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Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...


Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...


Hollis Goodall-Cristante

[ Buson ; Sha’in ; Shunsei ; Taniguchi Noriyuki ; Yahantei ]

(b Kema, Osaka, 1716; d Kyoto, 1783).

Japanese painter and poet . He was a member of the second generation of literati painters in Japan. He and his contemporary Ike Taiga ( see Ike family §(1) ) absorbed and transformed the Chinese scholar–amateur style into a Japanese idiom ( Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d) ).

Buson left Kema in 1735 for Edo (now Tokyo), where he studied haiku poetry under Uchida Senzan and, from 1737, under Hayano Hajin (1677–1742). His earliest known work was an illustration of a woman reading a letter (1737; see Suzuki, p. 157) for a haiku anthology. When Hajin died, Buson left Edo and for the next ten years he lived and travelled in the northern Shimosa–Kantō provinces (now Ibaraki Prefect.), concentrating on the study of haiku but supporting himself by painting. His works of this period were experimental, drawing both on the style of the Kanō school...


Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...


Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....


Mark H. Sandler

[Shiroishi; Kyūkei; Shiroishi; Kyūkei; Fūrai Sanjin]

(b Shido, Sanuki Prov. [now Kagawa Prefect.], 1728; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1780).

Japanese writer, naturalist, scholar and painter. He was born into a low-ranking samurai family in the Takamatsu Domain (now in Kagawa Prefect.) on Shikoku. His interest in the natural sciences developed while working in the medicinal herb garden of his lord, Matsudaira Yoritaka. In 1752–4 he was sent to study in Nagasaki, where he encountered Western and Chinese scientific ideas and methods. After studying in Osaka with the herbalist Toda Kyokuzan (1696–1769), Gennai travelled c. 1757 to Edo, where he became a student of the government physician and naturalist Tamura Genyū (1718–76). Through Tamura he met the physician and scholar of Western learning Sugita Genpaku (1733–1817) and others interested in empirical science. This group conducted symposia, investigating the properties of a wide range of materials. Drawing on these studies, Gennai wrote his most important book, Butsurui hinshitsu (‘Classification of various materials’; 1763), which contained descriptions of some 360 specimens. It was illustrated mainly by the Nagasaki school painter ...


Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b London, Oct 21, 1735; d ?Enfield, Middx, Feb 20, 1809).

English antiquary, topographer and writer. He was born into an enterprising family (at the age of 11, his father, Harry, had gone to China with his uncle, the explorer Sir Richard Gough) and displayed prodigious talents, learning Latin from Samuel Dyer, a friend of Dr Samuel Johnson, and at 11 himself began a History of the Bible Translated from the French, printed privately by James Waugh in 1747. On his father’s death in 1751 he inherited the family estates in Hertfordshire. From 1752 to 1756 he attended Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he was a conscientious, if solitary, student, but left without a degree. He then began the first of his extensive tours around England, and his notes and descriptions from these journeys formed most of his writings. In 1762 he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and served as Director, from 1771 to 1776. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society between ...


Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...


Karen M. Gerhart

[Kasetsudō, Chōudō]

(b Kii Prov. [now Wakayama Prefect.], 1746; d 1799).

Japanese painter, art critic and theorist. His family was descended from a tea master and samurai vassal of warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but by the time of Gyokushū’s birth the Kuwayama had given up Samurai status and become well-to-do shipping merchants. His highly influential essay on literati art (Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), Kaiji higen (‘Humble words on painting’), was published posthumously in 1800 by the patron, collector and painter Kimura Kenkadō. In 1790 Gyokushū published Gyokushū gashū (‘Collected works of Gyokushū’), which explains the importance to Japanese artists of the theories of Dong Qichang, a Chinese artist and theorist of the Ming period (1368–1644). Both treatises attest to Gyokushū’s understanding of literati aesthetics.

Gyokushū’s earlier paintings show meticulous brushwork in the service of descriptive naturalism. This was the style of the new Nagasaki School based on Chinese models (see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (c)...


Richard L. Wilson

[Sakai Tadanao; Ukean]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1828).

Japanese painter, printmaker and antiquarian. He was the second son of Sakai Tadamochi (1735–67), lord of Harima, and the main instigator of the revival of interest in the early 19th century in the Rinpa school of decorative painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)). Hōitsu created a distinctive Edo style of Rinpa out of the tradition created by Ogata Kōrin (see Ogata family, §1) in the early 18th century by adding new subject-matter and changing the handling of detail, which became more profuse, sharper and less artificial. This new sense of naturalism was characteristic of the arts of the latter part of the Edo period (1600–1868), as was the pleasure Hōitsu took in witty contrivances. Two early paintings, Matsukaze and Murasame (1785) and Beauty Hunting Fireflies (1788; both priv. col., see Yamane, nos 77–8), reflect the style of Utagawa Toyoharu (...



(fl early 18th century).

