(b Carrigrenane, Co. Cork, May 28, 1837; d Killiney, Co. Dublin, Dec 10, 1921).
Irish architect . He received his early education at the Collège de St Servais, Liège. While at St Mary’s College, Oscott (1851–5), with which A. W. N. Pugin was strongly associated, he studied drawing and perspective and developed an interest in architecture. Between 1856 and 1860 he was articled to E. W. Pugin (whose sister Mary he married in 1860) and in 1858 he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London. When in 1859 E. W. Pugin received the commission for SS Peter and Paul, Cork, he made Ashlin a partner with responsibility for their Irish work, a position he retained until about 1870 (see Pugin family, §3). Their practice was primarily ecclesiastical, the remodelling (1869) of Enniscorthy Castle for Isaac Newton Wallop (1825–91), 5th Earl of Portsmouth, being one of their few domestic projects. They worked on some 25 religious buildings. The Augustinian church of SS Augustine and John, Thomas Street, Dublin (commissioned ...
(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).
Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....
(b Doncaster, S. Yorks, Jan 30, 1839; d London, March 2, 1902).
English architect and designer. At 16 he became a builder’s apprentice in London, where in 1857 he joined the firm of Henry Clutton but later declined a partnership with Clutton. He became a Catholic in 1861 and worked almost exclusively for the Catholic Church, although at first he received only minor commissions. He collaborated with Clutton on the small, brick church of St Francis of Assisi (1859–60), Notting Hill, London, built in the early French Gothic style. He moved away from the early French style of G. E. Street and Clutton towards the native English Gothic styles and plans with his additions for the former Paul’s House Convent (1871–2; now Mitre House, Park Street), Taunton, Somerset. His first complete church commission, St Mary (1877–9), Cadogan Street, Chelsea, London, is in a simplified 13th-century English style, with a square-ended chancel. The church of Corpus Christi (...
(b Wolverhampton, May 12, 1861; d Wadhurst, E. Sussex, April 6, 1938).
English architect. He was the son of a Midlands architect, George Bidlake (1830–92). After some experience in his father’s office, he worked as assistant to Robert Edis, Bodley & Garner and Rowand Anderson. He began working in Birmingham c. 1888; most of his work, which consists mainly of churches and houses, was done in and around that city. He designed and built nine churches, all but one of which belong to the late phase of the Gothic Revival: they are late Perpendicular in inspiration and inventive in detail. Each has the nave and chancel united in a single airy space. The finest is St Agatha’s (1898–1901), Sparkbrook, Birmingham.
Bidlake’s skill as a domestic architect is seen in the middle-class houses he designed on leafy suburban sites. His own home, Woodgate (1897), 37 Hartopp Road, Four Oaks, Sutton Coldfield, and Garth House (1900–01), Edgbaston Park Road, Birmingham, are good examples. Composed with careful but relaxed asymmetry and built of good materials, they recall earlier English vernacular building. They show how the English Domestic Revival of the late 19th century was intensified by the Arts and Crafts Movement. Bidlake was personally involved in the movement which flourished in Birmingham at the turn of the century. He also played an important part in the development of architectural education in Birmingham. His practice diminished after World War I, and he retired to Sussex....
Australian architectural partnership formed by the brothers Michael Francis Cavanagh (1860–1941) and James Charles Cavanagh (1871–1957) in 1895. Their father, John Cavangh, was an Irish-born contractor, who became Supervisor of Public Buildings for the South Australian Government. Michael Cavanagh was born at Yackandandah, Victoria and educated at nearby Beechworth. He continued his educationn in London and then Adelaide, where he worked with E. J. Woods (1837–1913). James was born in Adelaide and became articled to Michael while studying there, continuing his studies informally in Europe. Michael, who was the senior partner with higher public profile, remained permanently in Perth after 1895, while James worked in Brisbane between 1933–42, before retiring to Adelaide.
They designed ornate turreted hotels and many Federation style houses, but specialized in Roman Catholic churches and schools. Their large institutional buildings, such as Clontarf Orphanage (1900), Subiaco, all have façades with deep verandahs above rusticated flat or rounded arches. Except for some unusual, late Art Deco designs in partnership with others, their work is consistently eclectic, derivative and conventional....
French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.
CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.
Since 1958 CECSM has published ...
(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).
Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...
(b London, Sept 17, 1842; d London, April 5, 1935).
