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Sandra L. Tatman

American architectural competition held in 1922 by the Chicago Tribune newspaper for its new corporate headquarters. The competition changed American views of European modernism and the course of American Skyscraper architecture. The 1922 Chicago Tribune Competition’s call for competitors attracted more than 260 architects from 23 countries with the offer of a $50,000 prize for the winning design. Although the company may have issued this competition as a way of attracting attention to its newspaper, competitors from around the world, drawn by what was in 1922 an astronomical sum, submitted entries that varied from the very traditional revival styles to cutting edge European modernism. In the end, the winners were Americans John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood (Howells & Hood) with their neo-Gothic skyscraper influenced by the Tour de Beurre in Rouen Cathedral (see Rouen, §IV, 1). However, the second place entry from Saarinen family, §1 of Finland took America by storm, encouraging the architect to immigrate to the United States. In fact, some American architects and critics, such as Louis Sullivan, preferred the Saarinen design to the Howells & Hood tower, and Saarinen’s stepped-back tower with little applied decoration certainly influenced later skyscraper design (...


Drury B. Alexander

(b Ireland, ?1840; d Galveston, TX, Dec 9, 1916).

American architect of Irish birth. According to family tradition, Clayton was taken to the USA by his recently widowed mother when he was a child. They settled in Cincinnati, OH, where Clayton, after serving in the US Navy, was listed in the city directory as a stone-carver. His architectural apprenticeship may have been with the firm of Jones & Baldwin of Memphis, TN. By 1872 Clayton was in Galveston, TX, as the supervising architect for the First Presbyterian Church, a building thought to have been designed by Jones & Baldwin. In 1875 Clayton was practising in Galveston under his own name and listed himself in the Galveston City Directory as ‘the earliest-established professional architect in the state’. He took an active role in the establishment of a professional organization for architects, the forerunner of the present Texas Society of Architects. For his work in promoting the profession, as well as for the quality of his architecture, he was made a Fellow of the American Society of Architects. He enjoyed a successful practice, patronized by leaders in Galveston’s business, religious and civic establishments. He worked mainly in the prevailing High Victorian styles, particularly in those of the Gothic and Romanesque revivals, and was admired for his elaborate, inventive and colourful brick detail. Among his most notable works in Galveston are the Gresham House (or Bishop’s Palace; ...


Kathleen Roy Cummings

(b Brookline, MA, Aug 19, 1859; d New York, March 27, 1931).

American architect. He spent one year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before enrolling in the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1877. He studied there until 1880 and was awarded a degree in 1881. Cobb worked first for the Boston architectural firm of Peabody & Stearns. Having won the competition of 1881 to design a building for the Union Club in Chicago, Cobb moved to the city in 1882 and began an association with Charles Sumner Frost (1856–1931), who had also worked for Peabody & Stearns. Cobb & Frost’s most notable early commission, a castellated Gothic mansion (1882–3; destr. 1950) for Potter Palmer, led to a number of sizeable residential jobs in Chicago. Cobb’s popularity rested on his willingness to ‘work in styles’, as Montgomery Schuyler observed. The Shingle style was used in the Presbyterian Church (1886), Lake Forest, IL, while Romanesque Revival was favoured for the Dearborn Observatory (...


Janet Adams

(b New Brighton, NY, May 10, 1834; d New York, Feb 28, 1922).

American architect and designer. His father was a founder of the New York Ecclesiological Society, giving Congdon a propitious beginning to his career as a preferred Episcopal church architect. In 1854 he graduated from Columbia College and was then apprenticed to John W. Priest (1825–59), a leading ecclesiological architect in New York. When Priest died five years later, Congdon inherited the practice. He then moved to Manhattan where he collaborated, from 1859 to 1860, with Emlen T. Littel and later, from around 1870 to 1872, with J. C. Cady (1837–1919). Congdon otherwise practised alone until 1901, when he was joined by his son, Herbert Wheaton Congdon.

Throughout his career Congdon adhered to the ecclesiological tenets he had adopted in his youth. Aside from an occasional deviation, such as his robust Romanesque St James’s Episcopal Church, Cambridge, MA (1888), he worked most often in the English ...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).

American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.