Japanese poet and calligrapher. Along with her adopted daughter Yuri, also a poet and calligrapher, she ran the Matsuya tea house in Kyoto, where intellectuals and literary figures gathered to hear her recite poetry. Her waka (31-syllable classical verse) poems were written casually and for the moment; hence few examples are extant. The calligraphy in these, however, is remarkable for its boldness, energy and flair, effects created by dramatic variations in the thickness of the lines. In 1707, 120 of Kaji’s waka were collated by the Edo-period (1600–1868) poet Ameishi in the three-volume Kaji no ha, illustrated by Miyazaki Yūzen. Kaji was one of the most widely recognized Japanese poets of the 18th century and continues to be celebrated, along with other famous people of various eras, in the Jidai Matsuri (Festival of the Ages), held each October at the Heian Shrine in Kyoto.

For general discussion of Japanese calligraphy ...


Tadashi Kobayashi


(b Osaka, 1736; d Osaka, 1802). Japanese collector, scholar, poet, painter and calligrapher. As a boy he undertook the study of medicinal herbs at the apothecary’s shop owned by his father and other relatives. According to tradition he began to have an interest in art when he was about five or six and studied with the Kanō-school master Ōoka Shunboku. He also learnt bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) under Kakutei, a Zen priest from Nagasaki. He first met the literati painter Ike Taiga (see Ike family §(1)) when he was 15, and became his pupil. Taiga’s influence is evident in his Bunjinga (literati painting; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and also in his calligraphy, in which he excelled. Kenkadō also studied seal-carving with Kō Fuyō, a friend of Taiga, and poetry with Katayama Hokkai. He became one of the most erudite and well-known literati in the region. By profession he was a sake brewer and amassed a fortune, which, however, he forfeited when he incurred the wrath of the authorities. He collected a vast range of objects including calligraphy, old writings and paintings, maps, ceramics, utensils for the ...


(b Seoul, 1704; d Sinji Island, South Chŏlla Province, 1777).

Korean painter, calligrapher and poet . Born the son of a government minister during the Chosŏn period (1392–1910), he was involved in the conspiracy of the Soron faction in 1755 and was exiled to Kilju in North Hamgyŏng Province. In 1762 he was transferred to Sinji Island, where he eventually died. He studied calligraphy with Yun Sun (1680–1741) and produced a compilation of the calligraphy of earlier Korean calligraphers, Wŏngo chipson (‘Compilation of manuscripts’), as well as a systematic account of the theory of calligraphy. His own calligraphy, for example Haengso sa’ŭn si (Seoul, Korea U. Mus.), a four-line verse in running script, had a considerable influence on the calligraphy of future generations. He painted portraits in the style of the Southern school , for example Portrait of a High Priest (1746; silk; 242×223 mm; Seoul, Cent. Stud. Kor. A., Kansong A. Mus.), while his landscapes reflect the influence of the ...


Wu Li  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[zi Yushan; hao Mojing Daoren]

(b Changshu, Jiangsu Province, 1632; d Feb 24, 1718).

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher . He was one of the Six Orthodox Masters of the early part of the Qing period (1644–1911); the others included the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and Wang Yuanqi, along with Yun Shouping ( see Orthodox school ). All six were natives of southern Jiangsu Province, in the Yangzi River basin. Wu Li was a close friend of Wang Hui in his youth, and both were students of Wang Shimin and Wang Jian. Wu flirted with the philosophical tenets of Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism but eventually converted to Christianity when he was about 50 years old and travelled to the Portuguese island of Macao with Father Philippe Couplet in 1681. He became a Jesuit priest and in 1692 headed a Jesuit mission in Jiading (in modern Shanghai Municipality). Catholicism did not inspire in Wu Li a great love of European art, and he remained a painter in the Chinese literati tradition (...


[Iwase Samuru; Rissai, Seisai, Santō Kyōden]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1816).

Japanese print designer, book illustrator and writer. Together with Kitao Masayoshi (1764–1824) and Kubo Shunman, he was one of Kitao Shigemasa most brilliant students. He made his début in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) in 1778 with his illustrations for the kibyōshi (‘yellow cover books’; comic novels) Kaichō ryaku no meguriai. During the next few years he produced illustrations for popular novels, in the manner of other artists in the Kitao studio. At the same time he began to design single-sheet prints, including yakushae (‘pictures of actors’). In the early 1780s Masanobu illustrated extravagant ehon (‘picture books’) and kyōka (‘crazy verse’) books and also produced nishikie (‘brocade pictures’; full-colour prints) series of bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In 1783 he published his most famous work, Seirō meikun jihitsushū (‘Collection of writings of the wise ruler of the greenhouses’; woodblock-print; London, BM, which consists of 14 tate ōban...


Stephen Addiss

[Gion Mitsugu; Hōrai, Nankai]

(b Kii Province [now Wakayama Prefecture], 1677; d Kii Province, 1751).

Japanese painter, calligrapher and poet. Along with Sakaki Hyakusen and Yanagisawa Kien, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)) and is also celebrated as a poet and calligrapher in the Chinese style (Karayō). He was the eldest son of a doctor and Confucian scholar and as a youth accompanied his father to Edo (now Tokyo), where he studied Confucian texts and Chinese poetry with Kinoshita Jun’an (1621–98). Nankai returned to Kii in 1697 but in 1700 was banished for some unspecified offence. Because he was highly regarded as the finest Chinese-style poet of his day and as an accomplished calligrapher, Nankai was pardoned in order to participate in receptions for the Korean mission of 1710. Three years later he was appointed the official teacher in the clan Confucian academy.

