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Article

Ana Maria Rybko

(b Turin, March 1, 1869; d Rome, June 8, 1959).

Italian sculptor, teacher, composer and musician. He studied sculpture from 1880 at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, under Odoardo Tabacchi, and initially adhered to the traditions of Naturalism, with Romantic and Renaissance influences. He later turned to Realism, making no concessions to the more avant-garde artistic tendencies of the 20th century. He established his reputation with a series of portraits of society personalities, including Emily Doria-Pamphili (marble, h. 570 mm, 1904; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili; copies, Rome, G.N.A. Mod. and Mus. Canonica) and Donna Franca Florio (marble, h. 1050 mm, c. 1903–4; Rome, Mus. Canonica), and also members of the British royal family, such as Edward VII (marble, h. 570 mm, 1903; London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). His vast output includes many works with symbolic or sacred subject-matter, as well as numerous funereal and commemorative monuments. These include the model (plaster, h. 330 mm) and statue (marble, h. 3.28 m) of ...

Article

(b Anizy-le-Château, Aisne, June 12, 1824; d Sèvres, June 3, 1887).

French sculptor and designer. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the 19th century, producing portrait busts, monuments and ideal works, as well as exploiting to the full the commercial opportunities offered by developing technology for the mass production of small-scale sculpture and decorative wares. His style ranged from the unembellished Realism of his male portraits to the neo-Baroque exuberance of his architectural decoration, and his art is particularly associated with the amiable opulence of the Second Empire. He signed his works A. Carrier until c. 1868, thereafter adopting the name Carrier-Belleuse.

Carrier-Belleuse began a three-year apprenticeship with a goldsmith at the age of 13, a training that gave him a lifelong sensitivity to intricate surfaces. In 1840 David d’Angers sponsored his entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but his straitened financial circumstances led him to study decorative arts at the Petite Ecole. This left him free to produce small models for such commercial manufacturers of porcelain and bronze as ...

Article

John M. Hunisak

(b Paris, Dec 31, 1838; d Paris, April 15, 1902).

French sculptor. Dalou ranks among the greatest sculptors of the 19th century, alongside Antonio Canova, François Rude, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and Auguste Rodin. The son of a glovemaker, he was a modern urbanite who believed in the moral efficacy of craftsmanship and manual labour as well as the primacy of democracy and a secular social order. The imagery of his finest works bears witness to these beliefs.

After being encouraged to become a sculptor by Carpeaux, Dalou trained at the Petite Ecole (1852–4), where he learnt the fundamentals of drawing and modelling, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1854–7), where he was admitted to the studio of Francisque Duret. Dalou’s early ambitions were wholly conventional. He competed for the Prix de Rome four times but never won first prize. During the 1860s he exhibited four modest works at the Salon while earning his living as a decorative artist. His most impressive decorative work is in Paris at the Hôtel Menier and the Travellers’ Club (formerly the Hôtel Païva). He first won critical and popular success at the Salon of ...

Article

Michel Melot

(b Marseille, Feb 26, 1808; d Valmondois, Feb 10, 1879).

French graphic artist, painter, and sculptor.

Son of a Marseille glazier, frame-maker, and occasional picture restorer, Daumier joined his father in Paris in 1816. He became a bailiff’s errand boy and was then employed by a bookseller, but his real enthusiasm was reserved for drawing and politics. He studied drawing with Alexandre Lenoir and at the Académie Suisse and then worked as assistant to the lithographer Béliard. Having mastered the techniques of lithography, he published his first plate in the satirical weekly La Silhouette in 1829.

Daumier was 22 when the revolution of July 1830 gave the throne to Louis-Philippe as constitutional monarch and power to the French middle-class business community. On 4 November 1830 the print publisher Aubert and his son-in-law Charles Philipon launched the violently anti-monarchist weekly La Caricature, followed on 1 December 1832 by Le Charivari, the first daily paper to be illustrated with lithographs. In his association with these newspapers and in the company of Republican artists, Daumier found a favourable milieu for developing his vigorous style and progressive ideas....

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

Ettore Spalletti

(b Siena, March 1, 1817; d Florence, Jan 10, 1882).

Italian sculptor and writer. He was among the foremost sculptors in Tuscany in the generation after Lorenzo Bartolini. His early experiments in naturalism attracted such hostile criticism that he was forced to abandon this style in favour of a sensual neo-Greek manner. His later works are marked by a richly expressive eclecticism.

