increasingly to painting. In November 1862 he entered the studio of Charles Gleyre where he produced academic life drawings (examples in Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) and made friends with the future Impressionists, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. When the studio closed in 1863, he did not look for another teacher but followed his friends to Chailly, near the forest of Fontainebleau, where he made studies from nature (e.g. Study of Trees; priv. col.). From 1863 he took an active part in Parisian musical life, attending the Pasdeloup and Conservatoire concerts. He developed a passion for opera (Berlioz and Wagner in particular) and German music (Beethoven and Schumann). He attended the salon of his cousins, the Lejosne family, where Henri Fantin-Latour, Charles Baudelaire, Edmond Maître, Renoir and Edouard Manet were frequent guests, and at the end of ...

Article

Marisa J. Pascucci

(b Philadelphia, PA, March 1, 1890; d New York, NY, Feb 12, 2002).

American painter. Raised in Philadelphia she studied at the Philadelphia College of Design for Women (now Moore College of Art & Design) under Elliott Daingerfield (1859–1932), Daniel Garber (1880–1958), Samuel Murray (1869–1941), Harriet Sartain (1873–1957), and Henry B. Snell and graduated in 1911. With her mother, she toured Europe in 1905 and 1912. After returning from her second trip to Europe she settled in New York where her father had recently relocated the family. She lived at home and studied briefly at Art Students League taking life and portrait classes with William Merritt Chase. She eventually established her own studio in Manhattan and married William Meyerowitz (1898–1981), a painter and etcher. She was associated with the members of The Eight and part of the Ashcan school. She was an original member of the Philadelphia Ten—a group of female painters and sculptors schooled in Philadelphia who exhibited together annually, sometimes more often, from ...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Grüneberg, June 28, 1865; d Dresden, Feb 1, 1910).

German writer and publisher. From 1892 to 1894 he edited the Freie Bühne (later renamed Neue deutsche Rundschau), the Berlin-based magazine that acted as the chief mouthpiece of literary naturalism. He took up the cause of modernist painting in his very first publication, A. Böcklin (1891), a text introducing 15 heliographs of the artist’s work, and this was followed by publications on Fritz von Uhde (1893; 1908) and on Hans Thoma (1904). In 1894, with Julius Meier-Graefe, Bierbaum founded Pan, which was to become the leading avant-garde journal of the period in Germany, notable for its typography and for the inventive integration of text and illustration. There were also reproductions of paintings, drawings and sculpture, and the list of contributors included Franz von Stuck, Thoma, von Uhde, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Max Klinger, Arnold Böcklin, Paul Signac, Georges Seurat, Félix Vallotton, ...

Article

(b La Rochelle, Nov 30, 1825; d La Rochelle, Aug 19, 1905).

French painter. From 1838 to 1841 he took drawing lessons from Louis Sage, a pupil of Ingres, while attending the collège at Pons. In 1841 the family moved to Bordeaux where in 1842 his father allowed him to attend the Ecole Municipale de Dessin et de Peinture part-time, under Jean-Paul Alaux. In 1844 he won the first prize for figure painting, which confirmed his desire to become a painter. As there were insufficient family funds to send him straight to Paris he painted portraits of the local gentry from 1845 to 1846 to earn money. In 1846 he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of François-Edouard Picot. This was the beginning of the standard academic training of which he became so ardent a defender later in life. Such early works as Equality (1848; priv. col., see 1984–5 exh. cat., p. 141) reveal the technical proficiency he had attained even while still training. In ...

Article

(b Paris, April 25, 1824; d Paris, Oct 1888).

French painter. Born of creole parents, Boulanger became an orphan at 14. His uncle and guardian sent him to the studio of Pierre-Jules Jollivet and then in 1840 to Paul Delaroche, whose prosaic Realism and dry, careful technique influenced Boulanger’s style of painting. A first visit to Algeria in 1845 gave him an interest in North African subjects, which was taken up later by his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1849 he won the Prix de Rome with Ulysses Recognized by his Nurse (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), in which he combined academic figure drawing with Pompeian touches inspired by Ingres’s Antiochus and Stratonice (1840; Chantilly, Mus. Condé). Boulanger’s knowledge of the ruins at Pompeii, which he visited while studying at the Ecole de Rome, gave him ideas for many future pictures, including the Rehearsal in the House of the Tragic Poet (1855; St Petersburg, Hermitage), in which the influence of ...

