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Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Tarragona, 1832; d Barcelona, 1901).

Spanish sculptor. He entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de la Lonja, Barcelona, when still very young and was a student of the Neo-classical artist Damián Campeny y Estrany, who was also influenced by Romanticism and naturalism. In 1855 Aleu y Teixidor applied for the Chair in Modelling at the Escuela, a position to which he was eventually appointed after the committee had been involved in intrigues and disputes. He taught Catalan sculptors for half a century and wielded an enormous, though not entirely positive, influence. He became Deputy Director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes, belonged to the Academia de Ciencias y Artes of Barcelona and won first prize at the Exposición Nacional de Madrid in 1871.

Almost all the work of Aleu y Teixidor is in Barcelona. The best is the over life-size stone sculpture of St George (1871) for the façade of the Palau de la ...

Article

Glenn F. Benge

(b Paris, Sept 24, 1796; d Paris, June 25, 1875).

French sculptor, painter and printmaker. Barye was a realist who dared to present romantically humanized animals as the protagonists of his sculpture. Although he was a successful monumental sculptor, he also created a considerable body of small-scale works and often made multiple casts of his small bronze designs, marketing them for a middle-class public through a partnership, Barye & Cie. His interest in animal subjects is also reflected in his many watercolours. He thus challenged several fundamental values of the Parisian art world: the entrenched notion of a hierarchy of subject-matter in art, wherein animals ranked very low; the view that small-scale sculpture was intrinsically inferior to life-size or monumental work; and the idea that only a unique example of a sculptor’s design could embody the highest level of his vision and craft. As a result of his Romantic notion of sculpture, he won few monumental commissions and endured near poverty for many years....

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

(b Lisbon, Jan 15, 1829; d Lisbon, June 17, 1894).

Portuguese sculptor. Between 1846 and 1852 he studied drawing and history painting under António Manuel da Fonseca at the Academia de Belas-Artes in Lisbon. In 1854 he became a drawing teacher at the Universidade de Coimbra, and in 1860 he taught sculpture at the Academia de Belas-Artes.

In 1856 Bastos modelled his most significant work, the figurative terracotta bas-relief Colera Morbus (Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Contemp.), and in 1861 he exhibited at the Academia a version carved in marble (Sintra, Pal. N. Pena) that was bought by King Luís. It was an innovative work that first expressed the romantic style in Portuguese sculpture: the treatment is both dynamic and expressive, and because of its sense of movement the subject seems almost alive. Bastos, however, did not continue with this trend, and his Monument to Camóẽs (1860; Lisbon, Praça de Camóẽs) conforms to a more conventional academic treatment. His other sculptures of this type include the statue of ...

Article

(b Bordeaux, Jan 30, 1782; d Paris, Feb 21, 1863).

French painter, printmaker and designer. He first trained with Pierre Lacour the elder (1745–1814) in Bordeaux and on going to Paris studied with François André Vincent and then Jacques-Louis David. While a pupil of David, he became friendly with both François-Marius Granet and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Bergeret played a major role in introducing lithography into France, with prints after Poussin and Raphael: his lithograph Mercury (1804), after Raphael’s fresco in the Villa Farnesina, Rome, was one of the earliest examples of the technique. He also contributed greatly to Napoleonic propaganda by designing medals, extravagant pieces of Sèvres porcelain and, most important, the decoration of the Vendôme Column (1806–11; Paris, Place Vendôme) to satisfy Napoleon’s desire for a copy in Paris of Trajan’s Column in Rome. Bergeret was responsible for designing the bas-reliefs on the Vendôme Column, which record the campaigns of 1805 and 1806 (Austerlitz) in the way that those on Trajan’s Column record the Dacian Wars. It was destroyed in ...

Article

Clodion  

Glenn F. Benge

[Michel, Claude]

(b Nancy, Dec 20, 1738; d Paris, Mar 28, 1814).

