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Article

Darryl Patrick

(fl 1820–50).

American architect. There is evidence that Bond was trained by Solomon Willard. Certain of Bond’s designs suggest the Greek Revival approach that Willard brought from Washington, DC. Bond’s style moved between Gothic Revival and a Neo-classical heaviness. In the Salem City Hall of 1836–37 the two-storey Greek Revival façade shows his carefully proportioned details. An example of Gothic Revival is St John’s Episcopal Church and Rectory (1841), Devens Street, Boston, which has a rather heavy granite façade dominated by a square tower with a battlemented roof-line; there are large quatrefoil windows in the walls below. In the same year Bond was called to Oberlin College in Ohio to design First Church, which had to be a Greek Revival design. He worked on Lewis Wharf (1836–40; later remodelled), Boston, where certain walls reflect his attraction to boldly massed granite surfaces. Bond’s best-known buildings during his life were at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. These included Gore Hall (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1811; d 1887).

American furniture-maker based in New York. He was active from 1841, when he entered into a partnership, and was based in Brooklyn from the 1850s. The best-known examples of his furniture are a Gothic Revival armchair (c. 1847; New York, Met.) and an elaborately decorated cabinet (built to accommodate a set of Audubon’s ...

Article

Donna McGee

(b Belfast, Nov 5, 1811; d Montreal, Nov 19, 1885).

Canadian architect of Irish origin. The son of an architect of the same name, he arrived in Quebec City in 1830. He established a practice there in 1831 and designed houses, including a Gothic Revival villa for the provincial secretary Dominick Daly (1798–1868), who may have been responsible for Browne’s appointment as Chief Architect for the Board of Works. He designed many public buildings in Kingston and Montreal; the former became capital of the Province of Canada in 1841, and Browne was commissioned to modify, add to and erect various government buildings. His masterpiece in Kingston is the City Hall (1843–4; then known as the Town Hall and Market Building), the commission he won in a competition held in 1841. The City Hall shows his characteristic massing of volumes and contrasting textures, using a varied vocabulary and a strong sculptural sense. Facing the waterfront, the main entrance to the T-shaped City Hall has a pediment supported by four columns, surmounted by a tall dome capped by a cupola. He was also responsible for many commercial and domestic commissions in Kingston, notably the houses known as St Andrew’s Manse for St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church and Rockwood for ...

Article

Sandra L. Tatman

American architectural competition held in 1922 by the Chicago Tribune newspaper for its new corporate headquarters. The competition changed American views of European modernism and the course of American Skyscraper architecture. The 1922 Chicago Tribune Competition’s call for competitors attracted more than 260 architects from 23 countries with the offer of a $50,000 prize for the winning design. Although the company may have issued this competition as a way of attracting attention to its newspaper, competitors from around the world, drawn by what was in 1922 an astronomical sum, submitted entries that varied from the very traditional revival styles to cutting edge European modernism. In the end, the winners were Americans John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood (Howells & Hood) with their neo-Gothic skyscraper influenced by the Tour de Beurre in Rouen Cathedral (see Rouen, §IV, 1). However, the second place entry from Saarinen family, §1 of Finland took America by storm, encouraging the architect to immigrate to the United States. In fact, some American architects and critics, such as Louis Sullivan, preferred the Saarinen design to the Howells & Hood tower, and Saarinen’s stepped-back tower with little applied decoration certainly influenced later skyscraper design (...

Article

Drury B. Alexander

(b Ireland, ?1840; d Galveston, TX, Dec 9, 1916).

American architect of Irish birth. According to family tradition, Clayton was taken to the USA by his recently widowed mother when he was a child. They settled in Cincinnati, OH, where Clayton, after serving in the US Navy, was listed in the city directory as a stone-carver. His architectural apprenticeship may have been with the firm of Jones & Baldwin of Memphis, TN. By 1872 Clayton was in Galveston, TX, as the supervising architect for the First Presbyterian Church, a building thought to have been designed by Jones & Baldwin. In 1875 Clayton was practising in Galveston under his own name and listed himself in the Galveston City Directory as ‘the earliest-established professional architect in the state’. He took an active role in the establishment of a professional organization for architects, the forerunner of the present Texas Society of Architects. For his work in promoting the profession, as well as for the quality of his architecture, he was made a Fellow of the American Society of Architects. He enjoyed a successful practice, patronized by leaders in Galveston’s business, religious and civic establishments. He worked mainly in the prevailing High Victorian styles, particularly in those of the Gothic and Romanesque revivals, and was admired for his elaborate, inventive and colourful brick detail. Among his most notable works in Galveston are the Gresham House (or Bishop’s Palace; ...

