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Article

Patwant Singh

Sikh holy city in Punjab, northern India. Lying on a flat stretch of agricultural land between the rivers Beas and Ravi, close to the Pakistan border, Amritsar (Skt amrit sarowar, ‘pool of nectar’) is the location of the Harmandir, the holiest of Sikh shrines at the heart of the Darbar Sahib temple complex, also referred to as the Golden Temple (see also Indian subcontinent §II 8., (ii) and §III, 7(ii)(a), fig.). It was the third Sikh guru, Amar Das (1552–74), who was first drawn to the area by the peace and tranquillity of its forested terrain and the pool where the Harmandir was later built. His successor, Guru Ram Das (1574–81), bought the pool and the surrounding land. Some historians believe that the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) offered the land as a gift, but that Ram Das declined in keeping with the Sikh tradition of self-reliance (...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

[Pers. ‛Ashqābād; formerly Ashkhabad Askhabad, Poltoratsk]

Capital city of Turkmenistan. Lying in an oasis south of the Karakum Desert, the city was founded in 1881 on the site of a mountain village (Rus. aul). Linked by rail with the Caspian coast in 1885, it developed rapidly as the center of the Transcaspian region at the turn of the 20th century and became the capital of the Turkmen republic in 1924. It suffered greatly from earthquakes in 1893, 1895 and 1929; following complete destruction by the earthquake of 6 October 1948, the city was rebuilt during the 1950s and 1960s.

Saparmurat Niyazov (generally referred to as Turkmenbashi, or leader of the Turkmen), president from 1985 to 2006, used the revenues from huge gas reserves to lavishly embellish the city with grandiose monuments of gleaming white marble and gold. Civic structures include not only the palace, government offices and an exhibition center, but also the Arch of Neutrality, a large tripod in front of which stands a gold statue of Turkmenbashi that rotates to face the sun. Religious structures include the Azadi Mosque, which resembles the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, and the Kipchak Mosque, said to be the largest in Central Asia. The National Museum of History (...

Article

Jennifer Wearden

English town in Devon, situated on the River Axe, known as a centre of carpet production from the mid-18th century to the mid-19th. In 1755 Thomas Whitty (d 1792), a weaver from Axminster, visited Pierre Parisot’s carpet workshop in Fulham, London. An apprentice showed him the workshop, and on his return to Axminster Whitty built a large vertical loom, taught his daughters to tie the symmetrical or Ghiordes knot (see Carpet, §I, 1) and began to produce carpets. In 1757 he submitted a carpet measuring 4.9×3.8 m to the Royal Society of Arts and was awarded a joint prize with Thomas Moore (c. 1700–1788; see Carpet, §II, 2, (iii)) of Chiswell Street, London. Whitty valued his carpet at £15 and the Society ruled it the best carpet in proportion to its price. In 1758 he was asked to submit three carpets and shared the prize with ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the village of Bellvue (near Toul, in Meurthe-et-Moselle) in 1758. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Charles Bayard (former director of the Lunéville pottery) and François Boyer, who in 1773 were given the right to style the pottery ‘Manufacture Royale de Bellevue’. Bayard left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(UK)

English centre of ceramics production. A pottery was founded in the town of Hull (near what is now the Albert Dock) in 1802; the proprietors included Job Ridgway family. It soon closed, but in 1826 it was bought by William Bell, who called it Bellevue; it closed in 1841. The factory produced large quantities of earthenware, much of which was exported to Germany through the Company’s depot in Hamburg. Very few examples of its wares survive; some are marked Belle Vue....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Australian pottery founded in 1858 by a Scot, George Guthrie (1808–1909), in the town of Bendigo, Victoria. The factory made household wares, including acid bottles, bricks, clay pipes, roof tiles and tableware. During World War I it also made portrait jugs of military commanders, and in the 1930s it made agate-ware vases that were marketed as Waverly ware. The pottery is still active, but since ...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

Buczacz  

Zdisław Żygulski jr

Town in Podolia, Ukraine, formerly in Polish territory, known as a centre for weaving in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 18th century the town belonged to the magnate family Potocki, and the art of weaving kilims with floral designs flourished. About 1870 Oskar Potocki founded a large factory to produce wall hangings made of silk interwoven with gold and silver thread. These hangings carried on the Polish tradition of brocade weaving but were made on mechanical looms. They are distinguished by subtle shades of pink, orange and red, with tiny motifs, or are predominantly gold with a beautiful sheen. They were expensive and much prized by connoisseurs. The workshop labels, which give the size of each piece (usually about 1.5×2.5 m), show the Pilawa coat of arms of the Potocki family (a cross with two-and-a-half arms), the name Buczacz and sometimes the initials AP for Artur Potocki, the manager. These were woven in or stitched on a separate piece of fabric. ...

