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E. Charles Adams

Site in North America, in north-eastern Arizona. A Hopi village was established there by c. ad 1250 and destroyed in 1700. During excavations (1935–9) by the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, almost 150 wall paintings were discovered in 11 kivas (subterranean ceremonial structures; see Kiva). The wall paintings were first executed c. 1375 using the fresco secco technique and continued up to Spanish contact in the early 17th century. Except for black, inorganic pigments were used, including red, yellow, blue, green, pink, orange, brown, grey and white. Plant, animal and anthropomorphic forms are portrayed, as well as clouds, lightning, water symbols and geometric designs. The subject matter is religious, depicting parts of ceremonies, events and creatures of Hopi oral history, and altars used to perform ceremonies. Later compositions convey a feeling of movement, many showing symbolic combat between two figures. The sudden appearance of elaborate kiva wall paintings seems to coincide with the development of ...


( fl Rome, 1562–90).

Italian painter and cartographer of Lombard birth. Little is known of his early life or career before his first documented commission in Rome in December 1562 for the design of maps in the Terza Loggia of the Vatican Palace for Pope Pius IV. It is unclear whether he came to Rome for this commission or whether it was awarded after his arrival. He worked on this project until September 1565, at which time he also painted a scene of the concluding session of the Council of Trent—his only known figurative work—on the walls of the same loggia. During his career he worked for a variety of prestigious patrons in addition to Pius IV, including Cardinal Alessandro Farnese and Pope Gregory XIII.

Vanosino played a key role in the development of cartography in early modern Italy. The advancement in map-making was largely due to the rediscovery of Ptolemy’s Geographia in 1406...


Amy Meyers

( fl 1585–93).

English watercolourist, active in North America . His drawings are among the earliest known images of the North American continent by an English artist. He is thought to have accompanied an exploratory expedition to the New World led by Sir Martin Frobisher (?1535–94) in 1577 and another sponsored by Sir Walter Ralegh (1552–1618) in 1584. In 1585 White served as official artist on a venture sponsored by Ralegh to establish the first English settlement in North America, on the Island of Roanoke, Virginia. Although this venture failed, Ralegh sponsored a second settlement expedition in 1587, naming White governor of the colony.

On the 1585 expedition, White collaborated with the scientist Thomas Harriot (1560–1621) in charting the North American coastline and recording the New World’s native inhabitants, flora and fauna ( see fig. ). In producing his finished watercolours, White consulted works by the Huguenot artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues, who had visited Florida from ...