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Article

Laurie A. Stein

(b Hamburg, Nov 19, 1865; d Badenweiler, June 11, 1902).

German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Vienna, Nov 7, 1863; d Vienna, March 14, 1919).

Austrian painter, decorative artist and printmaker. He was the son of the Bohemian painter Franz Lefler (1831–98), a member of the Künstlerhaus in Vienna. From 1880 to 1884 he studied in Vienna at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) and in Munich at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Nikolaos Gysis and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907). He first produced genre paintings, fairy-tale motifs and landscapes in the manner of Diez, but from 1895 (two years before the foundation of the Vienna Secession) his work showed Jugendstil tendencies. In 1891 he became a member of the Künstlerhaus in Vienna. As a printmaker he concentrated on commercial art; in the later 1890s he was one of the first Austrian artists to design posters for companies (e.g. Auerlicht, 1896–7; see Schweiger, p. 121), public events and periodicals (e.g. Kunst und Kunsthandwerk). In 1898–9...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Liberec, Bohemia [now in Czech Republic], Sept 28, 1874; d Vienna, March 23, 1960).

Austrian painter, printmaker, designer and ceramicist. After being taught to draw at the Gewerbemuseum in Reichenberg, from 1890 to 1900 he studied drawing at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna (now the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) under the Austrian Franz von Matsch (1861–1942). In 1909 he was appointed a teacher at the Kunststickereischule in Vienna, and from 1909 to 1935 he was a professor at the Kunstgewerbeschule. In 1906 he founded Wiener Keramik with Michael Powolny. The firm contributed tiles for Josef Hoffmann’s Palais Stoclet in Brussels (1905–11). From 1907 the Wiener Werkstätte took over the distribution and sale of their vases, figurines, boxes and tiles, selling them also in Germany from 1908. In 1913 Wiener Keramik merged with the Künstlerische Werkstätte Franz und Emilie Schleiss in Gmunden to form the Vereinigte Wiener und Gmundner Keramik. In collaborative works by Löffler and Powolny it is often very difficult to establish who did different aspects. Löffler preferred to provide the often fanciful designs, leaving the modelling to other assistants, for example in the figurines ...

Article

Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Ropczyce, nr Rzeszów, March 19, 1869; d Wadowice, nr Kraków, July 8, 1946).

Polish painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From 1887 he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański, as the two most talented pupils of the School, were engaged to assist Matejko in his decorative wall paintings for the Gothic Church of St Mary in Kraków. This work aroused Mehoffer’s interest in both fresco and stained glass. In 1889–90 he studied at the Kunstakademie, Vienna, and in 1891 he travelled through Salzburg, Innsbruck and Basle (where the work of Arnold Böcklin caught his imagination), eventually going to Paris. There he studied at the Académie Colarossi, at the Ecole Nationale des Arts Décoratifs and, from 1892, in the atelier of Léon Bonnat at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. During his stay in Paris (1891–6) he devoted much time to studying works by the Old Masters in the Louvre; he also studied architecture, making a tour of medieval cathedrals in France in ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, Nov 10, 1859; d Paris, Dec 13, 1923).

French illustrator, printmaker, painter and sculptor, of Swiss birth. After studying at the University at Lausanne and working as an apprentice designer in a textile factory in Mulhouse, Steinlen arrived in Paris in 1881 and quickly established himself in Montmartre, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life. In 1883 the illustrator Adolphe Willette introduced him to the avant-garde literary and artistic environment of the Chat Noir cabaret which had been founded in 1881 by another Swiss expatriot, Rodolphe Salis. Steinlen soon became an illustrator of its satirical and humorous journal, Chat noir, and an artistic collaborator with writers such as Emile Zola, poets such as Jean Richepin, composers such as Paul Delmet, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec and, most important, the singer and songwriter Aristide Bruant, all of whom he encountered at the Chat Noir. Bruant’s lyrics incorporate the argot of the poor, the worker, the rogue, the pimp and the prostitute, for whom Steinlen’s empathy had been awakened on reading Zola’s novel ...