Article

Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese centre of ceramic production. Documents record kilns operating in the town in 1488, and the first potters were Álvaro Annes, Vicente Annes and Francisco Lopes. However, the modern ceramics tradition with which the town is associated dates to the time of a certain D. Maria ‘dos Cacos’, who is recorded as having attempted to sell his wares in fairs all over Portugal between 1820 and 1853. Pieces attributed to him are rare. He was succeeded by Manuel Cipriano Gomes (fl 1853–7) from Mafra. In addition to producing faience that resembled wares made in the Oporto factories (see Oporto §2), Gomes also produced a body of wares that were strongly influenced by the work of Palissy, Bernard.

In 1884 the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha was established in Lisbon, under the artistic direction of the painter Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (see Bordalo Pinheiro family §(1)...

Article

Catherine Brisac

French town and château some 8 km south-east of Paris, in the département of Val-de-Marne. The château was built (1680–86) for Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans, Duchesse de Montpensier (1627–93), by Jacques Gabriel IV. His design was a simple one, with strong horizontal lines countered by tall rectangular windows and rusticated quoins to the shallow projecting bays. Artists employed on the interior decoration included the painters Antoine Coypel, Gabriel Blanchard, Jean Le Moyne and Adam Frans van der Meulen and the sculptor Etienne Le Hongre. The grounds were laid out by André Le Nôtre. Used as a hunting-lodge by Louis XV, King of France, from 1740, the château was enlarged by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in several campaigns (1742–52), the additions including a gallery, a theatre and various garden buildings. Much sculpture was commissioned for the grounds, which were remodelled, including work by René-Michel Slodtz and Edmé Bouchardon. In ...

Article

Cornish  

Keith N. Morgan

American town and former artists’ colony in the state of New Hampshire. Situated on a line of hills near the eastern bank of the Connecticut River c. 160 km north-west of Boston, Cornish looks across to Windsor, VT, and Mt Ascutney. It was settled in 1763 as an agrarian community, but its population was rapidly reduced during the migration to the cities in the second half of the 19th century. From 1885 until around the time of World War I, Cornish was the summer home of a group of influential sculptors, painters, architects, gardeners, and writers. For this coherent group, the Cornish hills symbolized an ideal natural environment that reflected the classical images so important in their work. The sculptor who first spent a summer in Cornish in 1885, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, bought his summer residence there in 1891, and he was soon followed by the painters Henry Oliver Walker (...

Article

Quentin Hughes

Small west German town at the confluence of the Rhine and Queich rivers, which was refortified, like many other frontier towns, after the Napoleonic Wars. In the 1840s the town was encircled by fortifications designed by Friedrich Ritter von Schmauss (1792–1846). Influenced by the French military engineers Marc-René de Montalembert (1714–1800) and Lazare Carnot (1753–1823), he built them not with bastions but with powerful multi-gun caponiers and casemated batteries covering and flanking straight faces of wall retrenched by defensible barracks. This was the German system of polygonal fortification, and, although it was different from the bastion system that had dominated military architecture for three hundred years, there were still arguments about its effectiveness in war.

These fortifications were dismantled in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles (1919), but fine remnants survive, including the central sector of the Beckers Front with a caponier, ravelin, flank batteries and redoubts, all carried out in a combination of precise brickwork and rusticated masonry. The Ludwigs Tor or gate of ...

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

American city in western Michigan, noted for its furniture production. Its situation at the rapids of the Grand River provided ease of river transportation and proximity to timber from Michigan’s great pine and hardwood forests. The furniture industry began in Grand Rapids when the city’s first cabinetmaker, William ‘Deacon’ Haldane (1807–98), established a shop there in 1836. By 1851 E. M. Ball of Powers & Ball was boasting that he could toss ‘whole trees into the hopper and grind out chairs ready for use’ to fill an order for 10,000 chairs in Chicago (Ransom, p. 5). In the 1870s Grand Rapids became a major factor in the American furniture market. Such companies as Berkey & Gay, Widdicomb, Phoenix and Nelson-Matter built large factories and hired Dutch and other European immigrants to operate them. While most of these manufacturers produced complete lines of bedroom, parlour and dining-room suites, some, like the ...

Article

Jennifer Wearden

English town in West Yorkshire. The cloth trade thrived in Halifax from the 13th century. The fine Piece Hall, built as a cloth market in 1775 by Thomas Bradley, housed over 315 merchants’ rooms; the central open rectangular space is surrounded by two- and three-storey colonnades. The town is now chiefly important as a centre of carpet manufacture.

The firm of J. Crossley & Sons is synonymous with the production of carpets in Halifax and has been responsible for introducing some of the most far-reaching innovations in machine-produced floor coverings. The firm was founded by John Crossley (d 1837), a hand-loom weaver who set up his own weaving shed at nearby Dean Clough in 1803. By 1833 the venture was profitable enough to enable the company to purchase from Richard Whytock of Edinburgh, for £10,000, the patents for weaving warp-printed carpets (see Carpet §II 2., (iv)), a technique that became especially associated with Crossley’s and which made Halifax the centre for such production in England. The task of printing the design on to the warp threads before weaving was laborious and dirty but made it possible for designers to incorporate up to 150 colours, although in practice a total of 30 to 40 colours was more common. As the entire pile warp was raised to form each row of loops, carpets could be woven at considerable speed. Two qualities of carpet were produced: ‘Tapestry Brussels’, with uncut loops, and ‘Tapestry Velvets’, with cut pile . Some of the first power looms to be used in the carpet industry were installed at Dean Clough in ...

