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Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...


(b Falun, April 11, 1860; d Stockholm, May 7, 1946).

Swedish architect, draughtsman and painter. After studying at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan and the Kungliga Akademien för de fria Konsterna (1878–84), with his artist-wife Anna Boberg (b 1864) he made extensive journeys in Italy, France, Spain and the rest of the Mediterranean region, also visiting Britain. Early on he was impressed by the work of H. H. Richardson, and this was reinforced by his visit to the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) and to the studio of Louis Sullivan. Boberg’s highly personal style amalgamated these American influences with impressions from Italy, Spain and North Africa, and his ornamentation in particular is connected both to Sullivan and to the Moorish and Byzantine. Gävle Fire Station (1890) shows clearly the Richardsonian use of the Romanesque with round-arched doorways in heavy granite, picturesque asymmetry and colonette motifs. Industrial buildings for the Stockholm Gas and Electricity Works in the 1890s demonstrate Boberg’s effective use of colourful brick and stone. The surviving portal of an electricity station (destr.) in central Stockholm is decorated by ornamentation of electric light-bulbs with a Sullivanesque sharpness, and postal motifs of a similar nature adorn the Central Post Office (...


Mario Buhagiar

(b Valletta, Aug 14, 1846; d Valletta, March 1, 1930).

Maltese painter. He was the nephew of Antonio Calì (1788–1866) and the cousin of Beniamino Calì (b 1832), both of whom achieved fame as sculptors in Naples in the 19th century. Because of unrest in Italy during the Risorgimento (1796–1870), his parents moved to Malta shortly before his birth. In 1863 he studied in Naples at the Accademia di Belle Arti e Liceo Artistico under Giuseppe Mancinelli (1813–75) and then in the studio of Domenico Morelli, whose dynamic and sensuous work made a lasting impression on him. Another important formative influence was the work of Delacroix, which inspired Calì’s early Death of Dragut (1867; Valletta, Fort St Elmo, War Mus.). This painting, remarkable for its superb colours and vigour, made Calì Malta’s most popular artist. He was extremely versatile and prodigiously prolific, painting in a Romantic style. His output ranges from easel paintings and altarpieces to large-scale decorations for church vaults. His vast oeuvre is uneven in quality and some of his works are spoiled by a sickly morbidity, although he was an excellent draughtsman. His best works are boldly and freely rendered with an exciting exuberant spontaneity. He is best known for the huge ceiling painting of the ...


A. Ziffer

(b Görlitz, Feb 21, 1871; d Lüneburg, March 10, 1948).

German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in 1901 at the first Ausstellung für Kunst im Handwerk in Munich. In 1902 he founded the Lehr- und Versuch-Atelier für Angewandte und Freie Kunst with the Swiss artist Hermann Obrist, developing a modern co-educational teaching system based on reformist pedagogy and popular psychology. In preliminary courses, classes and workshops, a broad practical training was offered primarily in arts and crafts. This precursor of the Bauhaus encouraged contact with dealers and collectors and was widely accoladed. When Obrist resigned from the school in 1904, Debschitz founded the Ateliers und Werkstätten für Angewandte Kunst and the Keramischen Werkstätten production centres attached to the school. In ...


Torsten Gunnarsson


(b Stockholm, Dec 22, 1868; d Arvika, July 7, 1948).

Swedish painter, printmaker and designer. He trained at the Royal Academy of Arts in Stockholm in 1891–2. Subsequently he studied with Bruno Liljefors and Carl Larsson, assisting them with such decorative schemes as Larsson’s fresco at the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm (1896). In 1897 he moved to the Arvika district of Värmland, where he worked together with his wife, Maja (1873–1961), as painter, craftsman and cabinetmaker, and gathered around him a circle of artists who became known as the Racken group. He first achieved public recognition at the Stockholm Artists Union exhibition in 1898 with some of his snow landscapes, which were an immediate popular success and were often reproduced. He had his first one-man exhibition in Stockholm in 1908, and his paintings were well received when exhibited in Berlin in 1914 and in London in 1927.

Fjaestad’s speciality was the winter landscape. The approach he adopted in such early works as ...


Sixten Ringbom

(Valdemar) [Gallén, Axel until 1904]

(b Pori [Swed. Björneborg], Finland, April 26, 1865; d Stockholm, March 7, 1931).

Finnish painter, graphic artist and designer. He learnt the elements of drawing and painting in Helsinki at the School of the Finnish Arts Society and the studio of the painter Adolf von Becker (1831–1909).