French sculptor. He was the greatest master of lyrical small-scale sculpture active in France in the later 18th century, an age that witnessed the decline of the Rococo, the rise of Romanticism and the cataclysms of revolution. Clodion’s works in terracotta embody a host of fascinating and still unresolved problems, questions of autograph and attribution, the chronology of his many undated designs, the artistic sources of his works, and the position of his lyric art in the radically changing society of his time. Little is known of the sculptural activity of Clodion’s brothers (see 1992 exh. cat., nos 90–93): Sigisbert-Martial Michel (b13 Jan 1727); Sigisbert-François Michel (b Nancy, 24 Sep 1728; d Paris, 21 May 1811; see 1992 exh. cat., p. 29, nos 11 and 12); Nicholas Michel (b17 Nov 1733); and Pierre-Joseph Michel (b2 Nov 1737).

Clodion trained in Paris with his uncle ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

[David, Pierre-Jean]

(b Angers, March 12, 1788; d Paris, Jan 6, 1856).

French sculptor. A remarkably comprehensive view of this most prolific of 19th-century sculptors is provided by the collection of his work in the Musée des Beaux-Arts et Galerie David d’Angers in Angers. Begun in 1839 from models for the sculptor’s public statues that he had consistently sent to his home town, the collection was enriched after his death by numerous donations; in 1983 it was rehoused in the 13th-century abbey of Toussaints adjacent to the Musée des Beaux-Arts. Unless otherwise stated, plaster or marble versions of specific works mentioned in this article can be found in this collection.

Son of the ornamental wood-carver Jean-Louis David (1760–1821), who enrolled in 1793 in the Republican force that opposed the anti-revolutionary uprising, Pierre-Jean worked with his father and was further encouraged in his artistic ambitions by Jacques Delusse (1757–1833), painter and curator of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Angers. In ...

Article

Gilles Chazal

(b Strasbourg, Jan 6, 1832; d Paris, Jan 23, 1883).

French illustrator, painter and sculptor. He was born into a cultivated and well-to-do family. By the age of five he was drawing on every piece of paper that came within his reach. He was particularly fond of caricaturing his parents, friends and teachers. In 1838 he was already capable of producing entire series of illustrations such as Mr Fox’s Meeting (1839; priv. col.) and Scenes from the Public and Private Life of Grandville’s Animals (1845; Strasbourg, Mus. B.-A.). By 1843, while studying at the Lycée in Bourg-en-Bresse, he was making brilliant attempts at lithography such as La Martinoire du Bastion (1845; Bourg-en-Bresse, Mus. Ain). In 1847 Charles Philippon, founder of Caricature and Charivari, saw drawings by Doré, who was passing through Paris. He took Doré on, published his Labours of Hercules and urged his parents to set him up in the capital. From then on, while still a pupil at the Lycée Charlemagne, Doré found himself contractually bound to produce a drawing a week for Philippon’s ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

[Francisque]

(b Paris, Oct 19, 1804; d Paris, May 26, 1865).

French sculptor. Son of a sculptor of the same name (1729–1816) and a pupil of F.-J. Bosio, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1818 and won the Prix de Rome in 1823. Among his works executed at the Académie de France in Rome is Orestes Mad (marble, c. 1825; Avignon, Mus. Calvet), a colossal head modelled after the Antique that is at the same time a self-portrait, and Mercury Inventing the Lyre (marble; destr.), an elegant statue much praised at the 1831 Salon. Journeys from Rome to Naples resulted in Neapolitan Fisherboy Dancing the Tarantella (bronze, exh. Salon 1833; Paris, Louvre), which was executed on his return to Paris and was one of the earliest Neapolitan genre subjects in French 19th-century art. In this work Duret reconciled classical form with modern subject-matter and the freedom of modelling allowed by working in bronze. Its popularity led to reduced-scale bronze editions by the founder ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Paris, March 20, 1808; d Chaville, Seine-et-Oise, July 14, 1888).

French sculptor, painter, etcher, architect and writer. The son of a decorative sculptor, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1824 as a pupil of Charles Dupaty (1771–1825), moving in 1825 to the studio of James Pradier. Ingres also took an interest in his education, and Etex’s gratitude towards him and Pradier was later expressed in projects for monuments to them (that to Pradier not executed, that in bronze to Ingres erected Montauban, Promenade des Carmes, 1868–71).

