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Pamela H. Simpson

(b Philadelphia, PA, April 1, 1852; d London, Aug 1, 1911).

American painter, illustrator, and muralist, active also in England. Abbey began his art studies at the age of 14 in his native Philadelphia where he worked with Isaac L. Williams (1817–95). Two years later he enrolled in night classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art working under Christian Schussele (1824–1979), but by then Abbey was already a published illustrator. In the 1870s his drawings appeared in numerous publications, but it was his work for Harper & Brothers that proved most important to his career. In 1871 he moved to New York, and in 1878, Harper’s sent him on a research trip to England. He found such affinity with the country that he made it his home for the rest of his life. After 1889 he devoted more time to painting, was elected a Royal Academician in 1898, and in 1902 was chosen by Edward VII (...


Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....


Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Istanbul, June 11, 1938).

American historian of Islamic art. Atıl earned her PhD at the University of Michigan, with a dissertation on an illustrated Ottoman Book of Festivals. In 1970 she was appointed Curator of Islamic Art at the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, a post that she held for 15 years. An extraordinarily energetic and prolific curator, she organized many notable exhibitions based on the Freer collection as well as traveling exhibitions of Mamluk art, the age of Süleyman the Magnificent, and of the Kuwait collection of Islamic art. Between 1985 and 1987, Dr. Atıl was Guest Curator at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. With the opening of the Sackler Gallery at the Smithsonian Institute in 1987, she was appointed Historian of Islamic Art at the Freer and Sackler Galleries, a position she held until her retirement in 1993.

E. Atıl: 2500 Years of Persian Art (Washington, DC, 1971)E. Atıl...


Michael D. Willis

(b Ormskirk, Lancs, Oct 17, 1879; d Vancouver, Oct 15, 1957).

Canadian painter and illustrator of English birth. She briefly attended the Liverpool Art School, the Lambeth School of Art, London, and finally, from 1900, the Slade School of Art, London, where she studied with Henry Tonks and others. From 1901 Biller was a successful illustrator of children’s magazines, books and Christmas annuals, chiefly for T. C. & E. C. Jack of London. Many titles were translated into German, and they enjoyed wide circulation in Europe. After marrying John Biller (1912), she emigrated to Canada. While her commercial work virtually ceased there, she never stopped illustrating her life and surroundings in letters and sketchbooks. After her husband’s death in World War I, Biller settled with her two children on James Island (near Victoria) in 1919. In 1927 she moved to Victoria, where she was an active member of the (Vancouver) Island Arts and Crafts Society, founded by Josephine Crease. Biller’s watercolours often appeared in the Society’s exhibitions. Relocation to Vancouver in ...


Carolyn Kinder Carr

(b Cincinnati, OH, July 9, 1857; d New York, June 8, 1903).

American painter and illustrator. The son of German–American parents, he probably became interested in magazine illustration while an apprentice at Gibson & Co., lithographers in Cincinnati, during 1873 and 1874. He began drawing lessons at the McMicken School of Design (now the Art Academy of Cincinnati) c. 1873, transferring to the Ohio Mechanics Institute in 1874. Blum visited the Centennial Exposition (1876) in Philadelphia and was impressed with paintings by Giovanni Boldini and Mariano Fortuny y Marsal and by Japanese art. He remained there for about nine months, studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

In 1878 Blum moved to New York, where he contributed illustrations to such magazines as St Nicholas and Scribner’s Magazine. Two years later he took the first of numerous trips to Europe. In Venice he met James McNeill Whistler and Frank Duveneck and under their influence took up etching. He travelled frequently with ...


Amy Fox

(b St Petersburg, April 4, 1905; d New York, 1973).

American illustrator, graphic designer, and painter of Russian birth. Vera Bock moved to the USA in 1917 during the height of the Russian Revolution, arriving in San Francisco. The daughter of an American banker and a Russian-born concert pianist, she studied woodcutting, manuscript illumination, printing, and photogravure in England for a year, supplementing her training in painting and drawing. Her book illustration career began in 1929 with the publishing of two books, Waldemar Bonsels’s The Adventures of Maya the Bee and Elle Young’s The Tangle-Coated Horse, a book that was reviewed in 1930 for the Newbery Medal and in 1938 received retro-active Honor Book status.

During the Great Depression of the 1930s she was employed by the Federal Art Project (FAP) through the Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration; WPA) of the US Government. During 1936–9 she illustrated and designed posters for the FAP New York City poster division. Most noted posters from this period are ...


Annemarie Weyl Carr

(b Berlin, Aug 11, 1909; d London, Nov 10, 1996).