He trained with his father, a wood-carver, and briefly attended the Istituto di Belle Arti in Siena. By 1826 or 1827 he was in Florence, where he joined the workshop of the wood-carver Paolo Sani. Dupré alternated this work with practical attempts at teaching himself, particularly drawing, as part of his ambition to become a sculptor. His first proper sculpture, a wooden figure of St Philomena, was shown in 1838 at the annual exhibition of the Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, where it attracted the praise of Lorenzo Bartolini, among others. In 1840 he made a jewel casket, inspired by the interior architecture of the Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Florence, which was acquired by ...

Article

Elizabeth Johns

(Cowperthwaite)

(b Philadelphia, PA, July 25, 1844; d Philadelphia, June 25, 1916).

American painter, sculptor and photographer. He was a portrait painter who chose most of his sitters and represented them in powerful but often unflattering physical and psychological terms. Although unsuccessful throughout much of his career, since the 1930s he has been regarded as one of the greatest American painters of his era.

His father Benjamin Eakins (1818–99), the son of a Scottish–Irish immigrant weaver, was a writing master and amateur artist who encouraged Thomas Eakins’s developing talent. Eakins attended the Central High School in Philadelphia, which stressed skills in drawing as well as a democratic respect for disciplined achievement. He developed an interest in human anatomy and began visiting anatomical clinics. After studying from 1862 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where instruction was minimal, Eakins went to Paris to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in the studio of Jean-Léon Gérôme. From 1866 to the end of ...

Article

Christina Lodder

(b Moscow, 1932).

Russian printmaker and sculptor, active in England. He trained at the Moscow State Art Studios in 1942–7 and at the Moscow Art School (1950–51) in the atmosphere of Socialist Realism. After his national service (1953–6) he studied at the Moscow Animated Film Studios (1956–8). He subsequently joined the Moscow Union of Soviet Artists, exhibiting his work with this organization from 1958 to 1972. During the 1960s he created objects from paper and tin, using paint to enhance the expressive qualities of the forms produced. From 1967 he specialized in drypoint, producing images based on the topography and everyday life of Moscow. In 1974 Kudryashov emigrated from the Soviet Union and settled in London. His work, always inspired by the urban environment, now reflected the buildings, bridges and the demolition he observed around him. The abstract language of bold rectangles and circles, energetically inscribed directly on to the zinc plate, characteristic of later prints such as ...

Article

Bernadette Thomas

(b Antwerp, Jan 14, 1852; d Brussels, June 5, 1908).

Belgian sculptor. He began modelling in clay at the age of 11 and was a pupil at the Antwerp Academie under Nicaise De Keyser and Joseph Geefs (1808–85), although their academic teaching left no trace on his exuberant character. Instead he developed his natural gift for observation in the streets of Antwerp. His earliest works date from 1875 and were exhibited at the Salon in Brussels. Closely related to the work of Jérôme Duquesnoy (i), they are picturesque and graceful. In 1880 Lambeaux was in Paris, where the wretched life he led fed his romantic spirit. In 1882 he visited Italy, but the trip had no conclusive influence on his art. In 1883 he was a founder-member of Les XX, but he resigned after its first Salon in 1884 because he found the group’s ideas too avant-garde.

In 1887 one of Lambeaux’s most important works, the Brabo fountain, was erected in the Grote Markt in Antwerp. This monumental bronze group features Salvius Brabo, founder of Antwerp, at the apex, convincingly posed to suggest his running motion in the manner of Giambologna’s ...

Article

Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, March 18, 1661; dMechelen, c. 1720).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of St Libertus (1680) for the monument to Amati de Coriache; a dramatically gesticulating stone figure of St Mary Magdalene from the monument to Jan Baptiste and Bernard Alexander van der Zype (1701) exhibits similar tendencies. Conversely, the oak statue of the Virgin of Victory (1680), carved for the monastery of the Brothers of Charity at Kappelen, Antwerp, has a classicizing appearance, which became more pronounced in his work by c. 1700. In 1698–9 Langhemans collaborated with ...

Article

Pierre Baudson

(b Etterbeek, Brussels, April 12, 1831; d Ixelles, Brussels, April 4, 1905).