Etex failed three times to win the Prix de Rome, but in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1830 his Republican sympathies gained him a government scholarship that enabled him to spend two years in Rome. There he sculpted the intensely tragic group Cain and his Children Cursed by God, the plaster version of which (Paris, Hôp. Salpêtrière) was one of the great successes of the 1833 Paris Salon. During this period Etex asserted the Republican views that were to earn him the distrust of many of his fellow artists and of the establishment but also gain him the support of the influential critic and politician Adolphe Thiers. He behaved in Romantic fashion as a misunderstood artist, but nevertheless displayed a remarkable tenacity in forwarding his pet projects, including, for instance, schemes for sculptures representing ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Florence, 1799; d Florence, ?1886).

French sculptor. Daughter of a Breton banker, she studied drawing with the painters Louis Hersent and Claude Guillot (fl 1841–66). In her Salon début in 1827, her dramatic historical relief of Queen Christina and Monaldeschi (plaster; Louviers, Mus. Mun.) indicated a debt to her painter friends Paul Delaroche and Ary Scheffer. Passionately loyal to the elder Bourbons, she played a part in the Vendée uprising of 1830 and joined the forces supporting the Duchesse de Berry in 1832. These activities earned her imprisonment first and then proscription. She fled to Brussels but in 1834 settled in Florence, where she and her studio became an attraction for cultured tourists because of the romantic medieval manner she affected. In her magnum opus, a marble monument to Dante Alighieri (1830–36; fragments survive, priv. col.), she enshrined the adulterous lovers Paolo and Francesca in a polychrome Gothic tabernacle adorned with symbolic figures and inscriptions. A similar plethora of decorative elements surrounds the ascending soul of the deceased in the marble monument to ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Paris, 1796; d Paris, Dec 11, 1844).

French sculptor. Like Antoine-Louis Barye, Gechter was a pupil of François-Joseph Bosio and Baron Gros. His first Salon exhibits in 1824 had heroic Classical and mythological subjects. After 1830 he followed the example of Barye in turning to small-scale sculpture, usually including animals, but without Barye’s zoological bias. After being shown at the Salon in 1833, his Combat of Charles Martel and Abderame, King of the Saracens (Meaux, Mus. Bossuet) was commissioned in bronze by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Although occasionally—as in The Engagement (Egyptian Expedition, 1798) (exh. Salon, 1834; untraced)—Gechter treated recent history, his predilection was for elaborately costumed battle or hunting scenes from the medieval or Renaissance period. Usually such pieces, with their frozen groupings, their emphasis on costume and their intricacy, belong to the genre known as Troubadour. Exceptionally Gechter could strike a more emotive note in his statuettes, as in Death of Tancred...

Article

(b Rouen, Sept 26, 1791; d Paris, Jan 26, 1824).

French painter, draughtsman, lithographer, and sculptor. He experienced the exaltation of Napoleon’s triumphs in his boyhood, reached maturity at the time of the empire’s agony, and ended his career of little more than 12 working years in the troubled early period of the Restoration. When he died, he was known to the public only by the three paintings he had exhibited at the Salon in Paris, the Charging Chasseur (1812; Paris, Louvre; see fig.), the Wounded Cuirassier Leaving the Field of Battle (1814; Paris, Louvre), and the Raft of the Medusa (1819; Paris, Louvre), and by a handful of lithographs.

The work that Gericault left behind is a fragment, difficult to comprehend or fit into the conventional framework of art history. Primarily he sought a pictorial form with which to represent contemporary experience with dramatic emphasis and visual truth. The dangers that beset him on this search were, on the one side, the stylelessness and banality of ‘picturesque’ realism and, on the other, the stilted artifice of over stylization. Between these two temptations, the Romantic and the Neo-classical, he sought for a middle way: a grand style capable of expressing modern subjects....

Article

M. Puls

(b Wiesbaden, March 23, 1815; d Frascati, nr Rome, July 8, 1886).

