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Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Aberdeen, 1740; d Philadelphia, PA, March 5, 1795).

American cabinetmaker of Scottish birth. He trained as a cabinetmaker in Edinburgh and London. In 1763 he arrived in Philadelphia on the same boat as John Penn, the new Governor of Pennsylvania and a future client, to join Quaker friends. He opened a shop on Union Street and eventually moved to Second Street in the Society Hill area. He made stylish mahogany furniture (sold 1788; e.g. Philadelphia, PA, Cliveden Mus.; armchair, Winterthur, DE, Mus. & Gdns) for the governor’s mansion at Lansdowne, PA, and many of the most prominent families in the city owned his work, including the Mifflins, the Whartons, and the Chew family at Cliveden. The parlour suite he made for John Cadwalader carved by James Reynolds and the firm of Bernard and Jugiez in 1770–71 was among the most elaborate ever produced in the colonies (pole screen, Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.).

A Quaker and Loyalist, Affleck refused to participate in the Revolution (...

Article

Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira

(b Mariana, Minas Gerais, bapt Oct 18, 1762; d Mariana, Feb 2, 1830).

Brazilian painter. He was the most important painter active in the province of Minas Gerais during the Colonial period. He learnt his craft in the workshop with other artists and from such theoretical treatises as Andrea Pozzo’s Perspectivae pictorum atque architectorum (1693–1700) and such technical manuals as the Segredos necessarios para os officcios, artes e manufaturas (Lisbon, 1794), which was recorded in the inventory of his possessions. He was also strongly influenced by engravings of religious subjects in bibles and missals. He had a great influence on the development of religious painting in the region, especially through his numerous pupils and followers, who until the middle of the 19th century continued to make use of his compositional methods, particularly in the perspective ceilings of churches. Often referred to in documents as ‘professor de pintura’, in 1818 he unsuccessfully petitioned for official permission to found an art school in his native city. He left an extensive body of work, which includes decorative painting of architecture, single pictures, and the painting of religious statues (gilding and flesh-colouring). Especially famous are the vast perspective paintings such as the ...

Article

Bombé  

Gordon Campbell

[Fr.: ‘swollen’]

Having an outward swelling curve. The term is used with particular reference to French Rococo chests of drawers, which first appear in the bombé shape in the 1740s. The swollen section is normally in the upper half; when it is in the lower half, it is sometimes known as ‘kettle shape’. In colonial America bombé furniture was mostly made in Massachusetts, primarily in Boston but also in centres such as Salem. In American bombé the swollen part is in the lower section in forms such as chests- of-drawers, desk and bookcases, chest-on-chests and dressing tables.

G. T. Vincent: ‘The Bombe Furniture of Boston’, Boston Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, ed. W. M. Whitehill, B. Jobeand J. L. Fairbanks (Boston, 1974), pp. 137–96.M. S. Podmaniczky and others: ‘Two Massachusetts Bombe Desk-and-bookcases’, Mag. Ant., 145 (May 1994), pp. 724–31M. K. Brown: ‘Topping off Thomas Dawes’s Desk-and-bookcase’, Mag. Ant., 157/ 5 (May 2000), pp. 788–95...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1803; d c. 1878).

American silversmith. In 1839 he established a workshop in New York; the principal client for his Rococo Revival wares (mostly presentation plate) was Ball, Tompkins & Black. In 1864 Moore joined Tiffany family §1; the family business passed to his gifted son Edward Chandler Moore (1827–91), who subsequently designed and manufactured silverware for Tiffany & Co.,which took over the workshop in ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

A renewed interest among artists, writers, and collectors between c. 1820 and 1870 in Europe, predominantly in France, in the Rococo style in painting, the decorative arts, architecture, and sculpture. The revival of the Rococo served diverse social needs. As capitalism and middle-class democracy triumphed decisively in politics and the economy, the affluent and well-born put increasing value on the aristocratic culture of the previous century: its arts, manners and costumes, and luxury goods.

Among the earliest artists in the 19th century to appreciate and emulate 18th-century art were Jules-Robert Auguste (1789–1830), R. P. Bonington, Eugène Delacroix, and Paul Huet. For these young artists the Rococo was a celebration of sensual and sexual pleasure and a product of a free and poetic imagination. Looking particularly at the work of Watteau, they sought to reproduce the Rococo capacity for lyrical grace, its sophisticated understanding of colour, and its open, vibrant paint surfaces in their work. These qualities can be seen in such re-creations of 18th-century scenes as Eugène Lami’s ...