1-20 of 163 results  for:

  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
  • East Asian Art x
Clear all

Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Western name for Chinese porcelain of the Kangxi period (1662–1722) imported by Dutch merchants through the Dutch trading station at Batavia (now Jakarta). This porcelain, which was brown-glazed, decorated with panels and usually painted in blue, was imitated by European manufacturers, notably at Meissen and Leeds, and these imitations are known as Batavia ware....

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...

Article

Elizabeth Adams

English ceramic manufactory. The first Bow patent for ‘a certain material whereby a ware might be made … equal to … China or Porcelain ware imported from abroad’ was taken out in east London in December 1744 by the Irish artist Thomas Frye (c. 1710–62) and by Edward Heylyn (1695–1765). The early undertaking, significantly named ‘New Canton’, was founded to undercut Chinese imports and was probably financed by Alderman George Arnold (1691–1751). John Weatherby (d 1762) and John Crowther (d 1790), who had been partners in pottery and glassmaking ventures since 1725, completed the board of proprietors. An important ingredient in the original paste and mentioned in the 1744 patent was ‘Unaker’, possibly a china clay imported from Carolina. The soft paste used at Bow was unique in being the first to incorporate calcined bone-ash (mentioned as ‘Virgin earth’ in the second Bow patent of ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...

Article

Frank L. Chance

[Tani Masayasu; Shazanrō]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], Oct 15, 1763; d Edo, Jan 6, 1841).

Japanese painter and book designer (see fig.). He was the son of the poet Tani Rokkoku (1729–1809). As his father and grandfather were retainers of the Tayasu family, descended from the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Bunchō inherited samurai status and received a small stipend to meet the responsibilities this entailed. In his youth he began studying the painting techniques of the Kanō school under Katō Bunrei (1706–82). After Bunrei’s death Bunchō worked with masters of other schools, such as the literati painter Kitayama Kangan (1767–1801), and developed a wide stylistic range that included many Chinese, Japanese, and even European idioms. He is best known for his crisp landscapes in the literati style (Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)), especially those produced in the Kansei era (1789–1801) inspired by such Chinese masters of the Ming period (...

Article

Hollis Goodall-Cristante

[ Buson ; Sha’in ; Shunsei ; Taniguchi Noriyuki ; Yahantei ]

(b Kema, Osaka, 1716; d Kyoto, 1783).

Japanese painter and poet . He was a member of the second generation of literati painters in Japan. He and his contemporary Ike Taiga ( see Ike family §(1) ) absorbed and transformed the Chinese scholar–amateur style into a Japanese idiom ( Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d) ).

Buson left Kema in 1735 for Edo (now Tokyo), where he studied haiku poetry under Uchida Senzan and, from 1737, under Hayano Hajin (1677–1742). His earliest known work was an illustration of a woman reading a letter (1737; see Suzuki, p. 157) for a haiku anthology. When Hajin died, Buson left Edo and for the next ten years he lived and travelled in the northern Shimosa–Kantō provinces (now Ibaraki Prefect.), concentrating on the study of haiku but supporting himself by painting. His works of this period were experimental, drawing both on the style of the Kanō school...

Article

Mary S. Lawton and Marco Musillo

[Lang Shining; Lang Shih-ning]

(b Milan, Jul 19, 1688; d Beijing, Jul 16, 1766).

Italian painter, architect, and Jesuit lay brother, active also in Portugal and China. Castiglione is one of the few Western artists to be included in the Chinese imperial collections. In the catalogue raisonné of the Imperial Collection of Paintings published in the Jiaqing reign (1796–1820) are listed forty-seven titles and fifty-six pieces by Castiglione.

Castiglione entered the Society of Jesus in 1707 after having received full training as a painter in Milan. While in Milan he studied late 17th-century painting techniques and later identified himself as a pupil of Andrea Pozzo, also a lay brother, who is best known for his decoration of the ceiling of the Jesuit church of St. Ignazio in Rome. A group of large paintings from Genoa commissioned for the refectory and church of the local Jesuit noviciate indicate that Castiglione’s style was competent if not innovative. Documentary evidence also attest commissions received in Portugal for frescoes of the life of St. Ignatius Loyola that decorated the chapel of the Jesuit Novitiate in Coimbra, Portugal, now part of the ...

Article

Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. Production at the Salopian China Manufactory on the Caughley estate, near Ironbridge, Salop, was started in 1775 by Thomas Turner (1749–1809), a Freeman of Worcester, and Ambrose Gallimore (fl c. 1749–c. 1787), who was active at the estate and may already have been directing potting there. They were encouraged by the availability of coal on site and the proximity of the Severn waterway to Worcester and Bristol as potential markets. Robert Hancock, the former Worcester engraver, was briefly associated with the venture. Until c. 1794 a wide range of useful wares was produced in a soapstone soft-paste porcelain similar to that used at the Worcester factory. Simple shapes and underglaze blue, transfer-printed or painted decoration emulated the style of the wares produced at the Worcester, Chantilly and Tournai factories. A variety of engraved designs was based on Chinese handpainted patterns. Between 1789...