His first significant painting, The Boy and the Crow (1884; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), shows his ambition to keep abreast of developments in Naturalism, a style introduced to him through the works of young Finnish and Scandinavian painters in Paris. In the autumn of 1884 he arrived in Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian and the studio of Fernand Cormon. In 1885 he completed his oil painting Old Woman with a Cat (Turku, A. Mus.), a veristic study of poverty and deprivation. Gallén’s single-figure compositions of this period followed a formula exploited by Jean-François Millet, Jules Breton and Jules Bastien-Lepage. In these seemingly static images, the life story of the protagonist was suggested through significant attributes, physiognomic elaboration and background details....


Pekka Korvenmaa

Finnish architectural partnership formed in 1896 by Herman Gesellius (1874–1916), Armas Lindgren and Eliel Saarinen (see Saarinen family, §1), the year before they graduated from the Polytekniska Institutet in Helsinki. It dissolved in 1907, although Lindgren left the office in 1905. National and international recognition came in 1900, when they designed the Finnish pavilion for the Exposition Universelle in Paris, having won the competition for its design in 1898. The design linked a number of international influences as well as particularly Finnish elements (motifs such as bears, squirrels and pine cones) and forms from Art Nouveau. It also included neo-Romanesque elements reminiscent of the H. H. Richardson school in the USA. The interior of the pavilion’s cupola was decorated with paintings by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The overall effect was of an Arts and Crafts ambience. It was one of the first examples of the architecture of ...


Aimo Reitala

(b Lapinlahti, Sept 23, 1865; d Tuusula [Swed. Tusby], Dec 1, 1933).

Finnish painter. He was born into an artistic peasant family; his cousin was the sculptor Eemil Halonen (1875–1950). Pekka received his initial training at the Finnish Arts Association’s School of Drawing in Helsinki (1886–90). Over the next two years he worked in Paris at the Académie Julian, and his work was first exhibited in 1891. Halonen’s themes were the Finnish landscape and people, and his artistic approach was always rooted in Realism. The Mowers (1891; priv. col., see Lindström, p. 108) is an important example of his Realist plein-air painting, which was tinged with Jean-François Millet’s brand of idealization, while The Shortcut (1892; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.) is a sombre study of the landscape of eastern Finland. Halonen spent the years 1893–4 in Paris as a pupil of Paul Gauguin; his interest in Symbolism was short-lived, but Gauguin’s decorative Synthetism, as well as Japanese woodcuts, made a lasting impression on his work, in particular on his later portrayals of Finnish landscape....


Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Kalmar, Oct 11, 1858; d Stockholm, May 11, 1930).

Swedish painter, draughtsman and illustrator. From 1874 he studied at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, where he soon became a friend of Richard Bergh and Karl Nordström, both of whom were later prominent exponents of the more advanced Swedish painting of the 1880s and 1890s. After being forced to interrupt his studies because of illness, Kreuger trained from 1878 at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90) in Stockholm before he travelled to Paris, where he stayed for the most part until 1887. He made his début at the Paris Salon in 1882, and he also resided in the artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing. During this period he painted such works as Old Country House (1887; Stockholm, Nmus.) with a free brushwork and sense of light that owed much to Jules Bastien-Lepage. In 1885 Kreuger was active in organizing the Opponenterna, a protest movement led by Ernst Josephson against the conservative establishment of the Konstakademi in Stockholm, and the following year he helped to found the ...


S. G. Fyodorov and B. M. Kirikov

(Ivanovich) [Lidval, Johann-Friedrich]

(b St Petersburg, June 1, 1870; d Stockholm, March 14, 1945).

Swedish architect, active in Russia. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, from 1890 to 1896, where he spent his final years in the studio of Leonty Benois. He subsequently established a reputation as one of the most important architects in St Petersburg in the early 20th century. In his early works there he created an original version of northern European Art Nouveau (Rus. modern), related to Swedish and Finnish National Romantic architecture but distinguished by its strict restraint and elegant forms. In the block of flats on Kamennoostrovsky Prospect 1–3 that belonged to his mother (1899–1904), he used a deep cour d’honneur to form a spacious nucleus to the well-equipped and comfortable complex. The sophisticated plastic quality of the buildings, which are of various heights, the free design and textural variety of the façades and the stylized motifs of flora and fauna all distinguish this as northern ...


Paula Kivinen

(b Tampere, May 20, 1872; d Helsinki, Dec 27, 1966).

Finnish architect. She qualified as an architect in 1896, and in 1898 she travelled on a scholarship in central Europe, England and Scotland studying stone and brick construction, as well as school architecture. Lönn was based in Tampere between 1898 and 1911. Her first projects were houses and schools in various parts of Finland—for which she adapted the innovations she had seen in Britain. The Tampere Central Fire Station (1908), her best building, is still in use: its picturesque, loose massing reflects a ground-plan that enhances the building’s efficiency. It also suits the castle-like character lent by such details as the turrets, characteristic of National Romanticism in Finland—of which this station is a good example. She was in Jyväskylä from 1911 to 1918 and was invited to design buildings for Johannes Parviainen Factories Ltd in Säynätsalo. She in fact designed them all. Estonia Theatre in Tallinn (1913...