Article

Laurie A. Stein

German town and suburb of Dresden. It was created by Karl Schmidt (1873–1948), a carpenter by profession and founder in 1898 of the Deutsche Werkstätten für Handwerkskunst GmbH Dresden und München, and it was built between 1909 and 1914 as the first German Garden city. Around 1890, while travelling as a working craftsman, Schmidt was inspired by the workshops of the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain. In 1898, with the help of two assistants, he founded the Werkstätte, and by 1908 the firm employed over 500 workers. Through an unusual copyright, collaboration and compensation policy, Schmidt aimed to bring artists, workers and craftsmen together to learn from each other and to produce practical, yet aesthetically inspired, furniture and decorative arts. Between 1905 and 1907, influenced by the German translation (1907) of Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities of Tomorrow (London, 1902), Schmidt developed his ideas for Hellerau. He needed a larger factory and saw an opportunity to provide sensible workers’ housing and to demonstrate by practical example that all levels of German society would improve through higher quality in design and architecture. The formation of Hellerau was closely intertwined temporally and ideologically with the founding (...

Article

Brian Austen

English centre of furniture production. The town is situated in Buckinghamshire near the Chiltern Hills, where there is a plentiful supply of timber, particularly beech. The ‘Windsor’ chair, with which High Wycombe is particularly associated, was available in the London market c. 1720, and London chairmakers drew from the High Wycombe area billets of beech and probably such turned components as legs and stretchers. Turners, known as ‘bodgers’, would fell timber and directly convert it on simple pole lathes. Complete chairs were probably being manufactured in the High Wycombe area by the mid-18th century. Furniture workshops first appeared in the town after 1750, using turned components produced by the ‘bodgers’, making other parts such as the seat and assembling complete chairs for wholesale or retail sale. Four makers were listed in a directory of 1784, three being members of the Treacher family, and in the 1790s William Treacher was offering ‘Windsor, dyed and fancy chairs’. Another early maker was ...

Article

Quentin Hughes

Bavarian fortified town halfway between Munich and Nuremberg, on the left bank of the Danube at its confluence with the Schutter. It was originally fortified in the 16th century, and there is a fine contemporary model of those defences by Jakob Sandtner in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich, depicting a walled town stiffened in places by large semicircular-headed drum towers similar to those drawn by Albrecht Dürer in the first printed book on fortification (1527).

Ingolstadt was completely refortified in four phases during the 19th century. Between 1828 and 1832 a scheme, somewhat reminiscent of Dürer’s work, was begun to provide a curving front and detached oval towers. On the east bank of the river, the splendid Tilly Redoubt (1828) was built in the form of a large semicircle backing on to the river, and this was supported by detached oval towers. The redoubt was elaborately detailed by ...

Article

Jennifer Wearden

English town in Hereford & Worcs, known as a centre of carpet production. By the end of the 16th century, if not earlier, weavers in Kidderminster were producing a strong, woollen cloth that served as an inexpensive floor covering and was commonly known as Kidderminster or Scotch carpeting (see Carpet §I 5.). In 1735 a Mr Pearsall drew together individual weavers, establishing the first factory devoted to the production of double-cloth floor covering in Kidderminster; within a few years several other factories had also been established. In 1749 a weaver was brought from Belgium to build Brussels looms, thus breaking Wilton’s monopoly of the Brussels carpet (see Wilton §2). These Brussels carpets, together with Wilton carpets, soon became the main products of Kidderminster, outselling the traditional flat-weave coverings. In 1812 Thomas Lea patented a technique for weaving a triple-cloth floor covering which, though popular, was still inferior to pile carpets in durability. In ...

Article

Quentin Hughes

Fortified port on the Ligurian coast of north-west Italy. Lying at the head of a sheltered bay whose western shore is indented by several creeks, La Spezia affords safe anchorage for a large fleet in almost all weathers. The old town was walled by the Genoese in 1443, strengthened at one corner by the fortress of S Giorgio, a 17th-century square-bastioned fort that acted as a citadel. Napoleon Bonaparte suggested making La Spezia into a great naval base, but it was not until after 1861 that it became the chief naval harbour of Italy. The town expanded along the waterfront and the water basins with a gridiron of streets, protected in the 19th century by additional fortified walls designed by General Domenico Chiodo (1823–70) who also designed the vast arsenal, over 1000 m long and on average 750 m wide.

To defend the anchorages, forts and batteries were built on the promontories along the indented western coast, Fort S Maria being the most interesting. Designed to resist attack from the land and to provide a platform for numerous guns to bombard attacking ships, this is a classic design of a fortification consisting of a hornwork with its demi-bastions facing the land and a star fort facing the sea. It was built by the Genoese military engineer ...