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Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...


Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...


Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...


[ho Ch’usa, among others]

(b Yesan, Ch’ungch’ŏng Province, 1786; d Kwach’on, Kyŏnggi Province, 1856).

Korean calligrapher, painter, scholar and poet. He was also a lay Buddhist. Born into a family related by marriage to the imperial household, from an early age he showed his talent for calligraphy, studying with Pak Che-ga. Kim had an extremely successful civil service career before being exiled in 1840 and again in 1848.

In 1809 he accompanied his father on a mission to China and went to Beijing, where he met such eminent scholars as Wen Fanggang (1733–1818) and Ruan Yuan. The scholarship of the Qing period (1644–1911), in particular the northern stele school of calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii), (b)), which chose as its calligraphic models the stelae of the Han (206 bcad 220) and Northern Wei (ad 386–534) dynasties, made a deep impression on Kim. His own style of calligraphy was characterized by vigorous strokes with a strong contrast between thick and thin lines. This style, known as the Ch’usa (i.e. Kim Chŏng-hŭi) style, was highly influential in Korea and well respected in China (...


Hiroyuki Suzuki

(b London, Sept 28, 1852; d Tokyo, 1920).

English architect, active in Japan. He was articled to Roger Thomas Smith and then entered the office of William Burges. In 1876 he was awarded the Soane Medallion by the RIBA. In the next year he was appointed the first professor of architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering (now Tokyo University) in Japan, in which role he taught every aspect of architecture and building construction. During this period he was also active as an architect, designing such buildings as the Tokyo Imperial Museum (1877–80; now Tokyo National Museum) and a national banqueting house, Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion), for the Ministry of Public Works. After leaving his academic and governmental posts, Conder went into private practice and designed many residences, including the Iwasaki residence in Kayacho (1896; see Japan, §III, 5), the Shimazu residence (1915) and the Furukawa residence (1917). His style gradually changed from Gothic to more classical. He is often called the father of Western architecture in Japan, not only on account of his designs but also because of his role in establishing the Western method of architectural higher ...


Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...


Richard L. Wilson

[Sakai Tadanao; Ukean]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1828).

Japanese painter, printmaker and antiquarian. He was the second son of Sakai Tadamochi (1735–67), lord of Harima, and the main instigator of the revival of interest in the early 19th century in the Rinpa school of decorative painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)). Hōitsu created a distinctive Edo style of Rinpa out of the tradition created by Ogata Kōrin (see Ogata family, §1) in the early 18th century by adding new subject-matter and changing the handling of detail, which became more profuse, sharper and less artificial. This new sense of naturalism was characteristic of the arts of the latter part of the Edo period (1600–1868), as was the pleasure Hōitsu took in witty contrivances. Two early paintings, Matsukaze and Murasame (1785) and Beauty Hunting Fireflies (1788; both priv. col., see Yamane, nos 77–8), reflect the style of Utagawa Toyoharu (...


Cecil H. Uyehara

(b 1834; d 1905).

Japanese calligrapher and poet. From childhood he was absorbed and fascinated with calligraphy. He studied under Nakazawa Setsujō (1810–66), mastered the style developed by Maki Ryōko of the late Edo period (1600–1868) and absorbed the work of Zhao family, §1, a Chinese calligrapher of the Southern Song period (1127–1279), who had a substantial influence on early Meiji period (1868–1912) Japanese calligraphy. At the age of 16, however, following family tradition, Ichiroku had gone to Tokyo to study medicine and later duly became a doctor in the Mizoguchi domain (now in Shiga Prefect.). In 1868 Ichiroku joined the fledgling Meiji government, rising in his 20-year career to high office and ultimately an imperial appointment to the House of Peers for his dedicated service. In 1881 he met Yang Shoujing, adviser to the Chinese ambassador to Japan and also a geographer, calligrapher and scholar who had brought to Japan thousands of rubbings of funerary inscriptions from China, particularly from the Six Dynasties period (...