English architect and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and articled to John Prichard of Llandaff, Glamorgan, setting up in independent practice in 1867. He began moving in the circle of William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and between 1868 and 1870 designed St Luke’s, Kentish Town, London, in a Gothic Revival style, with stained glass by Henry Holiday and Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. In 1872 Champneys designed the Eel Brook Common Board School (destr.), Harwood Road, Fulham, London. It was the first of the London board-schools, which were built as a result of the Elementary Education Act (1870), to be designed in the Queen Anne Revival style by a number of architects, one of the most important being J(ohn) J(ames) Stevenson. It had Flemish gables, large chimney-stacks and dormer windows. As a writer Champneys also supported this emerging style and praised vernacular traditions. Oak Tree House (...
Sandra L. Tatman
American architectural competition held in 1922 by the Chicago Tribune newspaper for its new corporate headquarters. The competition changed American views of European modernism and the course of American Skyscraper architecture. The 1922 Chicago Tribune Competition’s call for competitors attracted more than 260 architects from 23 countries with the offer of a $50,000 prize for the winning design. Although the company may have issued this competition as a way of attracting attention to its newspaper, competitors from around the world, drawn by what was in 1922 an astronomical sum, submitted entries that varied from the very traditional revival styles to cutting edge European modernism. In the end, the winners were Americans John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood (Howells & Hood) with their neo-Gothic skyscraper influenced by the Tour de Beurre in Rouen Cathedral (see Rouen, §IV, 1). However, the second place entry from Saarinen family, §1 of Finland took America by storm, encouraging the architect to immigrate to the United States. In fact, some American architects and critics, such as Louis Sullivan, preferred the Saarinen design to the Howells & Hood tower, and Saarinen’s stepped-back tower with little applied decoration certainly influenced later skyscraper design (...
Drury B. Alexander
(b Ireland, ?1840; d Galveston, TX, Dec 9, 1916).
American architect of Irish birth. According to family tradition, Clayton was taken to the USA by his recently widowed mother when he was a child. They settled in Cincinnati, OH, where Clayton, after serving in the US Navy, was listed in the city directory as a stone-carver. His architectural apprenticeship may have been with the firm of Jones & Baldwin of Memphis, TN. By 1872 Clayton was in Galveston, TX, as the supervising architect for the First Presbyterian Church, a building thought to have been designed by Jones & Baldwin. In 1875 Clayton was practising in Galveston under his own name and listed himself in the Galveston City Directory as ‘the earliest-established professional architect in the state’. He took an active role in the establishment of a professional organization for architects, the forerunner of the present Texas Society of Architects. For his work in promoting the profession, as well as for the quality of his architecture, he was made a Fellow of the American Society of Architects. He enjoyed a successful practice, patronized by leaders in Galveston’s business, religious and civic establishments. He worked mainly in the prevailing High Victorian styles, particularly in those of the Gothic and Romanesque revivals, and was admired for his elaborate, inventive and colourful brick detail. Among his most notable works in Galveston are the Gresham House (or Bishop’s Palace; ...
John W. F. Cattell
(b Walsden, Lancs, Jan 7, 1856; d Wellington, New Zealand, Aug 13, 1952).
New Zealand architect of English birth. The son of a Church of England clergyman, he worked for the church architects Edmund Evan Scott (fl 1851; d 1895) in Brighton and Robert Jewell Withers (1823–94) in London before emigrating to New Zealand, settling in Wanganui in 1877. He moved to Wellington in 1883 and was appointed architect to the Wellington Diocese of the Anglican Church. According to his obituary he designed more than 100 churches mostly in the southern half of the North Island.
Clere continued the tradition of wooden Gothic Revival churches clad with vertical boarding established by Frederick Thatcher and Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort; his buildings are successful more for their simplicity of design and fine proportioning than for their ecclesiological correctness. Working in a seismically unstable country, he was mindful of the necessity for structural strength in his buildings and experimented with the use of reinforced concrete for larger churches, such as St Matthew’s Anglican Church, Hastings (begun ...
(b Feluy, Jan 10, 1849; d Ghent, Jan 11, 1920).
Belgian architect and writer. He trained as a civil engineer under Adolphe Pauli at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. As a student he came into contact with the Belgian Gothic Revival movement centred on Jean-Baptiste Bethune and the St Luke School in Ghent, founded by Bethune in 1862. From 1874 Cloquet worked with the publishers Desclée. His early architectural work was similar to that of Bethune, Joris Helleputte and the first generation of St Luke architects. His most important projects were built around the turn of the century: the University Institutes (1896–1905), Ghent, and the Central Post Office (1897–1908), Ghent, the latter with Etienne Mortier (1857–1934), a pupil of Helleputte. In them Cloquet adopted a more eclectic though still predominantly medieval style, also introducing Renaissance motifs. Between 1904 and 1911 he designed a redevelopment plan for the historic centre of Ghent, between the early 14th-century belfry and the 15th-century church of St Michael, known as the Kuip, which was realized before the Ghent World Fair of ...