German sculptor. From 1833 to 1837 he studied in Munich under Ludwig von Schwanthaler and then lived in Paris until 1839. That year he returned to Wiesbaden and in 1842 went to Rome. There he met Friedrich Overbeck and was influenced by his designs for sculptures. Hoffmann lived in Cologne from 1845 to 1850, executing a few secular sculptures (e.g. the monument to Maximilian Weyhe, 1848–50; Düsseldorf, Hofgarten), which had a quality of narrative introversion despite their classical contours, gestures and glances. Religious works became his main subject-matter and were often treated with sentimental pathos, such as the stone Crucifixion (1850; Cologne, Melaten Cemetery). After being unsuccessful in his bid for the sculptural decoration of the cathedral, in 1850 Hoffmann returned to Rome, where from 1853 he shared a studio with Overbeck. He was influenced by late medieval and Quattrocento art as early as the 1840s, and the classically generous structure, accentuated gestural language and idealized facial expressions of his sculpture are in keeping with the piety and formal simplicity of Nazarene painting, particularly the work of Overbeck. Such sculptures as the marble ...

Article

Marica Magni

(b Milan, Oct 21, 1817; d Milan, Jan 20, 1877).

Italian sculptor. He studied briefly at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan and subsequently attended the studio of the Neo-classical sculptor Abbondio Sangiorgio (1798–1879). In his later artistic activity he was deeply influenced by the purity of the work of the Tuscan sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, whose Trust in God (1834–6; Milan, Mus. Poldi Pezzoli) he saw at the annual exhibition at the Brera in 1837. He made the traditional study trip to Rome, where, in 1849, during the unrest of the Risorgimento, he joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s ranks. Later returning to Rome, he achieved public prominence with his statue of David Launching his Slingstone (Milan, Gal. A. Mod.), which won the Premio Canonica at the Brera in 1850 and was exhibited there in 1851 and at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1855. At the Brera exhibition of 1853 he received great acclaim for his sober representation of ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Turin, Jan 14, 1805; d Passy, Paris, Dec 29, 1867).

Italian sculptor. His father, Vincenzo Marochetti, was a prominent advocate and functionary. The family moved to Paris shortly after Carlo’s birth. Marochetti trained with François-Joseph Bosio and, after failing to win the Prix de Rome, travelled to Italy in 1822 at his own expense. On his return he showed Young Girl with a Dog (Turin, Castello d’Agliè) at the Salon of 1827. His exhibit at the Salon of 1831, Rebel Angel (plaster; untraced), established his allegiance to the Romantic cause. Marochetti succeeded in projecting this Romanticism in public monuments: in his marble relief of the Battle of Jemmapes (1833–4) on the Arc de Triomphe and, in a more original form, in the group of the Assumption of the Magdalene (marble, 1834–44) for the church of the Madeleine, Paris, the latter an apotheosis deriving from the Baroque, but strongly symmetrical and denuded of scenic apparatus. Marochetti’s monumental Romanticism received wider exposure in a gift he made to his native city, the equestrian statue of ...

Article

Wifredo Rincón García

(b Valencia, Aug 19, 1806; d Madrid, Aug 26, 1871).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of José Piquer (d 1832), the Director of the Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Valencia and a sculptor, and he began his academic study of sculpture in his father’s institution, working within the current Neo-classical style. His more interesting early works included the allegories of Faith, Hope, Modesty and Patience (1829) for the catafalque erected by the Real Maestranza of Valencia for the funeral of Queen Maria Josefa Amalia of Saxony. In 1830 Piquer y Duart moved to Madrid and entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de S Fernando. On 16 September 1832 he was made an académico de mérito, having submitted the relief the Daughter of Jephthah for his examination. In 1833 he executed various figures for the temporary catafalque erected in S Jerónimo on the death of Ferdinand VII.

In 1836 Piquer y Duart was in Mexico. He left for Paris in ...

Article

Charles Millard

[Antoine-Augustin]

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1809; d Paris, Jan 11, 1879).