German scholar of Byzantine, East Christian and European illuminated manuscripts. He took his degree in 1933 at the University of Hamburg in the heady community of the Warburg Library (later Institute) under the tutelage of Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl. Immigrating with the Warburg staff and library to London in 1934, he served from 1940 to 1949 as the Institute’s Librarian and from 1944 to 1965 as Lecturer, Reader and then Professor of Byzantine art at the University of London. In 1965 he came to the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, becoming in 1970 the first Ailsa Mellon Bruce Professor. He retired in 1975 to London, where he died in 1996.

Buchthal is best known for his Miniature Painting in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1957), which laid the foundation for the now well-established art-historical field of Crusader studies. It exemplifies both his originality and the methods that made his scholarship so durable. Fundamental among these were his holistic approach to manuscripts, giving as much attention to ornament, liturgical usage, text traditions, palaeography and apparatus as to miniatures, and his relentlessly keen visual analysis. Aided by a powerful memory, he worked from original monuments, developing exceptional acuity in dissecting the formal components of their images. Mobilized in his dissertation, published in ...


Kirk Marlow

(b New York, March 18, 1779; d Woolwich, March 18, 1847).

English painter, illustrator, writer and Soldier, active in Canada. As a young cadet at Woolwich Royal Military Academy (1793–5) he took instruction in topographical drawing from Paul Sandby. He travelled and sketched in continental Europe and established a reputation with his illustrations to picturesque travel-books of Italy and the Alpine regions of Switzerland.

In 1826 Cockburn went to Quebec City as commander of the Royal Artillery. His principal Canadian work is a guidebook to the city, entitled Quebec and its Environs: Being a Picturesque Guide to the Stranger (1831). It includes six engravings based on his drawings of the area. Published anonymously, the book was written in a somewhat anecdotal yet informative style, directing the newly arrived visitor to the most scenic viewpoints of the city and surrounding areas. It points out the panoramic vistas that would undoubtedly delight all visitors to and residents of Quebec city, which is perched on a cliff overlooking the St Lawrence River....


Barbara Haskell


(b Canandaigua, NY, Aug 2, 1880; d Long Island, NY, Nov 23, 1946).

American painter. He worked as an illustrator in New York (1903–7). In 1907 he travelled to Paris and southern France, where under the influence of Henri Matisse and Paul Cézanne he experimented with a style characterized by bright colours, curvilinear rhythms and non-naturalistic representation. On his return to the USA in 1909, his association with Alfred Stieglitz began. In 1910 he moved to a farm in Westport, CT. At this time he created some of the first distinctively non-representational works produced by an American, for example the Abstractions series (all priv. cols, see Morgan, pp. 100–103). The ten pastels that he showed in his first one-man exhibition at Gallery 291 (1912) consisted of simplified, stylized motifs, the circular and saw-tooth forms of which interpenetrated and overlapped to create an organic Futurism. In them he expressed his belief that objects are not discrete, isolated entities, but active forces whose rhythms are in constant interplay with their environments....


H. Nichols B. Clark

(b New York, July 22, 1827; d Saratoga Springs, NY, Jan 22, 1889).

American painter and illustrator. After graduating from Columbia College, New York, in 1847, he immediately departed for Europe to pursue artistic training. He visited Italy and France, but staying in Germany, specifically Düsseldorf, was his main objective. There he studied with Karl Friedrich Lessing, Carl Ferdinand Sohn, and fellow American Emanuel Leutze, and in Paris he was instructed by Thomas Couture. During the early 1850s he travelled between America and Europe but finally settled in New York in 1853 until his move to Saratoga Springs after marrying in 1877. Ehninger exhibited regularly at the National Academy of Design, New York, where he was elected a full member in 1860. His work reveals interests shared by the other Americans in Düsseldorf: these were mainly history and genre painting, with occasional forays in European landscape. But he quickly returned to American subject-matter; Yankee Peddler (1853; Newark, NJ, Mus.), for example, describes the initiative of an itinerant entrepreneur in the young nation....


Kari Horowicz


(b San Francisco, CA, June 29, 1911; d San Francisco, CA, Oct 1, 1973).

American typographer, bookbinder and printer. As a child Grabhorn received a good education in France, and as a teenager she attended private schools in San Francisco, where she developed a great love of literature and books. In France she learnt the art of bookbinding and was subsequently a student of one of California’s premiere binders: Belle McMurtry Young. Grabhorn would later bind many of the Grabhorn Press titles. Much of her typographic and printing education came while working at the Grabhorn Press (1920–65), which had been founded by her husband Robert Grabhorn and his brother Edwin. She created inventive typographical works under her own imprint, Jumbo Press. Her treatise, A Typografic Discourse for the Distaff Side of Printing, a Book by Ladies (San Francisco, Jumbo Press, 1937), displays her inventive use of typography.

