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Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...


William Hauptman

(b Basle, 1652; d Basle, 1727).

Swiss painter. The sparse records of his life and career show that he attended the university in Basle, and in 1679 he was painting in Berne, where he was influenced by the local landscape tradition. In 1693 he travelled to Bruges, where he was greatly impressed by Flemish and Dutch art, particularly portraiture and still-lifes. His most celebrated portrait is that of Johann Theobald Hartmann (1697; Solothurn, Zentbib.). His group portraits, such as Interior with an Armenian Family (1698; Solothurn, Kstmus.), reveal his debt to Rembrandt’s portraits. While much of Loutherburg’s career was devoted to portraiture, he was also a specialist in still-lifes, as in Still-life with Books, Cards and Flowers (1697; Basle, Kstmus.), which demonstrates his vivid use of vanitas iconography, then much in vogue in Swiss art. His most astonishing paintings are his trompe-l’oeil compositions painted late in life; the most typical example is Quolibet...


Ton Geerts

Dutch family of artists. They were originally from Zaltbommel and later were active in Nijmegen, Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam. Herbert van Nijmegen (d 1679) was a house painter in Nijmegen. He had four sons, three of whom—Gideon van Nijmegen (?1660–1711), Tobias van Nijmegen (b ?c. 1665) and Elias van Nijmegen (1667–1755)—became painters. Elias was a decorative painter who also executed narrative works. He was first trained by his father and was later taught by his brothers Gideon and Tobias; his work also shows the influence of Daniel Marot I. Together with Tobias, Elias worked in and around Nijmegen and joined the Guild of St Luke in Leiden in 1689. Together they decorated a room in the court of the Stadholder at Leeuwarden in 1694. Tobias subsequently settled in Düsseldorf, and Elias, after a period of drifting, started a workshop in Rotterdam. His students included his own son, ...