Article

Kathleen Roy Cummings

(b Brookline, MA, Aug 19, 1859; d New York, March 27, 1931).

American architect. He spent one year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before enrolling in the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1877. He studied there until 1880 and was awarded a degree in 1881. Cobb worked first for the Boston architectural firm of Peabody & Stearns. Having won the competition of 1881 to design a building for the Union Club in Chicago, Cobb moved to the city in 1882 and began an association with Charles Sumner Frost (1856–1931), who had also worked for Peabody & Stearns. Cobb & Frost’s most notable early commission, a castellated Gothic mansion (1882–3; destr. 1950) for Potter Palmer, led to a number of sizeable residential jobs in Chicago. Cobb’s popularity rested on his willingness to ‘work in styles’, as Montgomery Schuyler observed. The Shingle style was used in the Presbyterian Church (1886), Lake Forest, IL, while Romanesque Revival was favoured for the Dearborn Observatory (...

Article

Janet Adams

(b New Brighton, NY, May 10, 1834; d New York, Feb 28, 1922).

American architect and designer. His father was a founder of the New York Ecclesiological Society, giving Congdon a propitious beginning to his career as a preferred Episcopal church architect. In 1854 he graduated from Columbia College and was then apprenticed to John W. Priest (1825–59), a leading ecclesiological architect in New York. When Priest died five years later, Congdon inherited the practice. He then moved to Manhattan where he collaborated, from 1859 to 1860, with Emlen T. Littel and later, from around 1870 to 1872, with J. C. Cady (1837–1919). Congdon otherwise practised alone until 1901, when he was joined by his son, Herbert Wheaton Congdon.

Throughout his career Congdon adhered to the ecclesiological tenets he had adopted in his youth. Aside from an occasional deviation, such as his robust Romanesque St James’s Episcopal Church, Cambridge, MA (1888), he worked most often in the English ...

Article

Malcolm Thurlby

(b Limerick, 1840; d Toronto, Dec 13, 1904).

Canadian architect of Irish birth. He trained in the architectural office, in Dublin, of J. J. McCarthy, who was known as the Irish Pugin from his mastery of the Gothic Revival style. Connolly served as McCarthy’s chief assistant, made a European study tour and by 1871 was in practice in Dublin. In 1873 he moved to Toronto and formed a partnership with Silas James, which was dissolved in 1877. Connolly designed or remodelled more than 30 churches for Roman Catholic patrons in Ontario as well as the cathedral at Sault-Sainte-Marie, MI. He worked primarily according to the ecclesiological doctrines contained in A. W. N. Pugin’s True Principles (1841). His finest work, the church of Our Lady (1876) at Guelph, combines the plan of Cologne Cathedral with its ambulatory and radiating chapel, with details inspired by McCarthy’s Monaghan Cathedral, St Macartan’s (begun 1861). Variants on the Guelph design occur at St Peter’s (...

Article

Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).

American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.

In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.

Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...

Article

Malcolm Thurlby

(b London, April 10, 1820; d Toronto, Aug 5, 1881).

Canadian architect of English birth. He was articled for five years to a civil engineer, William Tress, and then worked as a railway engineer before joining the Engineering Department of the Admiralty (1844). He moved to Canada in 1847, and in 1848 he was appointed engineer to the County of York in Ontario. By 1850 he had established an architectural practice with offices in Toronto and Hamilton. His partner from 1850 to 1852 was Thomas G. Ridout jr, and from 1852 to 1863 he worked with William George Storm (1826–92). Cumberland’s three churches, St James’s Anglican Cathedral (1849–53), Toronto, the Church of the Ascension (1850–51), Hamilton, Ontario, and the Chapel of St James the Less (1857–60), St James’s Cemetery, Toronto, are all Gothic Revival and show an awareness of current developments in England. His auditorium of the Normal and Model Schools (...

Article

William Dendy

Canadian architectural partnership formed in 1895 by Frank Darling (1850–1923) and John (Andrew) Pearson (1867–1940). Frank Darling’s career was founded in the Gothic Revival and conditioned by the ecclesiological inclinations of his father, the first cleric to introduce Anglican high church ritualism and fittings into Toronto. He studied for three years in London in 1870–73, in the offices of G. E. Street and Arthur Blomfield (1829–99), and in 1874 established his practice in Toronto. His most important early works were High Anglican parish churches in Toronto that drew on English Gothic Revival and then American Romanesque Revival sources, especially for the unfinished church of St Mary Magdalene in central Toronto (1886–92). The contacts made through church work led to institutional and commercial commissions, such as Trinity College, Toronto (1877–1905, destr.), and in 1880 Darling won a competition for the Legislative Buildings, Toronto (not executed), for the Province of Ontario. After ...