Nankai took up painting in the Chinese literati manner shortly after his pardon in order to supplement his poetry and calligraphy. He was primarily self-taught and more influenced by Chinese woodblock-printed books than by imported Chinese paintings themselves. He was also influenced by immigrant Chinese monks of the Ōbaku sect, many of whom were fine calligraphers and some of whom also painted. Nankai became the prototype of the literati artist, painting as a form of personal expression and devoting himself to literati landscape themes, as in the hanging scroll ...


Ju-Hsi Chou

revised by Michael J. Hatch

[Chin Nung; hao Dongxin]

(b Renhe, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 1687; d 1764).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and poet. In his youth he showed promise as a poet, and his talent was appreciated by such leading scholars as Mao Qiling (1623–1716) and Zhu Yizun (1629–1709). His teacher, He Chuo (1661–1722), also praised him as a poet belonging to the tradition of the Tang-period (ad 618–907) poets Meng Haoran (689–740) and Gu Juang (c. 725–814), and as the best among his peers. Jin became a notable figure in the Nanping shi she (Nanjing Poetry Club), whose members included such distinguished literati figures and artists as Li E (1692–1752), Huang Shijun (1696–1773), Ding Jing (1696–1765), and Chen Zhuan (1668–after 1748). It was at this time that he acquired the reputation of being aloof and difficult—“eccentric”—which did not, however, prevent him from being known and well received. He was seen frequently among the elites of the cultural and artistic centers of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, and Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, or of other cities visited during his wide travels. He was later designated one of the ...


Pyŏn Yŏng-Sŏp

[Yŏjŏng; ho Yŏn’gaek, Ch’osŏn, Kudo]

(b 1709; d 1768).

Korean poet, painter and calligrapher. His ancestral home was Yangch’ŏn. In 1735 he passed the first level (chinsa) in the state examinations for civil office. He was an excellent poet and was on intimate terms with Kang Se-hwang. The two men painted and travelled together, and Hŏ P’il’s criticisms of several of Kang Se-hwang’s works remain. Hŏ produced mainly landscapes (Kor. sansudo) in the literati style of the Chinese Southern school. Among his subjects were the Kŭmgang (Diamond) Mountains in central Korea. Works attributed posthumously to him include paintings of a Poem by Du Fu (Seoul, Ewha Women‘s U. Mus.), Landscape with Mt Umyŏn (Seoul, N. Mus.) and, in collaboration with Kang Se-hwang, another Landscape with Mt Umyŏn (Seoul, Korea, U. Mus.).

O. Se-ch’ang, ed.: Kŭnyŏk sŏhwa ching [Dictionary of Korean calligraphers and painters] (Taegu, 1928/R Seoul, 1975) Yu Pok-yŏl: Hanguk Loehwa taegwan [Pageant of Korean painting] (Seoul, 1979)...


Richard Vinograd

[Lo P’ing; zi Dunfu; hao Liangfeng, Yiyun Heshang, Huazhi Siseng]

(b Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1733; d 1799).

Chinese painter and writer. Luo was the youngest of the major Yangzhou school painters of the 18th century and a significant innovator in the genres of portraiture and depiction of ghosts. Born into a family of scholar–officials, in his early career Luo was much influenced by Jin Nong, his teacher in poetry and painting from about 1757. After Jin’s death in 1763 Luo undertook the editing of some of his mentor’s writings, together with other quasi-filial duties. Jin’s historical and selfconscious exploration of a broad range of genres, including plum and bamboo painting, portraiture and Buddhist figure painting, clearly influenced Luo’s choice of subject-matter. However, the relationship was not one-sided: Luo was more technically accomplished than his teacher and probably painted works to which Jin signed his own name. Luo’s portrait Jin Nong Taking a Noon Nap (hanging scroll; 1760; Shanghai Mus.) is notably informal and irreverent in style.

Several other paintings from Luo’s early career document both his entrance, by the early 1760s, into the cultured circles of south-east China and his exploration of the significance of portraiture. A second portrait, ...



Cecil H. Uyehara

(b Echigo Prov. [now Niigata Prefect.], 1758; d 1831).

Japanese Zen monk, calligrapher and poet. He became a monk at the age of 18 at the temple Kōshōji, Okayama Prefecture, but, being a wanderer for most of his life, never attained high monastic rank. He is known for his poetry in Japanese and Chinese and his individualistic, indeed idiosyncratic, swiftly brushed style of calligraphy and is one of the most respected calligraphers of the late Edo period, receiving more attention and study than his contemporaries Maki Ryōko and Ichikawa Beian. His modern popularity has given rise to an increasing number of Ryōkan forgeries. Most of his extant calligraphies consist of letters and poems in his own hand, much of the subject-matter deriving from his everyday experiences, as for example the letter brushed in ink on paper between 1806 and 1810 (Tokyo, N. Mus.). Ryōkan studied the 100-character text by the Chinese calligrapher Huaisu, the calligraphy of the legendary 4th-century ...