Kathleen Roy Cummings
(b Brookline, MA, Aug 19, 1859; d New York, March 27, 1931).
American architect. He spent one year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before enrolling in the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1877. He studied there until 1880 and was awarded a degree in 1881. Cobb worked first for the Boston architectural firm of Peabody & Stearns. Having won the competition of 1881 to design a building for the Union Club in Chicago, Cobb moved to the city in 1882 and began an association with Charles Sumner Frost (1856–1931), who had also worked for Peabody & Stearns. Cobb & Frost’s most notable early commission, a castellated Gothic mansion (1882–3; destr. 1950) for Potter Palmer, led to a number of sizeable residential jobs in Chicago. Cobb’s popularity rested on his willingness to ‘work in styles’, as Montgomery Schuyler observed. The Shingle style was used in the Presbyterian Church (1886), Lake Forest, IL, while Romanesque Revival was favoured for the Dearborn Observatory (...
(b Aberdeen, June 10, 1864; d London, Dec 22, 1960).
English architect and designer. He was a pupil of G. F. Bodley between 1883 and 1887. In 1888 he formed a partnership with William Bucknall (1851–1944), which was broken in 1905; thereafter he worked independently. He was a devout Anglo-Catholic; his work embodies a historical and sacramental understanding of the Church of England. His early work with Bucknall, such as the convent chapels (1891) for the Community of St Margaret, Aberdeen, and the Holy Name (1893), Malvern Link, is in the 14th-century style of Bodley combined with 15th-century northern European Gothic: a fusion of Flemish, Gothic and Late Gothic Scottish vernacular and English Perpendicular.
No architect since A. W. N. Pugin did more than Comper to revive an authentic late Gothic architectural and decorative style derived from a study of medieval illuminations and Flemish primitive panel paintings. These experiments were first applied in his restoration of St Wilfrid’s (...
(b New Brighton, NY, May 10, 1834; d New York, Feb 28, 1922).
American architect and designer. His father was a founder of the New York Ecclesiological Society, giving Congdon a propitious beginning to his career as a preferred Episcopal church architect. In 1854 he graduated from Columbia College and was then apprenticed to John W. Priest (1825–59), a leading ecclesiological architect in New York. When Priest died five years later, Congdon inherited the practice. He then moved to Manhattan where he collaborated, from 1859 to 1860, with Emlen T. Littel and later, from around 1870 to 1872, with J. C. Cady (1837–1919). Congdon otherwise practised alone until 1901, when he was joined by his son, Herbert Wheaton Congdon.
Throughout his career Congdon adhered to the ecclesiological tenets he had adopted in his youth. Aside from an occasional deviation, such as his robust Romanesque St James’s Episcopal Church, Cambridge, MA (1888), he worked most often in the English ...
(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).
American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.
In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.
Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...
Canadian architectural partnership formed in 1895 by Frank Darling (1850–1923) and John (Andrew) Pearson (1867–1940). Frank Darling’s career was founded in the Gothic Revival and conditioned by the ecclesiological inclinations of his father, the first cleric to introduce Anglican high church ritualism and fittings into Toronto. He studied for three years in London in 1870–73, in the offices of G. E. Street and Arthur Blomfield (1829–99), and in 1874 established his practice in Toronto. His most important early works were High Anglican parish churches in Toronto that drew on English Gothic Revival and then American Romanesque Revival sources, especially for the unfinished church of St Mary Magdalene in central Toronto (1886–92). The contacts made through church work led to institutional and commercial commissions, such as Trinity College, Toronto (1877–1905, destr.), and in 1880 Darling won a competition for the Legislative Buildings, Toronto (not executed), for the Province of Ontario. After ...
(b 1838; d ?London, 1913).
English architect and designer. He studied under the architect James Kellaway Colling (c. 1815–1905), an expert on Gothic architecture, and spent several years as assistant to Matthew Digby Wyatt, who at the time was working on the then India Office (1867–8), Whitehall, London. Davis was a designer of architectural ornament, furniture, wallpaper, textiles, ironwork and ceramics, and in 1870 some of his designs were published in Building News. For James Shoolbred & Co., London (fl 1870–1900s), he designed furniture in the medieval, Jacobean, Stuart, Louis XVI and Japanese styles and in the style of Robert Adam and James Adam, illustrated in the company’s catalogue Designs of Furniture … and Interior Decoration (1876). A selection of furniture designed by Davis and manufactured by Shoolbred was shown at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. In 1885 he published Art and Work, which contains 85 lithographic plates of ornament for marble, stone and terracotta and designs for furniture, ceramics, metalwork and textiles, accompanied by notes on the design sources; among the plates are several after drawings, previously unpublished, by the ...