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Marian Burleigh-Motley

(Yel’pidiforovich)

(b Saratov, April 14, 1870; d Tarusa, Nov 8, 1905).

Russian painter. He studied art in Saratov from 1890 to 1891 and then at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1893 to 1895. In the intervening years he attended the Academy of Art in St Petersburg and worked under Pavel Chistyakov (1832–1919). During three winters in Paris between 1895 and 1898 he attended the studio of the history and portrait painter Fernand Cormon. Cormon had little influence on his style, but the exposure to contemporary French art was crucial, and the first mature works of Borisov-Musatov date from this period. He produced landscapes and figure studies in the high-keyed colours of the French Impressionists, as in the oil painting Boy with a Dog (1895; Khar’kov, Mus. F.A.). In France Borisov-Musatov had also seen the murals of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and he returned to Moscow hoping to produce monumental, decorative art based on a Symbolist rendering of nature. His many paintings of women in early 19th-century dress have a superficial resemblance to the retrospective paintings of the Russian World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) group, but add a new note of melancholy, of an imaginary past irretrievably lost. He came close in mood to the contemporary Russian Symbolist poets, Valery Bryusov (...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Montauban, Oct 30, 1861; d Le Vésinet, nr Paris, Oct 1, 1929).

French sculptor, painter and draughtsman. After working with his father, a cabinetmaker, in 1876 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. In 1884 he was admitted as a pupil of Alexandre Falguière to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but in rebellion against academic training left two years later. He then moved into a house (now the Musée Bourdelle) in the Impasse du Maine; Jules Dalou, for whom he had the greatest admiration, lived near by.

Bourdelle had begun exhibiting at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français in 1884 and at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1891. In 1893 he became an assistant in Auguste Rodin’s studio, remaining there until 1908. This period was marked principally by his first major commission, the War Memorial (1895–1902) at Montauban, and by commencement of his Beethoven series, comprising 45 sculptures as well as pastels and drawings, work on which continued until ...

Article

Marian Burleigh-Motley

(Varfolomeyevich)

(b Saratov, Nov 17, 1878; d Moscow, Feb 21, 1968).

Russian painter. After initial training in Saratov, he studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1897 to 1904 under Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov. Rejecting the style of his teachers, Kuznetsov soon became the leader of a group of Moscow artists who looked to Viktor Borisov-Musatov and Mikhail Vrubel’ for inspiration. He helped organize exhibitions in Saratov called Alaya roza (‘Crimson rose’; 1904) and in Moscow Golubaya roza (‘Blue rose’; 1907), which gave a name to the Blue Rose group. In both exhibitions the favourite Symbolist themes of dreams and visions predominated. The critics denounced the works as ‘decadent’—long a favourite word of abuse for Russia’s Symbolist poets. Kuznetsov’s tempera painting Blue Fountain (1905; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) embodies the aesthetic attitudes of the group. Around a fountain, symbolizing life, a group of shadowy figures in a predominantly blue space reach towards one another in attitudes of yearning....

Article

V. Rakitin

(Nikolayevich)

(b Moscow, Dec 17, 1880; d Gulf of Finland, nr Terrioki [St Petersburg region], June 14, 1912).

Russian painter and stage designer. From 1894 to 1904 he studied at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow under Konstantin Korovin and Vladimir Serov, and under Isaak Levitan, who had a formative influence on his early landscape studies. On a visit to Rome, Florence and Pisa in 1902 Sapunov was impressed by the painting of Adolphe Monticelli. In 1904 Sapunov participated in the exhibition of the Crimson Rose (Rus. Alaya roza) group of Symbolists in Saratov.

In 1905 Sapunov met the director Vsevolod Meyerhold at his theatre studio in Moscow and he later participated in Meyerhold’s attempts to create a ‘Symbolist theatre’ in the production of Aleksandr Blok’s Balaganchik (‘The little fairground booth’; designs in St Petersburg, Theat. Mus.) and Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler at Vera Komissarzhevskaya’s theatre in St Petersburg in 1906. In attempting to polemicize against the detailed realism of the Moscow Arts Theatre, Sapunov and Meyerhold presented the sets for these productions as painted panels and bas-reliefs, and the figure of the actor was seen as an integral part of the overall pictorial schema. In ...

Article

John E. Bowlt

(Yur’yevich)

(b Smolensk, March 19, 1882; d Nyack, NY, Aug 12, 1946).

Russian stage designer and painter. He attended the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow from 1897 to 1909, studying mainly under Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov, but although he painted a few Impressionist landscapes, his first major artistic concern was with Symbolism, as in his paintings of the first decade of the 20th century such as Pastorale (1905; Moscow, I. A. Myasnikova priv. col., see Kogan, no. 2) and Love (1907; Moscow, E. A. Gunst priv. col.). After taking part in the exhibition Crimson Rose in Saratov in 1904, he became a founder-member of the Blue Rose group of Symbolist painters, who paid homage to the painting of Viktor Borisov-Musatov, and he developed their mystical motifs and contributed to their exhibition in 1907. Sudeykin was also in contact with the World of Art group, and, on the invitation of Serge Diaghilev, he travelled to Paris in ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...