Virginia Button

(b Cambridge, Dec 25, 1917; d London, Jan 20, 1957).

English painter and illustrator. He attended St John’s Wood School of Art from 1935 to 1938. A celebrity of London’s bohemia and a key figure of Neo-Romanticism in the 1940s, he lived and worked with most of the younger generation Neo-Romantics including Michael Ayrton (1921–76), Robert Colquhoun, Robert MacBryde and Keith Vaughan. Invalided out of the army in 1943, he devoted himself to art, producing work for seven one-man shows between 1945 and 1956.

Minton’s eclectic style combined elements of French and British Neo-Romanticism. His main theme, partly homoerotic, was the young male figure in emotionally charged settings. Five phases in his work have been identified, ranging from landscapes reminiscent of those of Samuel Palmer, for example Recollections of Wales (1944; Brit. Council; for illustration see Neo-Romanticism), to scenes of urban decay, such as Rotherhithe from Wapping (1946; Southampton, C.A.G.). In the post-war years he was attracted to exotic places in search of new subjects....


Vidar Poulsson

(Peter Frantz Wilhelm)

(b Skanshagen at Elverum, July 19, 1849; d Baerum, Jan 15, 1929).

Norwegian painter and designer. He trained as a landscape painter at the art school in Christiania (after 1877 Kristiania, now Oslo) run by J. F. Eckersberg and his followers from 1870 to 1874. He travelled widely throughout his career but was most attracted to eastern Norway, where he had been born. His first ambition was to paint in a realistic style that would also accommodate impulses from fantasy and literature. During the winters of 1874–5 and 1875–6 he visited his relative the painter Ludvig Munthe at Düsseldorf and was impressed by his work. An Autumn Landscape (1876; Bergen, Meyers Saml.) was Gerhard Munthe’s first major painting. During a long stay at Munich (1877–82) he studied the Old Masters as well as contemporary art. He painted about 70 oils, mainly dark in tone but quite varied in content. They are largely based on impressions of the coastal towns or interior of Norway rather than being inspired by German motifs. ...


Göran Söderlund


(b Tjörn, July 11, 1855; d Drottningholm, Aug 16, 1923).

Swedish painter. In 1875 he went to Stockholm, where he studied at the Konstakademi and at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90). At the former, he met the painters Richard Bergh and Nils Kreuger, who became his lifelong friends. He spent his formative years in France (1880–86) as a member of the Scandinavian artists’ colonies in Paris and Grèz-sur-Loing. Having been attracted to Paris by the ideals of French Naturalism, he visited the Seventh Impressionist Exhibition (1882), which had an effect on his painting of this period (e.g. the Old Bridge at Grèz, 1882; Stockholm, Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde). He spent most of his time in Grèz, dedicating himself to plein-air painting.

Nordström shared the radical views of his colleagues in exile and together they formed the protest movement Opponenterna. Led by the Swedish painter Ernst Josephson, they revolted against the conservatism of the Konstakademi in Stockholm and demanded its reorganization. In ...


Hans-Olof Boström


(b Malmö, Sept 13, 1835; d Malmö, Oct 11, 1933).

Swedish painter. He lodged with and was a pupil of the Danish landscape painter Frederik Christian Kiærskou (1805–91), and at the same time he studied at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1852–5). In 1857 he moved to the Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm. Like several other Swedish artists of his generation he studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1859–64). His teacher there was the Norwegian Hans Gude, who was professor of landscape painting and whose strong influence can be seen in several landscapes including Swedish Landscape (1863; Göteborg, Kstmus.), which was painted in Düsseldorf. Rydberg lived in various parts of Sweden, chiefly in Stockholm, and he settled permanently in his native province of Skåne in 1897. His early landscapes were Romantic, in the Düsseldorf tradition, but in about 1870 he became one of the first plein-air painters of Sweden. He has been called ‘the artistic discoverer of Skåne’, for his impressive depictions of the lowland expanses of Skåne with their wide skies. He preferred simple themes, as in ...


Elizabeth Johns

(b New Bedford, MA, March 19, 1847; d Elmhurst, NY, March 28, 1917).

American painter. He is generally considered to be America’s greatest visionary painter. His c. 160 canvases, intense in colour and pattern and often with mysterious thematic overtones, are distinctively Romantic.

