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Alan Crawford

(b Isleworth, Middx, May 17, 1863; d Godden Green, Kent, May 23, 1942).

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place.

In 1888, while he was training to be an architect in the office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906), Ashbee set up the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The School lasted only until 1895, but the Guild, a craft workshop that combined the ideals of the Arts and Crafts Movement with a romantic, apolitical socialism, was to be the focus of Ashbee’s work for the next 20 years. There were five guildsmen at first, making furniture and base metalwork. In ...

Article

Judith O’Callaghan

(b Scarsdale, Victoria, June 12, 1868; d Melbourne, Oct 7, 1956).

Australian enamellist, jeweller and silversmith. He trained in Melbourne under J. R. Rowland and in the late 1890s travelled to England, where he worked for a time in the London workshop of Nelson Dawson (1859–1942). By the end of 1900 he had joined C. R. Ashbee’s Guild of Handicraft, and he subsequently moved with the Guild to Chipping Campden, Glos. Though an accomplished silversmith and jeweller, Mark’s skill lay in enamelwork. He and F. C. Varley were largely responsible for the fine painted enamels produced by the Guild. He worked independently in Chipping Campden after the Guild failed in 1907 and eventually returned to Australia in 1920. He established a studio at his home in Melbourne, where he stayed until his death. The greater part of his production comprised ecclesiastical commissions, notably the silver and enamel processional cross (designed by Louis Williams; c. 1931) of St Paul’s Cathedral, Melbourne, and the plate and fittings (...