Within a half-century of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and Maori chiefs in 1840—the event from which the beginning of New Zealand (Aotearoa) is generally dated (and leaving aside from the present discussion the tribal art of the indigenous Maori and the early art created by European navigators, explorers, surveyors, itinerant artists, soldiers, and the like)—a rudimentary infrastructure of public art galleries, art societies, and some art schools had arisen in the main cities—Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—and the beginnings of a discourse concerning the character and purpose of the visual arts in the new nation emerged. The central question was whether or not such a phenomenon as ‘New Zealand art’ existed or should exist and what characteristics it should aspire to. These matters were vigorously debated for a decade or so either side of 1890 when the infant nation marked its 50th anniversary with a jubilee. The discourse about national identity then largely disappeared for a generation only to emerge again a decade or so either side of ...
[Murillo, Gerardo ]
(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).
Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, vulcanologist and politician. Better known by his pseudonym, which signifies ‘Doctor Water’ in Náhuatl and which he adopted in 1902, Murillo first studied art in Guadalajara and from 1890 to 1896 at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City, where his vocation became clear. In 1899 he travelled to Europe and settled in Rome, where the work of Michelangelo had a profound impact on him. He travelled to other countries to study and to learn about avant-garde painting. He went back to Mexico in 1904 and seven years later returned to Europe, only to rush back when the Revolution broke out in Mexico. He joined the revolutionary movement, taking an active role in its various activities, including the muralist movement, through which he was associated with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Although he practised portrait painting, his passion was for landscape in a variety of techniques and materials, some of them invented by him; for example, he used ‘atlcolours’, which were simply crayons made of wax, resins and pigment with which he could obtain textures not obtainable with oil paint. His favoured supports were rigid surfaces such as wood or hardboard....
Anne van Loo
(b Liège, March 18, 1896; d 1995).
Belgian painter, designer and writer. He was a pupil of the Symbolist painter Jean Delville but started using geometric forms after discovering the work of František Kupka. In 1923 he began to collaborate on the avant-garde journal 7 Arts together with Pierre-Louis Flouquet (1900–67) and Karel Maes (1900–74). Also in 1923 he married the dancer Akarova (b 1904) who inspired his ‘Kaloprosopies’ (1925), an album of nine woodcuts, and for whom he designed costumes and stage sets. At the same time he embarked on the design of functional furniture, first in traditional materials and then in metal tubing (1930) and polychrome, cellulose-based lacquer. He opened his own decorating business in Brussels (1930–70) and showed his ‘Standax’ furniture, which could be assembled and dismantled, at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) in Paris. Baugniet was a promoter of the ...
(b Lille, April 28, 1868; d Paris, April 15, 1941).
French painter and writer. He was the son of a cloth merchant. Relations with his parents were never harmonious, and in 1884, against his father’s wishes, he enrolled as a student at the Atelier Cormon in Paris. There he became a close friend of Louis Anquetin and Toulouse-Lautrec. In suburban views of Asnières, where his parents lived, Bernard experimented with Impressionist and then Pointillist colour theory, in direct opposition to his master’s academic teaching; an argument with Fernand Cormon led to his expulsion from the studio in 1886. He made a walking tour of Normandy and Brittany that year, drawn to Gothic architecture and the simplicity of the carved Breton calvaries. In Concarneau he struck up a friendship with Claude-Emile Schuffenecker and met Gauguin briefly in Pont-Aven. During the winter Bernard met van Gogh and frequented the shop of the colour merchant Julien-François Tanguy, where he gained access to the little-known work of Cézanne....
(b Turin, July 20, 1850; d Turin, Feb 26, 1941).