French sculptor. He was born in the working-class Marais district of Paris and was apprenticed to an ornamental carver. He later trained in the studio of Pierre-Jean David d’Angers. His first serious sculptural essays were mostly portrait medallions in the manner of David d’Angers. There is also record of an early relief entitled Two Slaves Cutting the Throat of a Young Roman Actor, said to have belonged to Daumier. By the time of his Salon début in 1833, Préault was immersed in the socially conscious subject-matter favoured by the liberal Romantics among whom he moved. His 1833 exhibits were Two Poor Women, Beggary and Gilbert Dying in the Hospital (all destr.). In 1834 his Pariahs (also destr.) was refused, presumably because of its pointed social comment, unacceptable in the bourgeois atmosphere of the July monarchy (1830–48). However, his tumultuous plaster relief Slaughter (bronze version, 1854; Chartres, Mus. B.A.) with its emphasis on extreme physical and emotional states was accepted. All these works were broadly and rapidly executed, with bold forms and daring compositions and subjects. Stylistically, they derived less from Préault’s teachers and contemporaries than from Michelangelo and his French followers of the 16th and 17th centuries, Germain Pilon, Jean Goujon and Pierre Puget....

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Dijon, Jan 4, 1784; d Paris, Nov 3, 1855).

French sculptor. He was of working-class origins and Neo-classical training. After 1830 he identified with the emergent group of Romantic sculptors in France, at the same time retaining his own strong sense of monumentalism. His massive stone relief on the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, popularly known as ‘La Marseillaise’ (1833–6), and his bronze allegory Napoleon Awakening to Immortality (1845–7; Fixin, Parc Noisot) are memorable nostalgic celebrations of the military heroism of the Revolutionary period.

Rude was the son of a Dijon stovemaker and locksmith who supported the aims of the French Revolution to the extent of enrolling his infant son, in 1793, in one of the juvenile battalions known punningly as ‘Les Royals Bonbons’. François was early apprenticed to his father, but his interest in art was awakened in 1800, when he attended a prize-giving ceremony at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon. François Devosges, founder and director of this regional school, subsequently persuaded Rude’s father to allow his son to attend its courses in his spare time. After four years of such study François Rude received his first commission, from a local tax inspector, ...

Article

L. J. I. Ewals

(b Dordrecht, Feb 10, 1795; d Argenteuil, June 15, 1858).

Dutch painter, sculptor and lithographer, active in France. He became a French citizen in 1850. He received his earliest training in the studio of his parents, Johann-Bernhard Scheffer (1764–1809) and Cornelia Scheffer (1769–1839), who were both artists, as was his brother Henri Scheffer (1798–1862). He then attended the Amsterdam Teeken-Academie (1806–9). At the first Exhibition of Living Masters in Amsterdam in 1808 he showed Hannibal Swearing to Avenge the Death of his Brother Hasdrubal (Dordrecht, Dordrechts Mus.), a predominantly monochrome and loosely executed painting, which reveals his familiarity with the Dutch pictorial tradition.

From 1811 Scheffer lived in Paris, where he became a pupil possibly of Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, then of Pierre Guérin, and attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He participated in the Paris Salons from 1812 to 1846. Initially his style and choice of subject-matter conformed to Neo-classical principles, as in Eurydice Dying in the Arms of Orpheus...

Article

Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Seville, April 18, 1857; d Seville, Dec 21, 1896).

Spanish sculptor. He was a pupil of the painter José de la Vega Marrugal and showed an early talent for modelling. In 1883 he went to Paris under the patronage of the Russian Prince Giedroge to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and later with a grant from the Spanish government he went to Rome, where his work was awarded prizes. In 1887 he won a second-class medal at the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid with the First Struggle (c. 1887; Seville, Mus. B.A.). He exhibited a number of works at the Exposición Nacional in 1890: Witches’ Sabbath, Blind Man’s Guide of Tormes (Toledo, Hosp. Tavera) and the Kiss of Judas, which won him a second-class medal. Using terracotta he executed numerous bas-reliefs and groups of local customs, historical, mythological and religious subjects, such as Ecstasy (1882; Madrid, Prado). His commemorative monuments include two in Seville dedicated to ...