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Irene Bald Romano

Image of a divinity that served in antiquity as a focal-point for worship and cult rituals. Most cult statues were housed in temples or shrines, although outdoor worship of images is also attested. Although aniconic worship (i.e. of a non-anthropomorphic symbol of a deity such as a rock or pillar) is known in Near Eastern, Greek and Roman cults, most deities by the late 2nd millennium bc were worshipped in an anthropomorphic form and were, as such, earthly substitutes or humanized manifestations of the presence of a deity.

Anthropomorphic cult statues are well attested in the Ancient Near East, Anatolia, the Levant and Egypt. Near Eastern cuneiform records going back at least to the 2nd millennium bc indicate that Mesopotamian cult images were made of wood and opulently clad in tiaras, robes and jewellery. The garments of the statue were ceremonially changed, and ritual meals were served up to the cult image. Specific attributes and attire aided identity. From ...

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Mauro Cristofani, Giampiero Pianu, Emeline Richardson, Jean MacIntosh Turfa, Tom Rasmussen, Michael Eichberg, Marina Martelli, Simonetta Stopponi, Giovannangelo Camporeale, J.-R. Jannot and Larissa Bonfante

Civilization of Italy that flourished from the 9th century bc to the 1st. Ancient Etruria is usually defined as the area bounded by the Tyrrhenian Sea, the River Arno, the Tuscan–Umbrian Apennines and the River Tiber ( see fig. ).

Mauro Cristofani

Etruria is a varied, predominantly hilly region with a low-lying, marshy coast and hence few natural ports, although its rivers provide good internal communication routes. In ancient, as in modern, times, the climate and terrain favoured agriculture, and Etruria also had rich mineral resources, especially iron and copper. Throughout its history certain main urban centres, each with a dependent territory, maintained a consistent cultural and political importance.

Etruscan civilization originated during the Late Bronze Age (12th–11th century bc), when the region’s sparse population began to establish settlements on naturally defensible tufa plateaux in the south and hilltops in the north. Archaeological evidence from these sites, which later became the historical cities of Etruria, suggests that by about the ...

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Mauro Cristofani, Giampiero Pianu, Emeline Richardson, Jean MacIntosh Turfa, Tom Rasmussen, Michael Eichberg, Marina Martelli, Simonetta Stopponi, Giovannangelo Camporeale, J.-R. Jannot and Larissa Bonfante

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Michael Eichberg

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Emeline Richardson

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Marina Martelli

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Marina Martelli

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Simonetta Stopponi

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Giovannangelo Camporeale

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Mauro Cristofani, Giampiero Pianu, Emeline Richardson, Jean MacIntosh Turfa, Tom Rasmussen, Michael Eichberg, Marina Martelli, Simonetta Stopponi, Giovannangelo Camporeale, J.-R. Jannot and Larissa Bonfante

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Mauro Cristofani

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