Italian painter, critic and writer. From 1867 to 1873 he studied at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, and when Antonio Fontanesi arrived in 1869 to teach landscape painting, Calderini became one of his first and most able pupils. He took a studio with a fellow student, Francesco Mosso (1849–77), and in 1870 made his début at the Società Promotrice with Solitary Statues (Rome, G.N.A. Mod.), a painting depicting the statues and gardens of the Palazzo Reale in Turin after rainfall. Fontanesi’s expressive and fluid style with its emphasis on the sensuous qualities of a particular landscape (e.g. Stillness, 1860; Turin, Gal. Civ. A. Mod.) inspired Calderini to approach landscape painting in a similarly evocative manner (e.g. Spring, Hills near Turin, 1878; see Lombroso, p. 251). However, he created an equilibrium between Fontanesi’s lyricism and his own more objective portrayal of nature. He shared the older artist’s fervent belief in direct experience and would not paint a landscape unless he had spent at least six months in the area. Together with Fontanesi, he introduced an expressive naturalism into Piedmontese landscape painting in contrast to the finely ‘finished’ landscapes of Massimo D’Azeglio. Effects of light and colour at different times of day and at different seasons are the subjects of a number of works, including ...
W. Iain Mackay
(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).
Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he travelled through France, Italy and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...
(b Görlitz, Feb 21, 1871; d Lüneburg, March 10, 1948).
German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in 1901 at the first Ausstellung für Kunst im Handwerk in Munich. In 1902 he founded the Lehr- und Versuch-Atelier für Angewandte und Freie Kunst with the Swiss artist Hermann Obrist, developing a modern co-educational teaching system based on reformist pedagogy and popular psychology. In preliminary courses, classes and workshops, a broad practical training was offered primarily in arts and crafts. This precursor of the Bauhaus encouraged contact with dealers and collectors and was widely accoladed. When Obrist resigned from the school in 1904, Debschitz founded the Ateliers und Werkstätten für Angewandte Kunst and the Keramischen Werkstätten production centres attached to the school. In ...
(b Granville, Nov 25, 1870; d Paris, Nov 13, 1943).
French painter, designer, printmaker and theorist. Although born in Normandy, Denis lived throughout his life in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, just west of Paris. He attended the Lycée Condorcet, Paris, where he met many of his future artistic contemporaries, then studied art simultaneously at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and at the Académie Julian (1888–90). Through fellow student Paul Sérusier, in 1888 he learnt of the innovative stylistic discoveries made that summer in Pont-Aven by Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard. With Sérusier and a number of like-minded contemporaries at the Académie Julian—Pierre Bonnard, Paul Ranson, Henri-Gabriel Ibels and others—Denis found himself fundamentally opposed to the naturalism recommended by his academic teachers. They formed the Nabis, a secret artistic brotherhood dedicated to a form of pictorial Symbolism based loosely on the synthetic innovations of Gauguin and Bernard. Denis’s first article, ‘Définition du néo-traditionnisme’, published in Art et critique in 1890 (and republished in ...
(b Cologne, June 25, 1920; d New York, Feb 6, 1984).
American painter of German birth. His father was the prominent Surrealist artist Max(imilian) Ernst and his mother was the art historian and journalist Louise [Lou] Straus-Ernst. In 1935 he was apprenticed as a typographer in the printing firm of J. J. Augustin in Glückstadt where he set type for anthropological studies. The company worked to attain a visa for Ernst, whose mother was Jewish, and he departed Germany one week before Kristallnacht in 1938; his mother was to die in Auschwitz at the end of the war. Ernst passionately recounts these events in his memoir, A Not-So-Still Life, published in 1984, the year of his death.
In 1941, on the recommendation of gallerist Julien Levy, Ernst was employed by the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York. After welcoming his father to the city, he began to work for Peggy Guggenheim, which placed him securely within the Surrealist émigré community and burgeoning New York school along with friends such as the painter William Baziotes. His career as an art dealer advanced in tandem with his painting production. With Eleanor Lust, he opened the experimental Norlyst Gallery in ...
Oscar E. Vázquez
(b Prato, March 15, 1838; d Siena, April 29, 1914).