Article

Mariantonietta Picone Petrusa

(b Naples, Feb 23, 1835; d Naples, Sept 21, 1920).

Italian painter. He came from a family of artists of Catalan origin and was taught by his grandfather Giuseppe (1766–1850) and his great-uncle Antonio before enrolling at the Naples Accademia di Belle Arti in 1853. He studied under Gabriele Smargiassi (1798–1882), an exponent of traditional, composed, Romantic landscape, but was soon impressed by the plein-air landscape painting of Giacinto Gigante and by the work of the landscape painters of the Scuola di Posilippo, Alessandro La Volpe (?1820–87) and Vincenzo Franceschini (1812–85). Between 1854 and 1855 Cammarano entered the studio of Nicola Palizzi and devoted more time to studies from the live model and of landscape en plein air, with stays on Capri and at Cava Campobasso. This led to a break with Smargiassi, but Cammarano continued to attend evening life classes at the Accademia and to take part in competitions. Early works, such as ...

Article

Ana Maria Rybko

(b Turin, March 1, 1869; d Rome, June 8, 1959).

Italian sculptor, teacher, composer and musician. He studied sculpture from 1880 at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, under Odoardo Tabacchi, and initially adhered to the traditions of Naturalism, with Romantic and Renaissance influences. He later turned to Realism, making no concessions to the more avant-garde artistic tendencies of the 20th century. He established his reputation with a series of portraits of society personalities, including Emily Doria-Pamphili (marble, h. 570 mm, 1904; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili; copies, Rome, G.N.A. Mod. and Mus. Canonica) and Donna Franca Florio (marble, h. 1050 mm, c. 1903–4; Rome, Mus. Canonica), and also members of the British royal family, such as Edward VII (marble, h. 570 mm, 1903; London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). His vast output includes many works with symbolic or sacred subject-matter, as well as numerous funereal and commemorative monuments. These include the model (plaster, h. 330 mm) and statue (marble, h. 3.28 m) of ...

Article

Valérie M. C. Bajou

[Durand, Charles-Emile-Auguste]

(b Lille, July 4, 1837; d Paris, 1917).

French painter. He came from a humble background and by the age of 11 was taking lessons at the Académie in Lille from the sculptor Augustin-Phidias Cadet de Beaupré (b 1800) who taught him to sketch. At 15 he began a two-year apprenticeship in the studio of one of David’s former pupils, François Souchon (1787–1857), whose name he still referred to several years later when he exhibited at the Salon. In 1853 he moved to Paris. He copied in the Louvre where he must have met Henri Fantin-Latour, then taking life classes at the Académie Suisse (1859–60). He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1859. His first period in Paris, from 1853 to 1862 (interspersed with visits to Lille, where he received portrait commissions and an annuity in 1861), shows the influence of Gustave Courbet, whose After Dinner at Ornans...

Article

(b Anizy-le-Château, Aisne, June 12, 1824; d Sèvres, June 3, 1887).

French sculptor and designer. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the 19th century, producing portrait busts, monuments and ideal works, as well as exploiting to the full the commercial opportunities offered by developing technology for the mass production of small-scale sculpture and decorative wares. His style ranged from the unembellished Realism of his male portraits to the neo-Baroque exuberance of his architectural decoration, and his art is particularly associated with the amiable opulence of the Second Empire. He signed his works A. Carrier until c. 1868, thereafter adopting the name Carrier-Belleuse.