In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.

Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...


William Dendy

Canadian architectural partnership formed in 1895 by Frank Darling (1850–1923) and John (Andrew) Pearson (1867–1940). Frank Darling’s career was founded in the Gothic Revival and conditioned by the ecclesiological inclinations of his father, the first cleric to introduce Anglican high church ritualism and fittings into Toronto. He studied for three years in London in 1870–73, in the offices of G. E. Street and Arthur Blomfield (1829–99), and in 1874 established his practice in Toronto. His most important early works were High Anglican parish churches in Toronto that drew on English Gothic Revival and then American Romanesque Revival sources, especially for the unfinished church of St Mary Magdalene in central Toronto (1886–92). The contacts made through church work led to institutional and commercial commissions, such as Trinity College, Toronto (1877–1905, destr.), and in 1880 Darling won a competition for the Legislative Buildings, Toronto (not executed), for the Province of Ontario. After ...


Douglass Shand-Tucci


(b Pomfret, CT, April 28, 1869; d New York, April 23, 1924).

American architect and illustrator. In 1892–1913 he worked in partnership with Ralph Adams Cram, designing a remarkable series of Gothic Revival churches. His later work, in a variety of styles, culminated in the Nebraska State Capitol, a strikingly original design.

In 1884 Goodhue moved to New York, where he entered the office of Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell as an office boy. In 1891 he won a competition to design a proposed cathedral in Dallas but joined the office of Cram & Wentworth in Boston as chief draughtsman and informal partner. The following year Goodhue became a full partner in Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, which, after the death of Charles Wentworth (1861–97) and his replacement by Frank Ferguson (1861–1926), became in 1898 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson.

Before Goodhue’s arrival, Cram & Wentworth had already begun work on All Saints at Ashmont, Boston, their first major work. The final design clearly derives from their earlier proposal of ...


Andrew Scott Dolkart

(b New York, March 17, 1841; d Garrison-on-Hudson, NY, Feb 8, 1917).

American architect. He was the son of a minister at New York’s prestigious Trinity Church. Throughout his career, Haight relied on his connections with Trinity and with New York’s Episcopal élite for major commissions. After serving in the Civil War, Haight studied with Emlen T. Littell (1840–91), opening his own office in 1867. In the 1870s he became architect for Trinity Corporation and designed many commercial and institutional buildings for that organization. Haight was an early proponent of the English-inspired collegiate Gothic style, which he used initially for Columbia College’s mid-town New York campus (1880–84; destr. c. 1900). For the Episcopal Church’s General Theological Seminary (1883–1902) at Chelsea Square, New York, he planned a pair of adjoining quadrangles enclosed on three sides by collegiate Gothic buildings of brick with stone trim. The ensemble, dominated by the library (destr. 1958), chapel and refectory, was to be reminiscent of an English academic complex. Haight made extensive use of the collegiate Gothic at Yale University, New Haven, CT, designing buildings between ...


Mark Alan Hewitt

(b Philadelphia, PA, Feb 9, 1872; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 30, 1938).

American architect and campus planner. Klauder was the son of Louis Klauder, a German-born furniture manufacturer, and Anna Caroline Koehler. He trained as an apprentice under the architect Theophilus P. Chandler from the age of 15, furthering his studies at the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art in Philadelphia. Between 1893 and 1900 he worked at a number of prominent Philadelphia firms before attaining the position of chief draftsman at Frank Miles Day & Brother (see under Frank Miles Day). He became a partner in 1910 and continued the firm under his own name after Day’s death in 1918.

Klauder teamed with the English-born Day to design some of the nation’s most influential and distinguished campus buildings during the heyday of university expansion in the early 20th century. Along with Cope & Stewardson, Day & Klauder may be credited with the invention of the Collegiate Gothic idiom in American architecture. Their early work at Princeton and Cornell universities set the standard for dormitory and classroom designs in the Ivy League. Klauder extended the Gothic idiom during the 1920s to incorporate elements of Art Deco abstraction and modern building technology. Klauder created campus plans for the University of Colorado (...


Malcolm Thurlby

(b Toronto, 1836; d Toronto, Jan 9, 1907).

