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Leslie Maitland, Jacqueline Hucker, Ann Davis, François-Marc Gagnon, Diana Nemiroff, Martha Langford, Christine Boyanoski, Olga M. Williams, John A. Fleming, Elizabeth Collard, Gloria Hickey, Ross Fox, Jocelyne Mathieu, Sandra Paikowsky, J. Lynne Teather, Jim Burant and Mary F. Williamson

Country in North America, bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Pacific and to the east by the Atlantic; the only land borders it shares are with the USA, on the south and between the Yukon and Alaska in the north-west (see fig.). Canada is comprised of ten provinces and two territories, and although it occupies almost 10,000,000 sq. km, the vast majority of the population (c. 25,000,000) live within 160 km of the Canada–US border. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a member of the Commonwealth. The Prime Minister is political head of state, while the reigning member of the British royal family serves as titular head of state, represented by the Governor-General.

This article is a survey of Canadian art since the beginning of European colonization in the early 17th century. For its earlier history and information on the continuing traditions of its native peoples ...

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Leslie Maitland

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Leslie Maitland

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Martha Langford

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Gloria Hickey

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Louise Noelle, Carlos Chanfón Olmos, Rogelio Ruiz Gomar, Fausto Ramírez, Karen Cordero, John Mraz, Leonor Cortina de Pintado, Christopher Hartop, Carlotta Mapelli Mozzi, Teresa del Conde, Agustín Arteaga, Enrique Franco Calvo and Aurelio de los Reyes

[Estados Unidos Mexicanos]

North American country. Situated at the southern tip of the continent between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, it is bordered by the USA to the north and Guatemala and Belize to the south-east. It is the third largest country in Latin America (area c. 1,972,500 sq. km) and is shaped somewhat like a funnel, wide along the USA border and narrowing towards the south-east (see fig.); the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the narrowest point just west of the Yucatán Peninsula, is a low-lying, tropical north–south corridor generally considered to mark the geological division between the continents of North and South America. Physically Mexico is dominated by mountain ranges, which mostly run parallel to the coastline. The northern ranges enclose high central plateaux occupying nearly 50% of Mexico’s total area; they comprise arid northern plains and the better irrigated, central Anahuac Plateau, which is the most densely populated region. The Transverse Volcanic Range, which crosses the centre of the country and has several active volcanoes over 4500 m in height, encloses a number of high-altitude valleys and basins originally filled with lakes; these include the Valley of Mexico, site of the capital, Mexico City. Mexico is divided by the Tropic of Cancer; it has a temperate climate in the high plateaux and a hot, tropical climate in the narrow coastal plains and Yucatán Peninsula. Previously the site of several sophisticated indigenous cultures, notably the ...

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Kathryn Greenthal, Marcus Whiffen, Leland M. Roth, Karol Ann Peard Lawson, Edward J. Nygren, Henry T. Hopkins, Joan Marter, Marvin D. Schwartz, Oscar P. Fitzgerald, Ellen Paul Denker, Jane Shadel Spillman, Gerald W. R. Ward, Charles J. Semowich, Diane L. Fagan Affleck, A. M. Zrebiec, Courtney Ann Shaw, J. Heinritz Bidner, Judith Zilczer, A. Deirdre Robson, Arthur D. Efland, Sarah Scott Gibson, Anne Blecksmith and Shana Gallagher Lindsay

Country composed of 50 states, 48 of them contiguous and stretching between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and between the borders of Canada to the north and Mexico to the south (see fig.). Of the other two states, Alaska is on the north-western tip of the North American land mass, while Hawaii comprises a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, c. 3800 km off the western American coast (for a full discussion see Hawaii). The total land mass of the USA is c. 9,370,000 sq. km. Its rich and varied array of natural resources, including minerals, oils, forests and fertile soil, led to its rapid development and prosperity, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries. The country became the United States of America in 1781 during the American Revolution. The first inhabitants of North America, however, came c. 15,000 bce from Asia in a series of migrations across the Bering Strait and established distinct cultural and linguistic units (...

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Leslie Maitland

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Mario Eloy Valero, Elida Salazar, Carlos F. Duarte, Alfredo Boulton, Christopher Hartop, Zuleiva Vivas, Anthony Páez Mullan, Manuel Espinoza and Susana Benko

South American country. It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Brazil to the south, Guyana to the east and Colombia to the west (see fig.). Its name, meaning ‘little Venice’, was given to it in 1499 by the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who compared the indigenous people’s dwellings, which were built on water, to those of the Italian city. The country is divided into twenty states, two federal territories, one federal district and the insular territories. The capital is Caracas (founded 1567). The majority of the country’s c. 20 million inhabitants live along the coast. More than 60% of the population is of mixed ethnic origin, 20% Caucasian, 9% of African descent and c. 2% Amerindian.

The country’s topography and location provide it with a variety of climates. The west, lying at the tip of the Andes, has fertile valleys: the two most important Andean cities are ...

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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Leslie Maitland

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Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen

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John A. Fleming

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