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Jörg Garms

(b Nantes, May 16, 1667; d Paris, March 19, 1754).

French architect and writer. He maintained the tradition of the Grand Style in France between Jules Hardouin Mansart, who was born in 1646, and Ange-Jacques Gabriel, who died in 1782. His work also provided an important bridge between that of Louis Le Vau in the mid-17th century and those of the architects of the Piranesian generation of Neo-classicists in the mid-18th century, such as Etienne-Louis Boullée, whom he influenced.

His father, Jean Boffrand, was a minor architect and sculptor. Germain Boffrand came to Paris at the age of fourteen to study sculpture, working for three years in the studio of François Girardon. From 1685 he worked as a draughtsman in the Bâtiments du Roi under Jules Hardouin Mansart. Through his uncle, the court poet Philippe Quinault, Boffrand met important artists and aristocrats, who were to prove useful connections later. By the late 1690s he was supervising architect of the new Place Vendôme, Paris, but in ...

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(b Soignies [Hainault], nr Brussels, Oct 23, 1695; d Munich, April 14, 1768).

French architect of Flemish origin, active in Bavaria. A discriminating and imaginative artist, he successfully imported the Parisian Rococo, at the height of its popularity, into the Munich area: his glittering adaptations of French ideas far surpass the original models. In the 18th and 19th centuries de Cuvilliés’s work was known chiefly from collections of his ornamental designs, which were made between 1738 and 1768.

At the age of 11, de Cuvilliés entered the service of Maximilian II Emanuel (reg 1679–1726), exiled Elector of Bavaria, as a court dwarf and was educated by him. In 1714 he returned with Maximilian to Munich, where he was taught mathematics and fortification design. In 1715 he was appointed draughtsman to the Bavarian Director General of Building, Graf Ferdinand von der Wahl. Two years later he served as an ensign in the Bavarian army, apparently in the position of a fortifications engineer. During ...

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Elaine Evans Dee

(b Turin, 1695; d Paris, July 31, 1750).

French designer, architect and goldsmith. He was apprenticed to his father Etienne Meissonnier, a sculptor and silversmith of some importance, before making his way to Paris, arriving in 1714. He worked there as a die-cutter and medallist, progressing through the ranks of the metalworkers’ guild. He was variously described as a chaser, a designer and, in 1723, as a maker of watchcases; he worked for ten years at the royal furnishings factory of Gobelins, Paris. In September 1724 Louis XV appointed him by brevet a master of the Corporation des Marchands-Orfèvres Joailliers. It would appear, however, that his main occupation was as a chaser. His mark, a crowned fleur-de-lis, j o m and two grains de remède, has been found on only one piece, a gold and lapis lazuli snuff-box (1728; Geneva, J. Ortiz Patino priv. col., see Snowman, pl. 146). In spite of this scarcity of signed pieces, it is reasonable to assume that he closely supervised the work that he contracted to other goldsmiths. In ...