Article

Yi Chae  

Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Hŭigyŏng ; ho Toam, Hanch’ŏn ]

(b Ubong, 1680; d 1746).

Korean painter, calligrapher and government official. He passed the civil service examination in 1702 and served in various posts before becoming Vice-minister of the Board of Rites. He was also a Neo-Confucian philosopher ( see Confucianism, §2(ii) ). Although he is recorded as having been good at painting, none of his works has survived. On the other hand, the portrait of him by an anonymous painter (Seoul, N. Mus.;) is one of the best-known portraits of the 18th century; in it a hint of the influence of Western painting technique, i.e. the use of chiaroscuro, can be detected. Yi Chae is portrayed in old age wearing a white scholar’s robe with black trimming, called hakch’ang’ŭi, and a black headdress. The simplicity of the scholar’s garment further enhances the penetrating expression of his eyes and the slight shading on his face. Several of his calligraphic works remain, including the stele of Kim In-hu (...

Article

Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(b Seoul, 1750; d Seoul, 1815).

Korean calligrapher and painter of the late Chosŏn period (1392–1910). Although he was a descendant of a distinguished family, because he was born out of wedlock his official post remained that of a civil servant. Along with fellow enthusiasts of pukhak (‘Northern [i.e. Chinese] learning’) such as Pak Chi-wŏn and Hong Tae-yong (1731–83), Pak urged that Korea should learn from the civilization of the Chinese Qing period (1644–1911). As a member of an official delegation he visited Beijing in 1790. His contact with the arts and letters, the ideology and scholarship and the literary style of painting of the Qing court enabled him to play a pioneering role in the emergence of the school of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, with its emphasis on innovation and feeling. Through his role as teacher to Kim Chŏng-hŭi, Pak’s influence stretched to later generations.

From childhood he showed a talent for poetry, calligraphy and painting. Whenever he saw a blank space, he is said to have filled it with his art. In calligraphy he excelled in cursive and semi-cursive scripts, and he introduced the format of paired phrases. In his painting he mainly used a neat and fresh literati style. Western painting influences are reflected in his ...

Article

Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Kyŏngdo ; ho Haksan, Ch’anha ]

(b P’ap’yŏng, Kyŏnggi Province, 1764; d after 1840).

Korean painter and scholar . He began his official career brilliantly in 1792 by coming first in the saengwŏn (classics licentiate) examination. Unfortunately his advancement was interrupted twice, first when he was banished to Ch’angwon, South Kyŏngsang Province, in 1806 for political factionalism, the second time when he was released from his post of magistrate because of charges brought against him in 1830 by the amhaeng ŏsa (‘secret inspectors’).

Yun Che-hong’s contemporary Sin Wi, who wrote extensively about painters and their works, only mentions briefly that Yun preferred to paint landscapes. This suggests that, as a result of his turbulent official career, Yun might not have mingled with men of letters and arts of his time. Yun Che-hong’s extant works prove that he was an innovative and unconventional painter. An album of eight leaves containing Yun’s landscape paintings (Seoul, Ho-am A. Mus.) reveals that he experimented with such unusual techniques as using the tip of his finger or a stick. On one of the album leaves—that depicting ...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...

Article

Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau

(b Lyon, Feb 12, 1756; d Lyon, June 20, 1813).

French sculptor. He was the son of a silk merchant and trained under the painter Donat Nonotte at the Ecole Royale de Dessin in Lyon. He then worked with the local sculptor Barthélemy Blaise (1738–1819). In 1772 he assisted Blaise with the restoration of the sculptures on the façade of the Hôtel de Ville. By 1780 he was working independently and received a commission from the canons of St Paul for chalk statues of St Paul, St Sacerdos and the Four Evangelists (all destr. 1793–4). He subsequently made stone statues of St Bruno and St John the Baptist (partially destr.) for the Charterhouse at Selignac, near Bourg-en-Bresse. In 1784, thanks to the patronage of the Lyonnais official Jean-Marie Delafont de Juis, Chinard was able to go to Rome, where he remained until 1787. There he studied the art of antiquity but seems not to have had any contact with Antonio Canova, the most influential Neo-classical sculptor in the city. In ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b London, Jan 7, 1774; d Macao, May 30, 1852).

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive (London, 1750); his father, William jr, was also a writing master, and exhibited portraits at the Free Society of Artists. George entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1792, and by 1795 had exhibited 20 portraits at the Academy.

In 1796 Chinnery moved to Dublin. There he married his landlord’s daughter, Marianne Vigne, who gave birth to his two legitimate children. He was active in the Royal Dublin Society and in 1798 was Secretary and Treasurer of its Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. He experimented in several styles and media, to considerable critical acclaim; in July 1801 he received a silver palette ‘in Testimony of his Exertions in promoting the Fine Arts in Ireland’ … from ‘the Artists of Dublin’....