Patricia J. Graham

[Toyotomi Kiminobu; Sekinan Shōja; Tameushi (Igyū)]

(b Kyoto, 1795; d Kyoto, 1859).

Japanese painter and poet. He was an official painter for the imperial court in Kyoto, a waka (31-syllable form) poet and a fervent loyalist, supporting the re-establishment of imperial rule against the Tokugawa shogunate. Ikkei was active at the close of the Edo period (1600–1868). He expressed his political opinions in his paintings, which, though closely modelled on Yamatoe paintings of the Heian (794–1185) and Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan §VI 3., (iii)), included explicit satires on the contemporary political scene. As a result of his paintings and a speech he wrote questioning the future of the country, he was imprisoned in 1858. Released in 1859, he died shortly afterwards from an illness he had contracted in prison.

Ikkei studied painting under Tanaka Totsugen (1760–1823), founder of the Fukko Yamatoe (‘Yamatoe revival’) movement. Ikkei’s painting style is close to Totsugen’s, being modelled after earlier ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[K’ang Yu-wei; zi Nanhai]

(b Nanhai, Guangdong Province, 19 March 1858; d Qingdao, Shandong Province, 31 March 1927). Chinese reformer, scholar and calligrapher. He is best known as the instigator of the Hundred Days Reform, which lasted from 16 June to 21 September 1898, when the Guangxu emperor (reg 1875–1908) accepted Kang’s proposals for far-reaching change. Kang convinced the emperor of the importance of incorporating Western methods into Chinese culture so as to strengthen China against foreign aggression. The profoundly conservative dowager empress Cixi (1835–1908) staged a coup which brought the movement to an end. Kang fled the country and did not return until 1913, after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

Kang’s formal education in calligraphy and epigraphy began under the tutelage of the eminent scholar, Zhu Ciqi (1807–81). Kang later chose a few models and copied them avidly: the Shimen ming, calligraphy carved into a cliff face in Shanxi Province in ...


Frank L. Chance


(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1796; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1858).

Japanese painter, poet, and illustrator. The last master of the Rinpa school of decorative painting, he moved to Edo as a youth and became the leading pupil of Sakai Hōitsu, the instigator of the Rinpa revival in the early 19th century. Kiitsu was adopted into the family of Suzuki Reitan (1782–1817), another of Hōitsu’s pupils, and married his sister. When Reitan died, Kiitsu inherited his samurai rank and became a salaried retainer of the Sakai family. By the age of 30 Kiitsu was collaborating with Hōitsu on the compilation of Kōrin hyakuzu (‘One hundred pictures by Kōrin’). From mere imitation of Hōitsu, Kiitsu evolved a more personal style. He adopted the elegant compositions and brilliantly opaque colours of the Rinpa masters (see fig.), as in the exquisite pair of six-panel folding screens Cranes (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.), but was also affected by the decorative naturalism of the Maruyama–Shijō schools (...


Kathy Niblett


(b Hong Kong, Jan 5, 1887; d St Ives, Cornwall, May 6, 1979).

English potter and writer. Until he was ten years old he lived in the Far East, which had a most powerful influence on his life and work. In 1903–4 he studied drawing with Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Art, London. He kept a death-bed promise to his father to train to work in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, but left after nine months and in 1908 he attended the London School of Art to learn etching with Frank Brangwyn. In 1909 he returned to Japan to teach etching and in 1911 was ‘seized with the desire’ to work in clay after attending a ‘raku yaki’ tea party, where he shared the instantaneous joy of Raku family pottery. He found a pottery teacher, Shigekichi Urano (1881–1923), who had become Kenzan VI c. 1900 (see Ogata family §(2)). After teaching him to pot, Kenzan built a kiln for Leach in ...


Karen M. Gerhart

[Ōtagaki Nobu]

(b Kyoto, 1791; d Kyoto, 1875).

