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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

Article

Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

German palace in the town of Bruchsal, situated c. 25 km south of Speyer between Heidelberg and Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg. When Damian Hugo Schönborn was elected Prince–Bishop of Speyer in 1719, he initially intended to rebuild the destroyed bishop’s palace that was attached to the north flank of Speyer Cathedral, but the project brought him into conflict with the Protestant municipal authorities. He then decided to construct a new Residenz on the northern edge of Bruchsal, which had been part of the bishopric of Speyer since the 11th century. As war could be expected at any time in the area, the Residenz complex was to consist of individual buildings separated from one another and grouped around courtyards, an arrangement that would help to control the spread of fire. Plans were procured from Maximilian von Welsch, the architect of Damian Hugo’s uncle, Lothar Franz, Elector of Mainz. Von Welsch’s scheme for Schloss Bruchsal is lost, but his ability to arrange larger groups of buildings effectively on a site suggests that he devised the layout of free-standing buildings and interlocked axes. The tall, rectangular block of the palace was placed on an axis formed by a tree-lined avenue and gardens on one side and on the other by a symmetrical arrangement of buildings and a large courtyard that extended over the adjoining Bergstrasse (now Schönbornstrasse). The street was straddled by the Damian Gate at one end, and at the other it was bracketed by long rows of buildings. Work began first on the flanking blocks, to the designs of ...

Article

Christian F. Otto

[Augustusburg]

German Electoral castle, c. 8 km west of the Rhine, halfway between Bonn and Cologne. The medieval castle, a massive rectangular building containing a court and surrounded by a moat, was extensively destroyed by Louis XIV’s troops in 1689. Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne decided to rebuild the ruin, and in 1715 his architectural adviser, the Parisian court architect Robert de Cotte, submitted plans for the project. No work had begun, however, when Joseph Clemens died in 1723. His nephew and successor, Clemens August, immediately took over the project, employing an experienced local architect, Johann Conrad Schlaun. In his scheme Schlaun incorporated much of the existing fabric. He duplicated the existing north-west tower with another in the south-west and retained the moat around the whole site, creating a C-shaped building that was open to the east. Construction of the two-storey elevation, set on a one-storey base and capped by a mansard roof, was complete by ...

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

Article

D. O. Shvidkovsky

[Rus. Novo-Iyerusalimsky Monastyr’]

Russian monastery near Istra, c. 60 km west of Moscow. One of the largest monasteries in Russia, it was founded in 1656 by Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (1652–66), as part of his attempt to reform the Russian Orthodox Church by restoring original Greek practices and architecture. To confirm his belief that true orthodoxy had survived only in Russia, he built in the centre of the monastery a replica (1658–85) of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem based on drawings and a wooden model brought from Palestine. The result, known as the cathedral of the Resurrection, was a large rotunda enclosing numerous chapels and the replica, set at the west end of a domed, cross-plan church. A tall bell-tower adjoined the church’s south transept. The rotunda was covered with a stone tent-shaped roof, which collapsed in 1723 and was replaced by a wooden roof. This complex building, though unique in Russian architecture, reflected the mid-17th-century tendency towards the elaboration of architectural forms. The original decoration of white walls and coloured tiles was later replaced by stucco details; between ...

Article

Maria Natália Correia Guedes

[Palácio Nacional de Queluz]

Residence near Lisbon, Portugal. The main construction began in 1746 under the direction of the Infante Dom Pedro of Braganza (1717–86), uncle and subsequently king-consort (as Peter III) to Mary I. It became the official royal residence from 10 November 1794 until 27 November 1807, when the Napoleonic invasion forced the royal family to depart for exile in Brazil. The building began as a hunting-lodge owned by the Marquês de Castelo Rodrigo, a diplomat and statesman to Philip II of Spain (I of Portugal). In 1654 the property was incorporated into the estate of the Portuguese royal Infante and was subsequently inherited by Dom Pedro in 1742. His scheme of enlargement was given impetus by a fire in 1751, which destroyed the Paço Corte Real in Lisbon.

The new central east wing (1746–58) and the chapel (1750–52) were designed by Mateus Vicente de Oliveira (for illustration ...

Article

J. M. M. Kylstra-Wielinga

Dutch 18th-century manor house near Warmond in the province of South Holland. It was constructed on the site of fortifications dating from c. 1250, incorporating traces of medieval architecture. The original timber structures were replaced by buildings that were subsequently damaged by fire in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries and rebuilt each time on the old foundations. A 16th-century drawing makes it possible to reconstruct the medieval original, when the castle consisted of a square ground-plan of four wings and four corner towers set around an interior court, the whole surrounded by a moat. The living-quarters were in the north and east wings. The massive west tower was once assumed to have been the keep, but the thickness of its walls (0.9–1.2 m) and its dimensions (7×7 m) are too small for this purpose. In 1629 the castle was given a new entrance range by Salomon de Bray, featuring pilasters and a broad pediment. The south tower, originally octagonal, was replaced by a square one after ...

Article

Christina Thon

Pilgrimage church situated 3 km south-east of Steingaden in Upper Bavaria, Germany. An outstanding work of Bavarian Rococo, it stands in a forest meadow against a background of the Trauchgau Mountains. It is the last collaborative work of the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann. About 1743 Abbot Hyazinth Gassner (d 1745) of the Premonstratensian monastery of Steingaden commissioned Dominikus Zimmermann to design a church to house a miraculous image of the Flagellation; Wies Church was executed in 1745–57. The nave, an elongated oval surrounded by eight pairs of supports in an alternately wide and narrow spacing ( see fig. ), opens on to an ambulatory. On the west side a vestibule with organ gallery was added, to the east a long choir with an apsidal end, flanked at ground-floor level by an ambulatory and on the upper floor by galleries. On the east side a tower and the priest’s house adjoin the building....