Carrier-Belleuse began a three-year apprenticeship with a goldsmith at the age of 13, a training that gave him a lifelong sensitivity to intricate surfaces. In 1840 David d’Angers sponsored his entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but his straitened financial circumstances led him to study decorative arts at the Petite Ecole. This left him free to produce small models for such commercial manufacturers of porcelain and bronze as ...

Article

Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b c. 1770; d Edinburgh, Feb 1843).

Scottish painter. He originally worked as a wigmaker. In the 1790s he produced topographical illustrations in Edinburgh and reputedly trained under David Allan and at the Trustees’ Academy. Turning to figure subjects c. 1800, he contributed to the development of Realism in Scottish genre. He evolved a frank but subtle style with a sensitive response to character and the nuances of light, seen in Arrival of the Country Cousins (c. 1812; Duke of Buccleuch priv. col.). His art was admired by the young David Wilkie, who based his Pitlessie Fair on Carse’s Oldhamstock Fair (1796; both in Edinburgh, N.G.). Wilkie also took up many of the subjects that Carse had already derived from Allan, such as Penny Wedding, which Carse had painted in 1819 (G. N. Statham priv. col., on dep. Edinburgh, N.G.)

Carse contributed to the exhibitions of the Society of Incorporated Artists in Edinburgh from their inception in ...

Article

Paul Gerbod

(b Saintes, Charente-Maritime, April 11, 1830; d Paris, May 11, 1888).

French critic. In 1851, as a young law student, he demonstrated against the coup d’état by Louis-Napoleon. He joined a law firm but soon began to write art criticism: his review of the Paris Salon of 1857 in the journal Le Présent attracted considerable attention. He continued to write Salon criticism for the next 22 years for the Monde illustré and subsequently Siècle and the Nain jaune. Openly hostile to academic painting and to established teaching methods, under the influence of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Castagnary argued for a humanitarian and secular democratic art that dealt sympathetically with contemporary social issues. Genre painting was his preferred art form, although he also strongly supported the landscape painting of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Théodore Rousseau and Jean-François Millet. He had been critical of the pictures Gustave Courbet exhibited at the Salon of 1857, but when Castagnary met the painter in 1860 he rapidly became one of his closest friends and most articulate advocates. He introduced Courbet to the rich collector Etienne Baudry and to the area around Saintes, where Courbet stayed between ...

Article

Therese Dolan

[Fleury; Husson, Jules(-François-Felix)]

(b Laon, 17 Sept 1821; d Sèvres, 6 Dec 1889). French critic and writer. He made his reputation in France as one of the chief spokesmen of the Realist movement in art and as a writer of Realist literature. He authored numerous novels, short stories, pantomimes and pioneering histories of caricature, faience and popular imagery. He published scholarly works on the Le Nain brothers and Maurice Quentin de la Tour and actively engaged in writing art criticism between 1844 and 1855.

In 1843 Champfleury settled in Paris and met Charles Baudelaire. The following year he joined the staff of L’Artiste, adopted his pseudonym and began writing art criticism. Champfleury ranks among the first art critics to record praise for the paintings of Gustave Courbet. His initial article on Courbet appeared in Le Pamphlet on 28 September 1848; it notes the solid qualities of the artist’s work and predicts that Courbet would be a great artist. It was not until the following year, according to Champfleury, that Courbet truly made his mark on the public consciousness with ...

Article

Danielle Derrey-Capon

(b Bruges, Nov 20, 1817; d Schaerbeek, Brussels, Feb 9, 1900).

Belgian painter. He was attracted from earliest childhood by the sea, to which he devoted his entire life and art. In his youth he made sketching trips along the Belgian coast. He studied under Horace Vernet in Paris and received advice from the marine artist Théodore Gudin, after which he was engaged as an official naval artist. Clays was interested by every aspect of intellectual life; when his training was complete he joined the circle of the mathematician Adolphe Quételet, Director of the Brussels Observatory, which included many of the leading artists and scientists of the time. In 1852 he married Quételet’s daughter Marie-Isaure (d 1860). Like Louis-Charles Verboeckhoven, Clays worked in the tradition of 17th-century Dutch marine painting and was initially influenced by Romanticism. He gradually moved towards Realism and became one of the chief Belgian marine painters working in this style with such works as Becalmed on the Scheldt...