Japanese poet, calligrapher, potter and painter. Shortly after her birth, she was adopted by Ōtagaki Mitsuhisa who worked at Chion’in, an important Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple in Kyoto. In 1798 she was sent to serve at Kameoka Castle in Tanba, where she studied poetry, calligraphy and martial arts. She returned to Kyoto in 1807 and was married to a young samurai named Mochihisa. They had three children, all of whom died shortly after birth; in 1815 Mochihisa also died. In 1819 Nobu remarried, but her second husband died in 1823. After enduring the tragic loss of two husbands and all her children, Nobu, only 33 years old, cut her hair off and became a nun, at which time she adopted the name Rengetsu (‘lotus moon’). She lived with her stepfather, who had also taken vows, near Chion’in. After his death in 1832 Rengetsu began to make pottery, which she then inscribed with her own ...



Cecil H. Uyehara

(b Echigo Prov. [now Niigata Prefect.], 1758; d 1831).

Japanese Zen monk, calligrapher and poet. He became a monk at the age of 18 at the temple Kōshōji, Okayama Prefecture, but, being a wanderer for most of his life, never attained high monastic rank. He is known for his poetry in Japanese and Chinese and his individualistic, indeed idiosyncratic, swiftly brushed style of calligraphy and is one of the most respected calligraphers of the late Edo period, receiving more attention and study than his contemporaries Maki Ryōko and Ichikawa Beian. His modern popularity has given rise to an increasing number of Ryōkan forgeries. Most of his extant calligraphies consist of letters and poems in his own hand, much of the subject-matter deriving from his everyday experiences, as for example the letter brushed in ink on paper between 1806 and 1810 (Tokyo, N. Mus.). Ryōkan studied the 100-character text by the Chinese calligrapher Huaisu, the calligraphy of the legendary 4th-century ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Pao Shih-ch’en; zi Shenbo, hao Juanweng, Anwu xiansheng]

(b Jing Xian, Anhui Province, 1775; d 1855).

Chinese art historian, calligrapher and minor civil servant . He was born into an impoverished family of scholars and was sent to school in Nanjing, where he studied military tactics and administration. His first job was as an adviser in tactics to the governor of Anhui Province, Zhu Gui (1731–1807), who also oversaw the continuation of Bao’s studies in the classics. Bao passed the provincial civil service examinations to receive his juren degree in 1805 but never received his jinshi, even though he took the national examinations a dozen times. He spent the rest of his life in low-grade civil service posts: the highest position he held was a one-year posting as district magistrate at Xinyu in Jiangxi Province.

Although he never achieved high office, Bao Shichen was a famous connoisseur and theorist of calligraphy. He began to study the art at the age of 14, and his models included ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[Kubota Yasubei; Shōsadō; Hitofushi no Chitsui; Shiokarabō; Nanda Kashiran, Kōzandō]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1757; d Edo, 1820).

Japanese print designer, painter, poet, writer and lacquer and shell-inlay artist. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by an uncle. He studied honga (‘true or book pictures’) with the Nanga (literati painting) artist Tabete Ryōtai (1719–74) and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) with Kitao Shigemasa. Early examples of Shunman’s work include the illustrations for the sharebon (‘witty book’; comic novel) Tama kiku tōrōben (1780) and the gafu (‘picture album’) Gakoku (1783) in the honga style. He was a prolific designer of bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) and fūzokuga (‘pictures of customs and manners’), which show the influence, not of his teacher, Shigemasa, but of Torii Kiyonaga (see Torii family §(8)), one of the leading ukiyoe artists of the day. Shunman introduced the benigirai (‘red-hating’; using no red (pink) pigment) technique, which he employed in his Mutamagawa (‘Six crystal rivers’). In around ...


Stephen Addiss

[Murase Taiichi]

(b Kōzuchi [now Mino City], nr Nagoya, 1803; d Inuyama, nr Nagoya, 1881).