Raised in the whaling community of New Bedford, MA, Ryder moved to New York with his family c. 1870. He had already begun painting landscapes. Independent in mind and inclined to learn from experimentation, he studied at the New York National Academy of Design, but only irregularly. His best instruction was received informally, from the New York portrait painter and engraver William E. Marshall (1837–1906). He adopted the habit of studying engravings and was strongly attracted to the pastoral works of recent painters, particularly those of Camille Corot and the other Barbizon painters. His own work, for example Curfew Hour (1882; New York, Met.), incorporated the earthen tonalities, simplified interlocking patterns of human, animal and landscape forms and the quiet light effects characteristic of the French painters....


(b Rome, June 11, 1844; d Rome, Sept 11, 1908).

Italian painter and mosaicist of German descent. He was the son of the Nazarene painter Alexander Maximilian Seitz (1811–88) and inherited his father’s interest in the religious painting of the Quattrocento. His German heritage was important for the formation of his style, as his father was taught by Peter Cornelius, whom Ludovico Seitz knew well and whose studio he was entrusted with organizing after Cornelius’s death. Seitz also obtained important commissions through his family’s link with prominent German Catholics: his godfather was Ludwig I, King of Bavaria. His earliest commission, scenes from the Life of Christ (c. 1865; Dakovo, Cathedral), executed with his father, recalls Dürer and his school. He received further commissions for churches in Rome, including S Maria in Aracoeli (St Thomas Aquinas and St Bonaventure, c. 1870) and S Maria dell’Anima, where he frescoed a chapel (c. 1872) dedicated to St John of Nepomuk. In the latter, he moved away from the crisp forms and restrained emotion present in the paintings at Dakovo towards a more florid style, richer in colour and more obviously pious in expression. This change in style coincided with official Catholic taste during the papacy of Leo XIII (...


Tone Skedsmo

(b Christiania [Kristiania from 1877; now Oslo], Nov 29, 1869; d Oslo, June 19, 1935).

Norwegian painter and printmaker. Sohlberg decided to be a painter when young, but his father wished him to follow a thorough training as a craftsman. Sohlberg therefore enrolled at the Royal School of Drawing in Kristiania in 1885 under the interior designer Wilhelm Krogh (1829–1913) and stayed at the school until 1890. Subsequently, he attended night classes under the graphic artist and painter Johan Nordhagen (1856–1956) both in the autumn of 1906 and also from 1911 to 1917, when he concentrated on printmaking. Sohlberg painted his first pictures while staying in the Valdrés region to the north-west of Kristiania in summer 1889. The following summer he painted with Sven Jørgensen (1861–1940) at Slagen near Åsgårdstrand, and in autumn 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and Eilif Peterssen in Kristiania. For some months during the winter of 1891–2 Sohlberg attended Kristian Zahrtmann’s art school in Copenhagen. He also studied for four months in ...


Pekka Korvenmaa


(b Kälviä, Vaasa, Aug 10, 1870; d Helsinki, March 14, 1956).

Finnish architect. With Eliel Saarinen, he was one of the leading Finnish architects of the early 20th century. Although his career spanned six decades, his most active period was between 1893 and 1920.

Sonck studied architecture at the Polytechnic Institute of Finland in Helsinki from 1890 to 1894. While still a student in 1894 he won an important competition for the church of St Michael, Turku. The lengthy design and building period (1894–1905) reflected more general stylistic developments then taking place in Finnish architecture. Brick was chosen for the church, and Sonck went to Germany in 1894 to study brick construction there. However, the German-derived, brick Gothic Revival style of the early designs was subsequently infused with Jugendstil influences, and stone, granite and soapstone also came to be used. This process of development culminated in the church of St John (1900–07; now Tampere Cathedral). This is Sonck’s masterpiece and one of the key monuments of Finnish ...


Norbert Hostyn

(b Brussels, June 14, 1819; d Brussels, June 14, 1916).

Belgian painter and lithographer. He studied at the Brussels Académie des Beaux-Arts between 1832 and 1847, working under François-Joseph Navez, Paulus Lauters and François-Antoine Bossuet (1798–1889). Primarily a painter of landscapes and architectural subjects, Stroobant travelled widely, visiting the Netherlands, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Hungary and exhibiting his pictures at the salons in Ghent, Antwerp, Brussels and elsewhere. Over 60 years (c. 1839–c. 1890) his style changed little; his paintings are all in a picturesque Romantic manner (e.g. Hôtel de Ville, c. 1870; London, Guildhall A.G.). He was the founder and first director of the Académie des Beaux-Arts at Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, a suburb of Brussels.

Bénézit; BNB; NBW P. Berko and V. Berko: Dictionnaire des peintres belges nés entre 1750 et 1857 (Brussels and Knokke, 1981) W. G. Flippo: Lexicon of the Belgian Romantic Painters (Antwerp, 1981) P. Piron: De Belgische beeldende kunstenaars uit de 19de en 20ste eeuw...