Grabhorn was co-founder of the Colt Press in San Francisco in 1938. Her partners were businessman William M. Roth and Jane Swinerton. The Colt Press (...


Roberta K. Tarbell

(b New York, Dec 3, 1897; d Manhasset, NY, Jan 6, 1977).

American painter, political cartoonist, illustrator and printmaker. Born on the Lower East Side of New York, his Lithuanian immigrant parents worked in garment sweatshops. He studied painting at the experimental Ferrer Center School (1912–14) with Robert Henri and George Bellows and at the New York School of Fine and Applied Art (1915–17). For 30 years Gropper supported himself by executing political cartoons, satirical drawings and illustrations, mostly of lower-class people bearing the burdens of global social dislocation. Thereafter, he created etchings and Expressionist figurative paintings of American politicians and New Yorkers at work and play. He contributed to international progressive organizations and publications while simultaneously staying aloof from Eurocentric avant-garde art.

He was a regular contributor to The New York Tribune (1917–19), The Liberator (1918–24, successor to The Masses), the Yiddish Communist daily Morgen Freiheit (1924–48) and The New Masses...


Kari Horowicz

(b Budapest, July 13, 1896; d Warwick, NY, May 26, 1981).

Hungarian illustrator and designer, active also in the USA. Karasz studied at the Royal School of Arts and Crafts in Budapest. Her prolific career encompassed a wide range of media, including illustration and designs for textiles, ceramics, silver, furniture, interior and wallpaper, at all of which she excelled and won awards. Her work was inspired by European design, particularly work by artists at the Wiener Werkstättte. In 1913 she moved to the USA, where she taught at the Modern Art School in Greenwich Village, New York. She quickly became involved in the artistic life of Greenwich Village and provided numerous illustrations for a variety of arts and literature publications including Modern Art Collector, Bruno’s Weekly and Playboy: A Portfolio of Art and Satire. Later, in the 1920s, Karasz’s work was included within or as cover art for The Liberator, The Masses, Harper’s Bazaar, Town and Country and Vanity Fair. Karasz is most famous for her work at ...


Mark Haworth-Booth

(b Great Falls, MT, Dec 14, 1890; d New York, Oct 22, 1954).

American designer and painter, active in England. He studied painting first, at evening classes at the Mark Hopkins Institute, San Francisco (1910–12), at the Art Institute of Chicago, with lettering (1912), and in Paris at the Académie Moderne (1913–14). In 1912 he adopted the name of an early patron, Professor Joseph McKnight (1865–1942), as a gesture of gratitude. In 1914 he settled in Britain.

From 1915 McKnight Kauffer designed posters for companies such as London Underground Railways (1915–40), Shell UK Ltd, the Daily Herald and British Petroleum (1934–6). One of his master works, Soaring to Success! Daily Herald—The Early Bird (1919; see Haworth-Booth, fig.), was derived from Japanese prints and from Vorticism. In 1920 he was a founder-member of Group R with Wyndham Lewis and others. McKnight Kauffer’s designs included illustrations for T. S. Eliot’s Ariel Poems...


Roy R. Behrens

(b Amsterdam, May 5, 1910; d Rome, Oct 11, 1999).

American graphic designer, children’s book illustrator and author, active also in Italy. His father was a diamond-cutter, descended from Sephardic Jews, while his mother was an operatic soprano. In 1922 his parents migrated to the USA, where he joined them three years later. They moved again the following year to Italy, where he was required to major in business and economics, subjects in which he eventually earned a Ph.D. Having always dabbled in art, his paintings were of interest to the Italian Futurists, particularly Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who promoted his work. In 1938, fearful of Fascist racial attitudes, he and his Italian wife, Nora Maffi (whose father was one of the founders of the Italian Communist party), moved to Switzerland, then to the USA, where they lived from 1939 to 1960. Lionni worked initially as a graphic designer at N. W. Ayer in Philadelphia, the third largest advertising agency in the country, where among his clients were the Container Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Electric and ...


(b Hagerstown, MD, Nov 13, 1857; d Santa Barbara, CA, Nov 9, 1932).