Japanese painter, poet and calligrapher. He became one of the most notable and eccentric exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga, see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) of the early Meiji period (1868–1912). He was educated in Confucianism and Buddhism from the monk Kaigen at the temple of Zen’oji. He was also influenced by his uncles Murase Tōjō (1791–1853), Murase Ryūsai (1792/4–1876) and Murase Shunsui (1795–1876). Through Tōjō’s introduction, Taiitsu studied under the poet, calligrapher and historian Rai San’yō from 1829 until San’yō’s death in 1832. Taiitsu then returned to his native village, but in 1837 he moved to Nagoya to open his own Confucian academy. In 1844 Taiitsu became the teacher at the Naruse clan school in Nagoya, remaining there until feudal schools were abolished at the beginning of the Meiji period.

From 1879 until his death Taiitsu lived in Inuyama near Nagoya. Most of his paintings and calligraphy date from his years there, where he fashioned a reputation as a scholarly eccentric who delighted in brushwork. Taiitsu painted as the spirit moved him: apparently on a paper lantern on a street corner, on a ...


Yasuyoshi Saito

(b Tokyo, March 13, 1883; d Tokyo, April 2, 1956).

Japanese sculptor and writer. He was the son of the sculptor Kōun Takamura (1852–1934). He studied sculpture at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, graduating in 1902. In 1906 he went to the USA and studied at the Art Students League, New York. In the same year he met Morie Ogiwara. In 1907 he went to London, moving to Paris in 1908. He returned to Japan in 1909, forming a close friendship with Ogiwara. In 1910 his essay Midoriiro no taiyō (‘Green sun’) was published in the magazine Subaru (2–4, April, pp. 23–9). In this essay he wrote, ‘If someone paints the sun green, then I do not intend to say that he is wrong.’ It is regarded as Japan’s first Impressionist statement. He was an active essayist and translator, publishing in 1916 the translated Rodan no kotoba (‘The words of Rodin’; Tokyo). In his sculpture he left a legacy of excellent works, such as ...


Ray McKenzie

(b Edinburgh, June 14, 1837; d London, Sept 30, 1921).

Scottish photographer and writer. After studying chemistry at Edinburgh University he settled on the island of Pinang, Malaysia, where he began practising as a professional photographer in 1862. Over the next 12 years he travelled extensively in the region, taking many photographs in Siam (now Thailand; see fig.), Cambodia, Vietnam and China. His subjects ranged from ethnography to antiquities, and his style is distinguished by the directness with which he represented landscapes and social practices that to his western contemporaries appeared almost fantastic. Despite acute difficulties of climate and terrain, he used the cumbersome wet collodion process, producing large-format (up to 360×480 mm) and stereographic negatives that are noted for their clarity of detail and richness of tone.

Unlike most travel photographers of his generation Thomson rarely exhibited his work, preferring the illustrated album as the medium best suited to his documentary approach. In all he produced nine such albums, varying widely both in format and reprographic process. The first, ...


Harold Mok

[Weng T’ung-ho; zi Shengjie, Renfu, Shengfu; hao Shuping, Songchan, Pingsheng, Yunzhai]

(b Changshu, Jiangsu Province, May 19, 1830; d Jul 3, 1904).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, and official. He came first in the first category of the palace examination and earned the title of jinshi in 1856, subsequently rising to the ranks of Assistant Grand Secretary and Minister of Revenue while concurrently serving as tutor to the emperors Tongzhi (reg 1862–1874) and Guangxu (reg 1875–1908). His official career ended in 1898 when he was stripped of his ranks and sent home owing to his involvement in a short-lived reform movement that took place that same year. In the history of Chinese calligraphy, he has been noted for his steadfast adherence to the Tang tradition at a time when it was largely disregarded.

Intensely engaged as he was in his official duties, Weng took great pains to master calligraphy by diligently copying various masters and by insisting on abidance by established rules. He modeled his works successively on Ouyang Xun and Chu Suiliang...