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Michael Howard

(b Vercelli, Piedmont, March 11, 1806; d Dijon, March 5, 1867).

French painter, illustrator, set designer and poet. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Guillaume Lethière from 1821. The Punishment of Mazeppa (1827; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), inspired by the scene from Byron’s poem, in which Mazeppa is tied to the back of a wildly stampeding horse, is his most important early painting and one of the key images of the Romantic movement.

Early in his career Boulanger became friendly with Eugène and Achille Devéria. Through them he met Victor Hugo, who became his ardent supporter and the source of many of his most typical works. Among Boulanger’s illustrations were those for Hugo’s Odes et ballades (1829), Les Orientales (1829), Les Fantômes (1829) and Notre-Dame de Paris (1844). Boulanger interpreted the macabre and romantic quality of Hugo’s texts with an imaginative power and freedom that anticipated Redon (e.g. ‘...


Donald A. Rosenthal

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1804; d Paris, Feb 18, 1868).

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter Julien-Michel Gué (1789–1843) and worked for the decorators of the Théâtre Italien.

From 1827 Dauzats provided lithographic designs for Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s series Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–78). He travelled in the French provinces, particularly Champagne, Dauphiné and Languedoc, often sketching the medieval monuments that had come into vogue during the Romantic period.

Dauzats also collaborated on lithographs for many other publications, including Taylor’s Voyage en Orient. For this last project Dauzats travelled to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Turkey in 1830, a trip that he described in his book ...


L. I. Popova

(Hryhorovych) [Grigor’yevich]

(b Moryntsi, Kiev province [now Cherkasy region], March 9, 1814; d St Petersburg, March 10, 1861).

Ukrainian painter, graphic artist and poet. He was born a serf, and he moved to St Petersburg with his owner in 1831. In 1832–8 he worked in the studio of the fresco painter V. Shiryayev. With the help of some Russian writers and artists, he was bought out of serfdom in 1838, and he enrolled at the Academy of Arts. From 1838 to 1845 he studied under Karl Bryullov, whose influence, which continued, can already be seen in Shevchenko’s watercolour Gypsy Woman and the Self-portrait in oils (both 1841; Kiev, Shevchenko Mus.)

Bryullov’s influence is further notable in Shevchenko’s portraits of the 1840s. Shevchenko’s artistic and literary activities went hand in hand, and he published numerous volumes of poetry. In 1842 he painted the picture Katerina (Kiev, Shevchenko Mus.) on the same subject as his poem of that title—a serf girl deceived and abandoned by an officer. The central figure is painted with great delicacy and psychological effect; although conventional in composition and tone it shows a detailed observation of everyday life....