American painter and illustrator. Of Swedish descent, the family moved to Toledo, OH, when Lungren was four years old. He showed an early talent for drawing but was intended by his father for a professional career and in 1874 entered the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to study mining engineering. He left in 1876, however, determined to become an artist. After a protracted dispute with his father, he was allowed briefly to attend the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadelphia, where he studied under Thomas Eakins and had Robert Frederick Blum, Alfred Laurens Brennan (1853–1921), and Joseph Pennell as fellow students. In the winter of 1877 he moved to New York, where he worked as an illustrator for Scribner’s Monthly (renamed Century in 1881) during the period known as ‘the Golden Age of American illustration’. His first illustration appeared in 1879 and he continued to contribute to the magazine until ...


M. Sue Kendall

(b Paris, March 14, 1898; d Dorset, VT, July 30, 1954).

American painter, printmaker and illustrator. He returned from France to the USA with his American parents, Fred Dana Marsh (1872–1961) and Alice (née Randall) Marsh (1869–1929), who were also artists, in 1900. In 1920 he graduated from Yale University, New Haven, CT, where he had been art editor and cartoonist for the Yale Record. He moved to New York and became staff artist for Vanity Fair and the New York Daily News. By 1923 he had begun painting scenes of street life in New York in oil and watercolour. His first one-man show was held at the Whitney Studio Club in 1924. In 1925 he joined the New Yorker, to which he contributed regularly until 1931.

In 1925 Marsh travelled with his first wife, sculptor Betty Burroughs, to Europe where he studied and copied the works of the Old Master painters such as Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt, and Michelangelo, whom he particularly admired for their ability to organize large figure groups. In ...


Matthias Ulrich

(b Lubin, Poland, Sept 11, 1967).

Polish draughtsman, sculptor, video, performance, and mixed media artist, active in the USA. She grew up in Sweden, where she studied Communications at Schillerska/Gothenburg University in Gothenburg from 1986 to 1987. After moving to New York, Mir earned her BFA for Media Arts at the School of Visual Arts in 1992, and from 1994 to 1996 she studied Cultural Anthropology at the New School for Social Research.

Mir’s practice as an artist refers to popular culture in general, focusing on images and ideas that influence and represent social reality, and investigating popular myths and technologies such as the cinematographic representation of images. The journey to the moon, for example, symbolizing the dominance of the United States during the Cold War, receives through Mir’s appropriation in First Woman on the Moon (1999) a critical reflection, taking into consideration patriarchal power structures as well as the apparent staging of reality through mass media. In her work ...


Phyllis Braff

(b Bolton, Lancs, Feb 12, 1837; d Santa Barbara, CA, Aug 26, 1926).

American painter, printmaker, and illustrator, of English birth. His brothers Edward (1829–1901), John (1831–1902), and Peter (1841–1914) were also artists. The family emigrated from England and settled in Philadelphia in 1844. At age 16 Moran was apprenticed to the wood-engraving firm Scattergood and Telfer, but he also began to produce watercolours that sold well. In an exchange arrangement with a book dealer, Moran acquired editions of important engravings, including Claude Lorrain’s Liber Veritatis and J. M. W. Turner’s Liber Studiorum. These served as formative influences for his career as a landscape painter, and contributed to his lifelong concern with pictorial structure and compositional devices. His study of oil painting was guided by his brother Edward, and by Edward’s acquaintance, the marine painter James Hamilton.

Moran’s interest in evocative natural settings led to a trip to Lake Superior in 1860 and to a series of paintings and prints featuring that region’s dramatic configurations of rocks and shoreline. In ...


Sally Mills

(b Kassel, Germany, Oct 18, 1818; d San Francisco, CA, March 1, 1878).

American painter and illustrator of German birth. Born to an artistic family, he was an accomplished watercolourist by age 12; he later studied at the Kassel Academy and exhibited work in Berlin and Dresden. In 1846 he moved with his close-knit family to Paris, where he may have worked with the history painter Horace Vernet (1789–1863). In 1849 the Nahls left Europe; settling in Brooklyn, NY, they were soon lured west by the promise of gold. Arriving in California in 1851, the family briefly and unsuccessfully worked a mining claim outside Marysville before moving to Sacramento. There Nahl set up a studio with August Wenderoth (1819–84), producing portraits, lithographs, newspaper illustrations and oil paintings of Gold Rush life (e.g. the jointly signed Miners in the Sierras, c. 1851; Washington, DC, N. Mus. Amer. A). Following a disastrous fire in Sacramento in 1852, the family and partnership moved to San Francisco. Wenderoth pursued other interests and eventually moved to Philadelphia. Nahl, by then accepting commissions for portraits, graphic designs and daguerreotypes, turned to his half-brother Arthur Nahl (...