Article

Patrick A. Snadon

(b New York, July 24, 1803; d Orange, NJ, Jan 14, 1892).

American architect. From the 1830s to the 1850s he was one of the most influential architects in the USA. His work ranges from major government and institutional buildings to ornamental garden structures; his main contribution to American architecture was his introduction of the European Picturesque in his designs for Italianate and Gothic Revival country houses and cottages. With his partner, Ithiel Town, he also refined and popularized the American Greek Revival. He revolutionized American architectural drawing through rendering buildings in romantic landscapes rather than in the analytical, Neo-classical style that preceded him. In 1836 he helped form the American Institution of Architects and advanced professionalism in American architecture through his scrupulous office practices, being, for example, the first American architect to use printed, standardized specifications.

At the age of 16, Davis left school in New York to work as a type compositor in Alexandria, VA. During this time, probably influenced by reading contemporary Gothic novels, he made drawings of prison and castle interiors akin to Piranesi’s engravings of imaginary prisons. In ...

Article

Christopher A. Thomas

(b Bath, March 8, 1823; d Ottawa, Sept 28, 1898).

Canadian architect of English birth. He was trained in Bath under James Wilson (1816–1900), who specialized in the design of Nonconformist churches, usually in the Gothic style, and schools. Fuller’s earliest-known independent commission was the rebuilding (1845–8) of the Anglican cathedral in Antigua, which had been destroyed in an earthquake. He produced an elaborate design for a cruciform building with an Italianate stone exterior, an earthquake-proof interior timber frame, and a richly panelled classical interior. However, because it failed to conform to the prevailing Gothic Revival style, it was criticized by the progressive English architectural press.

Back in England by 1847, Fuller formed a partnership with William Bruce Gingell (1819–1900), also a pupil of Wilson’s, who is known chiefly for his later designs in Bristol in a massive Byzantine style. Fuller & Gingell, who had offices at Bath and possibly Bristol, followed Wilson in their preference for commissions of a public and institutional character, usually rendered in the fashionable Italianate style. By this time, however, Fuller was keenly interested in the Gothic Revival and is said to have assisted ...

Article

Douglass Shand-Tucci

(Grosvenor)

(b Pomfret, CT, April 28, 1869; d New York, April 23, 1924).

American architect and illustrator. In 1892–1913 he worked in partnership with Ralph Adams Cram, designing a remarkable series of Gothic Revival churches. His later work, in a variety of styles, culminated in the Nebraska State Capitol, a strikingly original design.

In 1884 Goodhue moved to New York, where he entered the office of Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell as an office boy. In 1891 he won a competition to design a proposed cathedral in Dallas but joined the office of Cram & Wentworth in Boston as chief draughtsman and informal partner. The following year Goodhue became a full partner in Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, which, after the death of Charles Wentworth (1861–97) and his replacement by Frank Ferguson (1861–1926), became in 1898 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson.

Before Goodhue’s arrival, Cram & Wentworth had already begun work on All Saints at Ashmont, Boston, their first major work. The final design clearly derives from their earlier proposal of ...

Article

W. McKenzie Woodward

(b Warwick, RI, Sept 2, 1777; d Providence, RI, Sept 6, 1850).

American architect–builder. He had little formal education and gained his architectural knowledge through apprenticeship, from British and American pattern-books and from contemporary buildings in Boston, MA. In 1794 he went to Providence, RI, where he apprenticed himself to Caleb Ormsbee, then the city’s principal architect–builder. He continued to work for Ormsbee after completing his training and was active independently from c. 1806 to 1835. His reputation as an innovative designer emerged in two early Providence commissions, St John’s Episcopal Church (1809–10) and the Sullivan Dorr House (1810–11). St John’s introduced a ‘Gothick’ vocabulary adapted from mid-18th-century English pattern-books such as those by Batty Langley. Greene blended Gothick details with those probably derived from pattern books by William Pain (c. 1730–c. 1804), which were in turn reminiscent of Robert Adam’s work. This amalgam appeared on the Dorr House, where he sited an L-shaped plan on a terrace on a steep slope. He repeated this striking formula on a number of occasions....

Article

Andrew Scott Dolkart

(b New York, March 17, 1841; d Garrison-on-Hudson, NY, Feb 8, 1917).

