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K. Somervell

English ceramics factory. The factory was founded in 1837 by Edward Bingham (d 1872) in Castle Hedingham, Essex, where there were good-quality deposits of clay. The earliest output was earthenware for local use. During the 1850s Bingham’s son Edward Bingham (1829–c. 1900) took over the factory, and more decorative wares were produced. The first pieces of ornamental ware were red terracotta baskets introduced in 1853 and trelliswork cache-pots in 1854. By 1860 over 60 different types of unglazed vases, baskets and bowls were being produced. In the 1870s more ambitious glazed wares were made. From 1875 lead-glazed wares with moulded reliefs and sgraffito decoration were manufactured in quantity. Included in the range were wares that reflect Bingham’s interest in ceramic products of the 16th and 17th centuries. The range of wares include tigs, mugs, candlesticks, miniature vessels and large vases. In 1899 Bingham’s son Edward William Bingham (...


Gordon Campbell


Julia Robinson

American artists’ space located at 239 Thompson Street at the south edge of Washington Square in New York City. Beginning in the late 1950s the Judson Church hosted experimental avant-garde activities—art installations, Happenings, the beginnings of postmodern dance—launching a now celebrated group of artists, dancers, poets and composers, and fueling the radical downtown art scene. The platform of free expression Judson provided for the untested work of the 1960s generation, at a time when these artists were far from established, was a critical contribution to the invention, originality and ultimate international renown of these preeminent American artists.

Built in 1890 and designed by the renowned architect Stanford White (of McKim, Mead & White), the church’s original mission was to serve the immigrant population of Lower Manhattan with health and recreational programs as well as religious services. In the 1950s Reverend Bob Spike (1949–55) asked his seminary intern, Budd Scott, to go into the neighborhood and spend time with the locals—including a significant contingent of struggling artists—to discover their needs. Scott found out that the artists urgently needed a place to present their work. Judson’s national reputation for fostering radical artistic practice came under the tenure of Reverend Howard Moody (...


Liliana Mavrodinova

The largest active monastery in Bulgaria, situated c. 120 km south-west of Sofia in the valley of the Rilska River, a western tributary of the Struma. The monastery was founded in the 10th century by the Bulgarian saint Ivan of Rila (876–946). In 1335 the local prince Khrelyu (Hrelyu) built a defensive tower and a church dedicated to St Ivan. During the Ottoman period (1393–1878) the monastery was damaged and plundered many times, and most of its present buildings, with the exception of Khrelyu’s tower, date from the 19th century. The monastery is an enclosed courtyard (c. 32,000 sq. m) with five sides and two entrances. The blocks surrounding the yard are mostly four storeys high and house c. 300 cells, 4 chapels, a refectory, libraries and rooms for visitors. From the outside the monastery resembles a fortress, but its internal façades are united by an arcade supported on stone columns, while the floors above open on to wide verandahs. Khrelyu’s tower (h. 23 m) is a square prism in plan with five storeys. The topmost storey projects beyond the others and is supported by three external pilasters on each side; it houses a chapel dedicated to the Transfiguration, which contains wall paintings (...


Christopher Wilson and Mark Stocker

English castle and royal residence in Berkshire.

One of a series of castles that William I (reg 1066–87) established around London, Windsor occupied the nearest strong point in the Thames Valley to the west of the city. From William’s reign date the motte and also the distinctive elongated arrangement of lower, middle, and upper baileys that exploits the lie of the land at the top of a great chalk cliff south of the river. By the reign of Henry I (reg 1100–35) the creation of a large hunting forest, together with the proximity of London, made this a favoured royal residence as well as a fortress. The Round Tower, the stone shell-keep on the motte, may date from this time. The systematic replacement of timber defences by stone walls with rectangular interval towers was begun by Henry II in 1165, but work on the lower bailey was unfinished at his death in ...


Margaret Moore Booker

(World’s Columbian Exhibition, Chicago)

Landmark structure built for the World’s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893 that was administered, designed, and decorated entirely by women. The Woman’s Building was the most publicized exhibition of women’s art in the 19th century.

A national competition for the building was held, to which 13 designs were submitted by women architects. Sophia G. Hayden (1868–1953) of Jamaica Plains, MA, won first place; her impressive three-story Italian Renaissance-style structure—featuring center and end pavilions, multiple arches, and columned terraces—blended perfectly with the classical architecture of the Exposition. Praised for its “delicacy of line and grace of detail,” the building was recognized by national architectural journals.

Built for $200,000 on the west side of a lagoon, it was approximately 120×60 m and contained a large central Hall of Honor surrounded by meeting rooms (where conferences were held on advancing the rights of women), a library (designed by Candace Wheeler), and a roof-garden restaurant....