1-20 of 25 results  for:

  • American Art x
  • 1600–1700 x
Clear all

Article

Gordon Campbell

American family of joiners and cabinetmakers, active in Hadfield, MA. The brothers John Allis (1642–91) and Samuel Allis (1647–91), whose maternal great-uncle was Nicholas Disbrowe, were both joiners, as was John’s son Ichabod (1675–1747). The firm was managed by John Allis the elder, and employed his brother and sons; John the elder’s partner was ...

Article

Raymonde Gauthier

(b Normandy, c. 1635; d at sea, 1698).

French architect and builder, active in Canada . He arrived in Quebec in 1675 and was contracted as a mason to the seminary of Quebec for three years. He probably assumed responsibility from 1675 for all buildings constructed on lands granted to the seminary, both within the town of Quebec and on the country estates owned by this association of French lay preachers. It is only from 1679, however, after his contract was terminated, that his name is found on legal documents associating him with private individuals or representatives of the civic authorities. In addition to his craft as a mason, Baillif also learnt to work in stucco. He appears to have been the only person then capable of creating decorative elements in this material, which was highly popular at that time both in the colony and in France. He came to dominate the building industry in Canada in the last quarter of the 17th century, and it appears that he alone in Quebec was able to provide both the plans on paper and the technical instructions required to construct large-scale religious and civil buildings, at least until the arrival (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Norwalk, Staffs, Sept 16, 1632; d Hatfield, MA, Jan 3, 1713).

American joiner. He was brought to America by his parents c. 1640. In 1661 he moved to Hadley (now Massachusetts) in the Connecticut River valley, and entered into partnership with John Allis family. Belden’s son Samuel (1665–1738) and Allis’s son Ichabod (1675–1747) ran Belden & Allis after the deaths of their fathers....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1657; d 1729–30).

American goldsmith and silversmith of Dutch origin, based in New York. His most characteristic products are spoons, teapots, beakers and tankards (with coins set in the lids); his pieces are marked with the letters IB in a shield. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has a fine silver teapot and a silver seal made for civic use in Marbletown (Ulster County, NY). Jacob’s son Henricus was also a silversmith....

Article

Gerald W. R. Ward

(b Boston, MA, Jan 5, 1656; d Boston, Aug 20, 1722).

American silversmith, goldsmith and engraver. The son of a cooper, Coney probably served his apprenticeship with Jeremiah Dummer (1645–1718) of Boston. Coney may have engraved the plates for the first banknotes printed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1690 and certainly engraved the plates for those issued in 1702. His patrons included important citizens of Boston, churches throughout New England, local societies and Harvard College. Active as a silversmith and goldsmith for 45 years, he produced objects in three distinct styles—that of the late 17th century (characterized by engraved and flat-chased ornament and scrollwork), the early Baroque and the late Baroque (or Queen Anne)—and introduced specialized forms to New England, for example the monteith and chocolatepot. Although derived directly from the English silversmithing tradition and thus not innovative in design, Coney’s work exhibits excellent craftsmanship in all technical aspects of gold- and silversmithing. Two lobed sugar-boxes (Boston, MA, Mus. F. A., and Manchester, NH, Currier Gal. A.), a large, gadrooned, two-handled cup (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Hartford chest; Sunflower chest]

American oak chest made in the Connecticut River valley in the late 17th century. The panels and drawer fronts carved with what have traditionally been called ‘tulip and sunflower’ motifs; they would be more accurately described as ‘tulip and marigold’. The chests were sometimes decorated with split banisters applied to the verticals. The Connecticut chest has traditionally thought to have been developed by ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery in Burlington, NJ. It was founded in 1688 by Dr Daniel Coxe (b ?Stoke Newington, England, 1640/41; d ?London, 19 Jan 1730) and John DeWilde (b c.1665; d Doctor’s Creek, NJ, 1708). A Cambridge-trained physician, Dr Coxe had extensive interests in the American colonies and was Governor of East and West Jersey from 1688 to 1692. His contract with DeWilde for a pottery ‘for white and Chiney ware’ was only one of the many ways in which he profited from his colonial holdings. From 1675 DeWilde had trained in London delftware potteries and by the time of his association with Coxe was a master potter and maker of delftware. Documents show that tin-glazed earthenwares were sold in the Delaware River Valley, Barbados and Jamaica, although no pieces from this pottery survive. The pottery was probably disbanded when Coxe sold his Jersey holdings to the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Portsmouth, NH, c. 1638; d Ipswich, MA, 1706).