Italian painter. He first studied in Prato. In 1853 he was urged by Cesare Guasti (1822–89), the Purismo theorist, to study under Luigi Mussini in Siena in order to absorb a French brand of Purism that was allied to the teaching of Ingres and Hippolyte Flandrin rather than to the rigid purist principles of the Nazarenes. Franchi became Mussini’s favourite pupil and was praised for his exceptional talent, his assiduousness and the purity of his forms. His first public commissions—St Elizabeth of Hungary, St Louis of France (both 1860–61; Prato, S Domenico) St George (1863; Prato, oratory of S Giorgio)—were strongly influenced by the contemporary style of Mussini, who was working on St Crescentius for Siena Cathedral. Following the example of Antonio Ciseri, Franchi later developed his own style, adding gentle elegiac forms, usually religious, to compositions of an arid and puristic simplicity. From 1873 to 1876...
(b London, Dec 14, 1866; d London, Sept 9, 1934).
English theorist, critic and painter. He was educated at Clifton College, Bristol, and King’s College, Cambridge, where he studied natural sciences. He was descended on both sides of his family from seven generations of Quakers, but he abandoned Christian beliefs on reaching adulthood. The legacy of Quakerism, however, continued to influence the direction of his career in his willingness to stand apart from mass opinion and from established authority, and in his distrust of all display.
On leaving Cambridge, he trained as a painter, first under Francis Bate (1853–1950), then for two months at the Académie Julian in Paris. He regarded the activity of painting as central to his life and continued to paint and exhibit throughout his career. Although critical opinion has never been high, his art stands out consistently for its intellectual clarity of construction. However, Fry also soon established a reputation as a scholar of Italian art. He made his first visit to Italy in ...
(b Paris, Dec 8, 1881; d Avignon, June 23, 1953).
French painter, printmaker and writer. He grew up in Courbevoie, a suburb of Paris, and as a student at the Collège Chaptal became interested in theatre and painting. At 19, his father put him to work in the family interior design and fabric business, an experience that contributed to a lifelong respect for skilled workmanship. The first paintings he exhibited, at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1902, were Impressionist in character, but the work accepted within two years at the Salon d’Automne showed a shift to social themes, a tendency that accelerated until 1908. Compulsory military service from 1903 to 1905 thrust him into the company of working-class people, arousing a permanent sense of solidarity with their aspirations and needs. The results were immediately apparent in the Association Ernest Renan, which he helped to establish in 1905, a kind of popular university with secular and socialist aims. He was also one of the founders of a community of intellectuals based near Paris, the ...
John E. Bowlt
(b Budapest, March 13, 1871; d Moscow, May 16, 1960).
Russian painter, writer and museum director of Hungarian birth. He studied law at the University of St Petersburg before enrolling at the Academy of Arts there in 1894. He moved in 1896 to Munich, where he took lessons from Anton Ažbé (1861–1905). He remained in Germany until 1901, assimilating the principles of Jugendstil, a strong influence on his early painting and graphic work, as in Lady at the Piano (1899; Moscow, priv. col., see Podobedova, p. 55), which is reminiscent, in its Art Nouveau treatment of the femme fatale, of Léon Bakst’s Supper (1902; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.).
Back in St Petersburg, Grabar’ became closely involved with the World of Art group, contributing to its journal and exhibitions, but in 1903 he joined the Union of Russian Artists, which reflected his interest in Impressionist landscape. This is evident from his lovely winter scenes of the early 1900s, such as ...
(b Kiev, 1881/6; d London, 1961).
Polish theorist and painter, active in the USA. Though few immigrants maintained ties to Europe as strong as John Graham’s, his titanic effect upon the direction and development of American art surpassed that of many critics and influential artists—an unlikely reality (because of his improbable bearing and background), acknowledged by his artistic disciples and chronicled in fact.
His family were minor Polish aristocrats long resident in Russia. He studied law at the University of Kiev then became a Tsarist cavalry officer to fight the Revolution. After being captured by the Bolsheviks, he escaped to western Europe and by 1920 had arrived in the USA. He changed his name, believing that Graham looked similar to the Cyrillic orthography of Dambrowsky. In New York Graham studied in 1921 under John Sloan at the Art Students League while maintaining contacts with Russian artists including Mikhail Larionov and David Burlyuk. Active as an artist in the 1920s, he corresponded with the American collector Duncan Phillips, who acquired several of his paintings. Graham was acquainted with Picasso (an influence he eventually rejected but not before confusing the situation by claiming they were born in the same year, thus forever muddying the facts of his life) and in the late 1920s had one-man exhibitions in both the USA and Paris. In New York he became prominent as the principal link between modernist artists in New York and Paris. In ...