Article

Fronia E. Wissman

(b Paris, July 17, 1796; d Paris, Feb 22, 1875).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker.

After a classical education at the Collège de Rouen, where he did not distinguish himself, and an unsuccessful apprenticeship with two drapers, Corot was allowed to devote himself to painting at the age of 26. He was given some money that had been intended for his sister, who had died in 1821, and this, together with what we must assume was his family’s continued generosity, freed him from financial worries and from having to sell his paintings to earn a living. Corot chose to follow a modified academic course of training. He did not enrol in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts but studied instead with Achille Etna Michallon and, after Michallon’s death in 1822, with Jean-Victor Bertin. Both had been pupils of Pierre-Henri Valenciennes, and, although in later years Corot denied that he had learnt anything of value from his teachers, his career as a whole shows his attachment to the principles of historic landscape painting which they professed....

Article

(b Ornans, Franche-Comté, June 10, 1819; d La Tour-de-Peilz, nr Vevey, Switzerland, Dec 31, 1877).

French painter and writer. Courbet’s glory is based essentially on his works of the late 1840s and early 1850s depicting peasants and labourers, which were motivated by strong political views and formed a paradigm of Realism (see Realism). From the mid-1850s into the 1860s he applied the same style and spirit to less overtly political subjects, concentrating on landscapes and hunting and still-life subjects. Social commitment, including a violent anticlericalism, re-emerged in various works of the 1860s and continued until his brief imprisonment after the Commune of 1871. From 1873 he lived in exile in Switzerland where he employed mediocre artists, but also realized a couple of outstanding pictures with an extremely fresh and free handling. The image Courbet presented of himself in his paintings and writings has persisted, making him an artist who is assessed as much by his personality as by his work. This feature and also his hostility to the academic system, state patronage and the notion of aesthetic ideals have made him highly influential in the development of modernism....

Article

James C. Cooke

(b Boston, MA, Nov 21, 1843; d Waverley, MA, Jan 15, 1909).

American painter. Currier first studied art in the late 1860s after working briefly as a stone-cutter (his father’s profession) and as a banking apprentice. In 1869, after a short stay in England, he arrived in Antwerp, where he studied at the Koninklijke Academie and benefited especially from the example of Antoine Wiertz. Currier visited Paris in the spring of 1870, perhaps intending to undertake a lengthy period of study. With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in August 1870, however, he moved to Munich, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste until 1872. He became part of the American contingency of Munich painters, which included Frank Duveneck, Walter Shirlaw and William Merritt Chase. Like them, he became a notable practitioner of Munich realism as taught by Wilhelm Leibl and others. To this style, based on the chiaroscuro and dramatic brushwork of Frans Hals, Currier brought an expressionistic, individual manner, bolder in technique and more emotional and visionary in character. The ...

Article

John M. Hunisak

(b Paris, Dec 31, 1838; d Paris, April 15, 1902).

French sculptor. Dalou ranks among the greatest sculptors of the 19th century, alongside Antonio Canova, François Rude, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Auguste Rodin. The son of a glovemaker, he was a modern urbanite who believed in the moral efficacy of craftsmanship and manual labour as well as the primacy of democracy and a secular social order. The imagery of his finest works bears witness to these beliefs.

After being encouraged to become a sculptor by Carpeaux, Dalou trained at the Petite Ecole (1852–4), where he learnt the fundamentals of drawing and modelling, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1854–7), where he was admitted to the studio of Francisque Duret. Dalou’s early ambitions were wholly conventional. He competed for the Prix de Rome four times but never won first prize. During the 1860s he exhibited four modest works at the Salon while earning his living as a decorative artist. His most impressive decorative work is in Paris at the Hôtel Menier and the Travellers’ Club (formerly the Hôtel Païva). He first won critical and popular success at the Salon of ...