American furniture-maker. In the late 1660s Dennis moved from Portsmouth to Ipswich, where he entered into a partnership with William Searle (whose widow he was later to marry). Furniture by Dennis and Searle is represented in the collections of the Winterthur Museum in Delaware and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(bapt Saffron Walden, Essex, June 16, 1613; d Wethersfield, CT, 1683).

American cabinetmaker. He emigrated from England to Hartford, CT in the mid-1630s. Some Connecticut chests have been attributed to his workshop, but he is no longer believed to have been the originator of the form. The signature of Disbrowe on the Hadley chest in the Bayou Bend collection in Houston is now considered to be fraudulent....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1645; d 1718).

American silversmith, apparently the first to be born in America. He was apprenticed in the Boston workshop of John Hull (see under Boston §III 2., (i)). Dummer's silverwork is severe, but includes stylish objects, such as cups with cast scroll and caryatid handles. His apprentices probably included Coney, John...

Article

David Tatham

(bapt Dorchester, MA, Dec 10, 1648; d Dorchester, Sept 9, 1681).

American printer and printmaker. He was the son of early settlers in Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard College in 1667; he then taught in Dorchester (now South Boston) and about 1670 began making the earliest pictorial woodcuts in English-speaking North America. In 1675 he became the first letterpress printer in Boston and the second in New England. Foster’s woodcut Richard Mather (c. 1670; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) is among the earliest of American portraits and perhaps the first in any medium by an artist born in English-speaking America. His Map of New-England, ‘White Hills’ version (1677; Boston, MA Hist. Soc.), which he adapted from a manuscript source (untraced), was the first map to be cut, printed and published north of Mexico. Despite their primitive quality, Foster’s prints are strongly designed and show a keen awareness of Baroque style in the graphic arts. In addition to his work as a printer and printmaker, Foster took an interest in medicine, music, astronomy, meteorology, mathematics and possibly painting....

Article

Thierry Bajou

[Frère Luc]

(b Amiens, 1614; d Paris, May 17, 1685).

French painter. He trained in the studio of Simon Vouet after 1627 and in 1634 travelled to Rome, where he was influenced by the work of Raphael and Guido Reni and by such artists as Girolamo Muziano. In 1635 he painted a copy (Longeau, parish church) of Jacopo Bassano’s Assumption (Rome, S Luigi dei Francesi). He returned to Paris in 1639 and worked for Pierre Sublet de Noyers and Anne of Austria on decorative schemes at the Louvre and elsewhere. In 1641 he joined the reformed Franciscan order of the Recollects in Paris, taking his vows as Frère Luc in 1645. From this point on François’s works were largely confined to subjects taken from the life of St Francis, painted for Recollect monasteries in Paris, Melun, Rouen, Châlons-sur-Marne, Sézanne and elsewhere. Those that survive show François to have been an honest, if not particularly inventive artist, who had memorized what he had seen in Italy. Among his more successful works are ...

Article

Kevin D. Murphy

Domestic architecture in the USA comprises a wide variety of types—including detached single-family residences, row houses or town houses, apartment buildings, and more—as well as structures ranging from impermanent earth-fast dwellings of the seventeenth century to contemporary ‘McMansions’ measuring thousands of square feet in size. What makes housing important are the many ways in which it has deeply touched the lives of all Americans. Because of its diversity, the domestic architecture of the USA has been studied from a range of disciplinary perspectives, from the formal to the anthropological.

The earliest housing in America was built by native populations prior to the arrival of European settlers in the 17th century. While some was substantial, such as Pueblo Bonito (AD 910–1110) in Chaco Canyon, NM, other architecture, such as that constructed by many Native Americans in the Northeast, was transient.

While the subject of housing has sometimes been considered the purview of architectural historians, in fact, at any given historical moment, many (if not most) domestic buildings have not been designed by professional architects but by carpenters, builders, contractors, or home-owners. In the settlement period, the houses of most European Americans were earth-fast, small-scale, one-storey buildings, and were designed by their owners or builders. Given that the earliest housing in the USA was not built on stone foundations, it was perishable and little of it survives; it is known primarily through archaeological evidence. Research has shown that the earliest houses were typically constructed of locally available materials and that regional variations reflected the places of origin of the builders. For example, the 17th-century architecture of the Massachusetts Bay Colony reflected the knowledge on the part of its British settlers of existing traditions in Great Britain, although it was adapted to local circumstances. The Parson Capen House in Topsfield, MA (...

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

Technique for imitating Asian Lacquer. Once Dutch and Portuguese traders imported lacquer ware from the Far East after 1700, Europeans became fascinated by this technique. Originating in ancient China, it spread to Japan where it is still practiced in the 21st century. The process involved the application of up to a hundred coats of lacquer produced from the sap of the Rhus vernicifera tree, native to China, Malaya, and Japan. Despite attempts to discover the secret, Europeans could not duplicate the process. Since the sap quickly congeals it did not travel well and was toxic like poison ivy.