(b Milan, Oct 15, 1851; d Milan, Aug 4, 1920).
Italian painter, dealer, critic and collector of Hungarian origin. Around 1870 he frequented the circle of Scapigliati, Gli and in 1870–71 visited London. Grubicy’s acquaintance with the art galleries there inspired him to start his own gallery in Milan, specializing in the Scapigliati artists, particularly Tranquillo Cremona and later Daniele Ranzoni. After Cremona’s death in 1878, Grubicy extended his interest to younger Lombard artists, primarily Giovanni Segantini (whose Choir of S Antonio impressed him at the 1879 annual exhibition at the Brera, Milan), Emilio Longoni (1859–1932) and later Angelo Morbelli. Grubicy became Segantini’s dealer and they were in close collaboration from this time. Between 1882 and 1885 Grubicy was in the Low Countries and probably informed Segantini of Millet and The Hague school. During his visit Grubicy also began to draw (e.g. Housemaid Washing, 1884; Milan, Castello Sforzesco) and to paint (e.g. The Hague: My First Work, 1884...
(b London, Dec 15, 1875; d Tonbridge, Jan 20, 1952).
English painter, printmaker, art historian and museum curator. Educated at St Paul’s School, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, he came from a family closely associated with the arts, one of his uncles being John Pettie. At Cambridge, Hardie studied etching under Frank Short (1857–1945), and he developed into an able etcher and watercolour painter (examples Oxford, Ashmolean); from 1908 he was a regular exhibitor in London at the Royal Academy, the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers and the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours. In 1898 Hardie was appointed to an assistant post at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; in 1914 he was made Assistant Keeper, and from 1921 until his retirement in 1935 he served as Keeper in the Print Department. Under his direction the Department was extended to include the collection and study of posters and of various aspects of theatre arts. Hardie was a prolific writer, celebrating and recording all the arts with which he was for so long connected, and he produced books and pamphlets on numerous individuals, including Samuel Palmer, whose reputation had fallen into total neglect. He also wrote on posters and coloured books and produced an edition of ...
Jan Jaap Heij
(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).
Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...
(b New York, May 12, 1855; d Easthampton, NY, June 12, 1914).
American writer and painter. After graduating from Yale University in 1875, he travelled to Paris to study art but soon returned to New York to study law at Columbia University. After five years as a practising lawyer (1880–85), he decided again to study art and once more went to Paris to work for three years under Louis Boulanger and Louis Jacquesson de la Chevreuse (1839–1903). He returned to the USA where critical acclaim for his landscape and figure paintings eventually attracted the attention of the National Academy of Design, New York, of which he became a full member in 1906. The Lilac Kimono (New York, Brooklyn Mus.) displays his broad painterly style. He wrote The History of American Painting (1905) with the professed goal of recording the intellectual and cultural growth of the country, although in his widespread coverage 19th-century artists receive the most attention. He set each painter within a group, describing individual style and generously giving praise or patiently explaining faults in their work. When the book was reissued in ...
(b Lužec nad Vltavou, Nov 17, 1875; d Prague, Nov 2, 1911).
Czech painter, critic and writer. He studied at the Charles Ferdinand Czech University in Prague (1894–9) while at the same time studying painting at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts under Maximilián Pirner and Vojtěch Hynais. He played an active part in the Mánes Union of Artists in which he later became a leading light. His earliest art criticism, which first appeared in Radikalní listy and more particularly in Volné směry, the organ of the Mánes Union, expressed his strong support of the modern point of view, for which he was obliged to leave the Academy before his final exams. In his critical views he was influenced above all by French modern art, and also by the theoretical approach that he had acquired from German Francophiles such as Julius Meier-Graefe. He was not only a modernist but was also interested in national and world traditions in art. He translated works by ...