Belgian sculptor, painter and draughtsman. He was directed towards an artistic career by his elder brother, the engraver Jean-Baptiste Meunier (1821–1900). He entered the Académie des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, in September 1845 and studied under the sculptor Louis Jehotte (1804–84) from 1848. In addition, in 1852 he attended the private studio of the sculptor Charles-Auguste Fraikin. Gradually he came to feel that sculpture, at least in the traditional form taught in Brussels, was incapable of providing an adequate vehicle for either exposition or expression. Still at the Academy, he transferred to painting, therefore, in 1853, and followed the courses given by François-Joseph Navez, studying in the evenings at the Saint-Luc studio, with Charles De Groux. He became friends with Louis Dubois, Félicien Rops and other rebellious young artists who were to found the Société Libre des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1868. With these, Meunier was part of the realist avant-garde, while seeking out a path of his own in painting. It has been said that De Groux had a decisive influence on Meunier. The latter partly denied this and insisted that he had felt the need very early to practise an art that was more devoted to the masses, to the people. His interest in everyday life, in the experience and condition of man, can already be discerned in the sketches and studies he made during his stays in the Trappist monastery of Westmalle, near Antwerp, between ...

Article

Jacques van Lennep

(b Liège, April 9, 1847; d Schaerbeek, Brussels, Sept 30, 1898).

Belgian sculptor. He studied under the sculptor Prosper Drion (1822–1906) at the Académie in Liège from 1857 to 1871. He was a particular admirer of the anecdotal sculpture of Léopold Harzé (1831–93). His vocation as a sculptor of animal subjects began in Rome, where he studied on a grant from 1872 to 1876. He exhibited in Ghent (1874) and on several occasions in Paris (where he lived from 1876 to 1882) at the Salon des Artistes Français. He achieved prominence at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris with his Bulls Fighting in the Roman Countryside (Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.). In 1880–81 he shared a studio with the Belgian sculptor Paul De Vigne, whom he had met in Rome. Mignon’s Bull Tamer (Liège, Parc Avroy) took the gold medal at the Salon of 1880. In 1882 he settled in Brussels and in 1888...

Article

Evita Arapoglou and Tonia P. Giannoudaki

(b Tinos, 1834; d Athens, Nov 28, 1919).

Greek sculptor. While very young he assisted his architect father in the construction of the St Paul Monastery on Mt Athos, and he also collaborated with masons from Tinos on sculptural work in Constantinople (now Istanbul). In 1858 he began his studies in sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens, first under Christian Heinrich Siegel (1808–83) and then under Georgios Fitalis, and continued them at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome (1864–9) with a scholarship from the Evangelistria Holy Foundation of Tinos. His Reaper (1870; Athens, Zappeion), which won first prize at the Academy of Rome, is an early example of a series of small decorative genre sculptures involving children. Often inspired by themes from everyday life, he was the first Greek sculptor who produced works with Realist tendencies. Man Breaking Wood (model 1871, marble 1900; Athens, Zappeion), for example, shows a dynamic architectural structure and almost exaggerated anatomical detail. His naturalistic statues and busts (e.g. ...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

Style of painting, and sometimes sculpture, that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s that involves creating works in extreme detail as a reaction to the abstraction celebrated in the 1940s and 1950s. Photorealist art refers to images of reality rendered in extreme detail, often with aid of photographs. The subjects of this style include portraits, still-lifes, and genre scenes. The genre images usually depict daytime scenes, occasionally night-time scenes, but often at midday so the shadows are at their most dramatic.

Photorealist artists were influenced by Pop art, in which the artists were concerned with media saturation (using media as a source for art) and the reproduction or simulation of mass-produced objects as art. They were also informed by Minimalism, in which the artists emphasized a cool detachment and industrial emphasis. Conceptual art and the artistic interest in the 1960s of making ideas into realities also underscore Photorealism....

Article

Barbara S. Fields

(b Paris, April 20, 1850; d Paris, Feb 11, 1924).

French painter, sculptor and printmaker. He turned to painting in 1870, after his early interest in music and theatre, and took the works of Camille Corot, Jean-Léon Gérôme, Ferdinand Roybet and Mariano Fortuny y Marsal as models for his own work. Raffaëlli painted a landscape that was accepted by the Paris Salon jury of 1870. He enrolled in Gérôme’s atelier in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in October 1871, but his three months there were his only formal training. Together with a few landscapes the major part of his early production consisted of costume pictures, primarily with subjects in Louis XIII dress, such as L’Attaque sous bois (1873; Verdun, Mus. Princerie).