American architect. He was the son of a minister at New York’s prestigious Trinity Church. Throughout his career, Haight relied on his connections with Trinity and with New York’s Episcopal élite for major commissions. After serving in the Civil War, Haight studied with Emlen T. Littell (1840–91), opening his own office in 1867. In the 1870s he became architect for Trinity Corporation and designed many commercial and institutional buildings for that organization. Haight was an early proponent of the English-inspired collegiate Gothic style, which he used initially for Columbia College’s mid-town New York campus (1880–84; destr. c. 1900). For the Episcopal Church’s General Theological Seminary (1883–1902) at Chelsea Square, New York, he planned a pair of adjoining quadrangles enclosed on three sides by collegiate Gothic buildings of brick with stone trim. The ensemble, dominated by the library (destr. 1958), chapel and refectory, was to be reminiscent of an English academic complex. Haight made extensive use of the collegiate Gothic at Yale University, New Haven, CT, designing buildings between ...

Article

Malcolm Thurlby

(b Cruden, Aberdeenshire [now Grampian], May 17, 1818; d Joppa, Edinburgh, May 30, 1888).

Scottish architect, active in Canada. He was trained in the architectural office of John Henderson (1804–62) in Edinburgh from 1844. He then became George Gilbert Scott I’s Clerk of Works (1846–50) for the Anglican Cathedral (first phase) at St John’s, Newfoundland. During his time there he worked on several churches in the province and designed one (1847–50; unexecuted) for St Francis Harbour, Labrador. He was back in Scotland in 1850, but by 1852 he had settled in Toronto where, over the next ten years, he became a leading architect. His experience with Scott instilled in Hay the ecclesiological principles of the Gothic Revival, which he used or adapted in his churches in Ontario and promoted in his writings. His Anglican churches at Brampton (1854), Orillia and Southampton (1861) were all rebuilt; those at Newcastle (1857) and Vienna (1860...

Article

Lawrence Wodehouse

(b Dublin, Jan 30, 1792; d Burlington, VT, June 9, 1868).

American architect, designer and ecclesiastic of Irish birth. He was taken from Ireland to the USA by his parents in 1800 and was successively the superintendent of an ironworks, a lawyer, and an ordained minister (1824) in Pittsburgh, PA. As rector of Trinity Church, he built a new church in 1825 in the Gothic style. The design was based on publications from England of John Britton and Augustus Charles Pugin. An illustration of Trinity Church was one of 13 lithographs by Hopkins in his Essay on Gothic Architecture (1836), published after he became Episcopal Bishop of Vermont. This was the first book in the USA on the Gothic Revival and it preceded the main Gothic Revivalist works of A. W. N. Pugin, which in turn influenced Hopkins’s later architectural designs. One of Hopkins’s first acts as Bishop was to consecrate Ammi B(urnham) Young only Gothic composition, St Paul’s, Burlington, for which Hopkins designed the altar (illustrated in the ...

Article

Malcolm Thurlby

(b Bengeo, Herts, July 27, 1803; d Toronto, Feb 3, 1890).

Canadian architect of English birth. Born with the name John Corby, he was articled to the architect William Ford (fl 1820s) in London in 1824. In 1832 he moved to Canada, settling in Toronto, then still known as York, and changing his name to Howard. He was one of the first formally trained architects in the city and he became one of the busiest in Upper Canada in the 1830s and 1840s; he also held the post of Drawing Master at Upper Canada College (1839–56). Of the many buildings he completed in Toronto before his virtual retirement in 1855, only his cottage orné, Colborne Lodge (1836; now a museum), survives. However, he established Neo-classical architecture as the model for commercial and public buildings in Toronto in the 1830s and 1840s with such works as the city’s Third Jail (1838; destr.); the Bank of British North America (...

Article

Janet Adams

(b Kilkenny, Aug 9, 1816; d Brooklyn, NY, Aug 11, 1896).

American architect of Irish birth. He was the son of a builder and received no formal training. He emigrated to the USA and settled in Brooklyn, NY, where, in 1847, he designed his first church, the imposing church of SS Peter and Paul in the Gothic Revival style. Over 600 churches are popularly attributed to Keely, and although the total appears exaggerated (only 150 commissions have been documented), it reflects his reputation as the pre-eminent Roman Catholic architect. He earned the sobriquet the ‘American Pugin’ and won the Roman Catholic Laetare Medal for distinguished service. He was hampered throughout his career by demands for commodious but inexpensive churches, leading him to design large, simple structures, frequently with galleries and plain lath and plaster ceilings. When given greater freedom, he showed skill and refinement in his interpretation of English Gothic, supplemented after 1870 by Romanesque and French Empire designs. Of his few Greek Revival works, the best is the robust domed church of St Francis Xavier in Manhattan (...