In 1688 A Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing by John Stalker and George Parker explained how to imitate the process by applying shellac dissolved in alcohol over a gessoed surface (see Stalker and Parker). Black was the most common color but red, white, blue, green, yellow, olive brown, and imitation tortoise shell (black streaked with vermillion) were also known. After designs were drawn on the surface, a mixture of red clay or sawdust, whiting, and gum arabic was daubed into the outlines and the raised images were sculpted with engraving tools and then colored with metal dust. A variation called ...

Article

Kas  

Gordon Campbell

[Afrik.: kas; Dut.: kast, pl. kasten]

Large American cupboard of Dutch origin manufactured in the Hudson and Delaware areas from the late 17th century to the early 19th. It was a large piece of furniture, sometimes decorated with grisaille panels, and was used for the storage of clothes and (in some cases) dishes.

American Kasten: The Dutch-style Cupboards of New York and New Jersey, 1650–1800...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of upholstered settee or sofa with a high back and arms hinged from the seat level; the arms could be vertical (with the tops level with the back) or sloped outwards. The prototype is a ‘couch chair’ (i.e. a settee or sofa) made in the early 17th century (possibly 1630s). This settee, which has been in Knole (Kent, NT) for centuries, is upholstered in red velvet and has red fringes. It may be identical with the ‘couch’ made in ...

Article

Canadian family of artists, of French origin. Jean Levasseur (1622–86) and his brother Pierre Levasseur (1629–c. 1681) trained in France as master joiners, before settling in Quebec. From the mid-17th century they and their numerous descendants executed ornamental interiors for civil and ecclesiastical buildings, greatly contributing to the richness of French-influenced architectural decoration in churches throughout Quebec. Records in public archives show contracts and receipts for major new projects, repairs, restoration, statues, crucifixes, candlesticks, coats of arms and boat-carving undertaken by family members, many of whom remain unidentified. The most notable member of the family was the architectural sculptor Noël Levasseur (1680–1740), who worked with his two sons François-Noël Levasseur (1703–94) and Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Levasseur (1717–75), also both sculptors, and with his brother Pierre Levasseur (1684–1744), who was a master joiner. Noël Levasseur is credited with introducing the open-balustraded ...

Article

(b Quebec, Sept 21, 1668; bur; Quebec, Sept 18, 1753).

Canadian architect. He was apprenticed to, and occasionally collaborated with, Claude Baillif, as well as with other masons and contractors in New France, including his own brother Joseph Maillou (1663–1702). On the latter’s death Maillou acquired 16 different architectural treatises of French origin, which had probably previously belonged to Baillif, and which influenced the style of his buildings. Maillou was involved in Quebec in building the church of St Nicolas and in rebuilding Notre-Dame des Victoires in 1723, in the second building campaign of Palais de l’Intendant in 1726 (with Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Lery) and in the construction of the church of St Etienne in 1730. It is also generally believed that he participated in the early 18th century in the building of the majority of the stone parish churches that were then being set up in the colony, and his name is attached to the formalization of the prototype of the plan for such buildings. His activities also included stone cutting, masonry contracting, evaluation and land surveying, and he was assistant to the Chief Inspector of Highways. The French authorities gave him the title Architecte du Roi and ...

Article

G. Lola Worthington

Native American people and culture that thrived throughout the lower Mississippi region until the 18th century. Approximately nine village townships constituted a nation that was overall peaceable, although altercations with neighbouring tribes occurred. Existence was based on agriculture, and the society was also creatively artistic. Mulberry bark fibre textiles were skilfully woven as clothing, high-quality pottery was produced, and raised earthen mounds were built.

In 1682 the French first encountered and recorded the Natchez as the only advanced North American society based around a monotheistic, theocratic sun cult. Before their civilization declined, the nation practised large-scale devotion to one ruling leader. Maintaining complete and powerful religious authority through devout worship, he maintained an ‘earthly demi-god’ position over his citizens’ lives and property. Known as ‘the Sun’, the ruler required that all available natural resources and labour be devoted to supporting him as head of state. Inhabitants erected high platforms for his living quarters and temples. His authority, authenticated by a high-status priesthood, maintained his divine existence through sophisticated, ritualistic religious practices. Elaborate ceremonies conducted by his priesthood dedicated and sanctioned his elevated status. A central plaza contained his household. A large-scale mound with numerous temples and household buildings held his main temple with its ceremonial fire....