In 1876 Raffaëlli produced a powerful, realistic portrait of a Breton peasant family, the Family of Jean-le-Boîteux, Peasants of Plougasnou (Finistère) (Le Quesnoy, Hôtel de Ville), which signalled a new direction in his art. The portrait was praised by the influential critic Louis-Edmond Duranty. By the late 1870s, Raffaëlli’s career as a realist artist was launched with the support of Duranty and other critics such as J.-K. Huysmans. At the insistence of Edgar Degas, Raffaëlli was included in the ...

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

David Elliott and Piotr Juszkiewicz

[Rus. Sotsialisticheskiy Realizm]

Term used to describe the idealization of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the arts, apparently first used in the Soviet journal Literaturnaya Gazeta on 25 May 1932. After the cultural pluralism of the 1920s in the Soviet Union, and in line with the objectives of the Five-year plans, art was subordinated to the needs and dictates of the Communist Party. In 1932, following four years of ideological struggle and polemic among different artistic groups, the Central Committee of the party disbanded all existing artistic organizations and set up in their place party-led unions for individual art forms. In the summer of 1934, at the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers, Socialist Realism was proclaimed the approved method for Soviet artists in all media. Andrey Zhdanov, who gave the keynote address at the Congress, was Stalin’s mouthpiece on cultural policy until his death in 1948. In the words of his leader, the artist was to be ‘an engineer of the human soul’. The aim of the new creative method was ‘to depict reality in its revolutionary development’; no further guidelines concerning style or subject-matter were laid down. Accordingly, the idea of what constituted Socialist Realism evolved negatively out of a series of cultural purges orchestrated by Zhdanov in the pages of ...

Article

Stephan von Wiese

(b Mecklenburg, March 13, 1930).

German sculptor and stage designer. He studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Berlin-Weissensse (1949–53), working first in the style of Socialist Realism. During his period at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf he undertook self-imposed repetitive exercises such as archery, and he modelled his first relief-form paintings by hand. In 1957 he made his first relief structures with nails leading to works such as White Picture (nails on canvas on wood, 1959; Krefeld, Kaiser-Wilhelm Mus.). He also incorporated corks (e.g. Cork Picture Light Medium, 1960; Düsseldorf, Kstmus.) and cardboard tubes set into the surface of the painting. The nailed picture became the antithesis of the painted picture; it allowed Uecker to explore the articulation of light through the shadows created by the nails, the unchanging ritual of hammering and the violation of taboo surfaces. In 1958 he began to work on circular nail formations, leading in 1961 to his rotating nailed illuminated discs....

Article

Verismo  

Movement in Italy, primarily in Naples and Tuscany, from c. 1850 to 1900 that developed as a response to naturalism and realism in French art and literature. The principal visual artists were Antonio Mancini, Francesco Paolo Michetti and Vincenzo Gemito. In the early part of the century, which was dominated by Neo-classical idealism, an interest in the representation of the real world was confined to landscape painting (e.g. Scuola di Posillipo) and portrait painting, as practised by Andrea Appiani. One of the first Italian painters to observe nature systematically in a similar way to realist artists in France was Palizzi family §(2). In his work Vineyard with Priest (Rome, G. N. A. Mod.), every detail is minutely depicted. Another form of realism is to be seen in the work of Domenico Morelli who, while breaking classical canons and working in tones and values rather than in contours, maintained the importance of imagination over observation. Thus in the ...

Article

Valerio Terraroli

(b Palermo, April 11, 1855; d Rome, Dec 20, 1926).

Italian sculptor . He attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Palermo (1868–71) under the guidance of the sculptor Vincenzo Ragusa (b 1841). In 1872 he moved to Naples, where he was influenced by Domenico Morelli and Stanislao Lista (1824–1908), and was also in close contact with Vincenzo Gemito. Between 1874 and 1880 he lived in Florence, supported by a grant, and became familiar with various aspects of Renaissance sculpture, which enhanced his eclectic tendency. In 1878 he travelled to Paris, where he came into close contact with the work of Rodin and Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. On returning to Italy he began a period of extraordinary artistic productivity, and from 1885 to 1894 was Director of the Istituto Statale d’Arte in Urbino. His original training was strictly realist, and he was also influenced by the Renaissance Revival in Italian sculpture in the late 19th century. His first public works, including the monuments to ...