Canadian architect. He was apprenticed to William Hay in Toronto, and when Hay left the city in 1862 Langley formed a practice with Hay’s former partner, Thomas Gundry. After Gundry’s death in 1869 he practised alone until 1873 when the firm Langley, Langley and Burke was formed with his brother, Edward Langley, and his nephew, Edmund Burke (d 1920). Edward left the partnership in 1884, as did Burke in 1892, and he subsequently worked with his son, Charles Langley. Henry Langley was one of Toronto’s most prolific architects, and he mastered various styles. He specialized in church design, although his firm produced many important public, commercial and domestic buildings.

Langley’s Anglican church designs were developed from Hay’s ecclesiological Gothic Revival architecture and were often built in connection with a school to form a picturesque group; examples in Ontario can be found at Stratford (1862–6), Whitby (...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Londonderry, Jan 7, 1867; d Boston, MA, Feb 15, 1955).

American architect and writer. He moved to the USA from Ireland at the age of 18. After an apprenticeship to Edmund M. Wheelwright in Boston, he established his own office, also in Boston, at about the turn of the century with Timothy Walsh (1868–1934). Among the Boston Gothicists headed by Ralph Adams Cram, Henry Vaughan (1846–1917), and Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Maginnis quickly established himself as a leader, best known for the magnificent Gothic Revival buildings of Boston College (begun 1909), for which the firm earned an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal. Like Cram, Maginnis’s work was eclectic and included the Spanish-style Carmelite Convent (c. 1915), Santa Clara, CA, and the regal Classical Revival chapel of Trinity College (c. 1920), Washington, DC, as well as a number of churches in the Lombard style, for which he had a special affinity. The best of these is St Catherine’s (...


Margaret Henderson Floyd

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Architectural style popular from the 1870s until the early 20th century in England and the USA. Developing in reaction to the dogma of Gothic Revival, the style borrowed freely from the domestic architecture of the late 17th century and Queen Anne periods in England and the Netherlands. The style is characterized by asymmetrical plans, use of red brick and a combination of medieval and Classical motifs, such as oriel windows and Flemish gables together with pilasters and broken pediments. It was allied to progressive social attitudes and a desire to make good design available to all. The decorative arts were of great importance to the style, and domestic fittings contributed substantially to the desired aesthetic effect. In England the style ended in the hands of speculative builders and in the USA it merged into the Shingle style and the vernacular.

William Morris’s Red House (1858), Bexleyheath, London, designed by ...


Gail Fenske

(b Bryants Station, KY, March 3, 1867; d New York, Oct 1, 1947).

American architect. He graduated from Yale University, New Haven, CT, with a degree in Fine Arts in 1889. He began his architectural career in the office of William Le Baron Jenney in Chicago. In 1893 he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and won medals in architecture and construction, graduating with honours in 1899. Afterwards, he returned to Chicago and designed the Winton Building (1904) on Michigan Avenue and 13th Street, in which he made an early use of the reinforced concrete frame technology. In 1905 he opened a short-lived practice in New York with Herbert D. Hale (1866–1909). After Hale retired, Rogers rose to national prominence when he won the competition for the New Haven Post Office and Court-House (1911–19). This, like many of his early projects, combined skilful planning with a boldly massed composition and the scholarly use of Roman and Renaissance precedents....


Alfred Willis

American family of architects, of German origin. Charles Julius Schweinfurth (b Reutlingen, Germany, 1827; d Cleveland, OH, 12 Oct 1909) trained as an engineer in Germany and moved to the USA, settling in Auburn, NY, in 1852. He was active there as a designer and manufacturer of architectural ornament, and he had four sons who all became architects. Charles F(rederick) Schweinfurth (b Auburn, 3 Sept 1856; d Cleveland, OH, 8 Nov 1919), the eldest son, worked in New York and Washington, DC, before setting up a successful practice in Cleveland in 1883. There he designed numerous residences, churches, college buildings, and bridges. Most of his earlier buildings in Cleveland, for example the Calvary Presbyterian Church (1887–90), were in the Romanesque Revival style of H. H. Richardson, which Schweinfurth was chiefly responsible for introducing to Cleveland. His later works there (e.g. Trinity Episcopal Cathedral, 1901–7...