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Alexandra Wedgwood

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Darryl Patrick

(fl 1820–50).

American architect. There is evidence that Bond was trained by Solomon Willard. Certain of Bond’s designs suggest the Greek Revival approach that Willard brought from Washington, DC. Bond’s style moved between Gothic Revival and a Neo-classical heaviness. In the Salem City Hall of 1836–37 the two-storey Greek Revival façade shows his carefully proportioned details. An example of Gothic Revival is St John’s Episcopal Church and Rectory (1841), Devens Street, Boston, which has a rather heavy granite façade dominated by a square tower with a battlemented roof-line; there are large quatrefoil windows in the walls below. In the same year Bond was called to Oberlin College in Ohio to design First Church, which had to be a Greek Revival design. He worked on Lewis Wharf (1836–40; later remodelled), Boston, where certain walls reflect his attraction to boldly massed granite surfaces. Bond’s best-known buildings during his life were at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. These included Gore Hall (...

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J.-P. Esther

[Liévin]

(b Ghent, ?1640; d Ghent, ?1720)

Flemish priest, draughtsman and etcher, active also in Italy and France. While living in Wetteren (nr Ghent), he was involved in the completion of the Gothic St Michielskerk in Ghent. The construction of the western tower had been interrupted in 1566 because of religious unrest, and in 1652 steps were taken to complete it. After a Renaissance design was proposed in 1653, Cruyl submitted a drawing in Brabantine Late Gothic style (Ghent, Bib. Rijksuniv.) in 1662. His tower was to have been 134 m high, higher than the north tower of Antwerp Cathedral (1521). However, the project was never realized because of lack of funds. Although unoriginal and of an outdated style, the design had elegance and grandeur.

In 1664 Cruyl left for Rome, where he lived until c. 1670. During this time he drew many views of the city (e.g. 18 sheets, Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) and etched ten plates representing the ...

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Roderick O’Donnell

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Thomas Cocke

(b Cambridge, bapt Aug 25, 1722; d Cambridge, Sept 14, 1784).

English architect. He was an enthusiastic antiquary as well as a reliable architect; he built in both the classical style of the mid-18th century and the Gothic. He was educated at the grammar school in the shadow of King’s College Chapel; at 18 years old he was already drawing ancient Cambridge buildings, including the castle and Barnwell ‘leper chapel’. On leaving school he joined the family business, which undertook general building work and joinery; when his father died in 1749 Essex took sole control. He received a more academic architectural training from James Burrough (1691–1764), the Caius College don and the city’s leading amateur architect, and soon he became Burrough’s chief assistant and collaborator. In 1753 he married the daughter of a Cambridge bookseller, and in 1756 he was commissioned to build an eleven-bay range along the river front of Queens’ College. Only the south-west pavilion (the present Essex building) was constructed, but it established his reputation as a designer of convenient and well-lit college rooms. During the same period Essex reconstructed the decayed Jacobean ranges of Neville’s Court in Trinity College. He retained the existing structure but modernized it by making the attic into a proper second floor and removing strapwork ornament. His major classical work (his last in association with Burrough) was the new chapel and domed ante-chapel for Clare College in ...

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Samuel Wilson jr

American family of architects of Irish origin. (1) James Gallier (i) was one of the best-known and most successful 19th-century architects working in New Orleans, where he was an exponent particularly of the Gothic and Greek Revival styles. His son (2) James Gallier (ii), less prominent than his father, also worked mainly in New Orleans.

(b Ravensdale, Ireland, July 24, 1798; d at sea, Oct 3, 1866).

After a limited basic education, he was apprenticed to his father, Thaddeus Gallier, to learn the building trade. As there was little work, however, he attended the School of Fine Arts, Dublin, and learnt the art of architectural drawing. In 1816 he worked on the building of a cotton mill in Manchester and then worked briefly in Liverpool. He subsequently returned home, but in 1822 he moved to London, where he and his brother John Gallier worked for a building firm and where James spent his spare time studying engineering, architecture and the fine arts. He married in ...

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Alice Dugdale

(b Naples, May 14, 1718; d Naples, March 8, 1785).

Italian architect and theorist. He began his training in 1732 with the architect Martino Buoncore, whose style he later dismissed as ‘Gothic’. However, Buoncore had a good architectural library, in which Gioffredo studied the writings of Palladio, Vitruvius and Vincenzo Scamozzi. During the same period he studied with the painter Francesco Solimena, believing an understanding of the human body to be an essential part of architecture.

Gioffredo qualified as an architect in 1741, after being examined by Giovanni Antonio Medrano (b 1703), one of the kingdom’s engineers. Unfortunately his technical education was somewhat neglected, and he earned for himself the sobriquet ‘l’imprudente architetto napoletano’ after Luigi Vanvitelli was called in to work on his Villa Campolieto (1762), Resina, and the Palazzo Casacalenda (c. 1766), Naples, both of which were in danger of collapse.

Gioffredo’s architectural knowledge was largely acquired from books and from the direct study of ancient buildings. In the preface to his ...

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Gothick  

Michael McCarthy

Term used in a more or less discriminatory way to identify the 18th-century works of the Gothic Revival in British architecture and interior design. Some historians use the term as a convenient shorthand for the 18th-century phase of the Revival; others intend it to highlight the ways in which the ‘Gothick’ of the 18th century—the fanciful and thinly decorative architecture associated with dilettanti and antiquaries—is manifestly distinct from the more historicist works of the 19th-century ‘Gothic Revival’, whose architects not only drew upon different forms or styles of medieval Gothic but were motivated by liturgical, religious and social concerns rather than by 18th-century Associationist aesthetics. Both spellings were used in the 18th century, but during the 19th century ‘Gothick’ became obsolete: Eastlake (1872) wrote only of ‘Gothic’ and Clark (1928) followed his example. That preference has been maintained by such historians as Macaulay (1975) and McCarthy (...

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Samuel Wilson jr

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Samuel Wilson jr

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Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...

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Tim Mowl

Architectural style, predominantly used for castles and churches built in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, which was based on English Romanesque. The Norman Revival is usually treated as a minor strand of the Gothic Revival—part of that interest in medieval styles of building that ran parallel with, but counter to, classical architecture; yet the earliest buildings in a round-arched medieval style pre-date by a decade accepted pioneers of the Gothic Revival, such as Clearwell Castle (c. 1728), Glos. Later, between 1820 and 1850, the use of Norman forms and details seriously rivalled Gothic ones in civil, domestic and ecclesiastical architecture, a phase that has its continental parallel in the German Rundbogenstil. The Norman Revival was a more self-conscious movement than the Gothic Revival, for while the use of Gothic forms had never quite died out in Britain, the round-arched medievalism of the Norman style had been extinct as a building tradition since ...

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Alexandra Wedgwood and Roderick O’Donnell

English family of artists, of French descent. (1) A. C. Pugin came to England c. 1792 and had a successful and wide-ranging career; however, his son (2) A. W. N. Pugin, the Gothic Revival architect, is the best-known member of the family. The latter’s sons (3) E. W. Pugin, Peter Paul Pugin (1851–1904) and Cuthbert Welby Pugin (1840–1928), and his grandsons Sebastian Pugin Powell (1866–1949) and Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell (1874–1958), were all architects.

A. Wedgwood: The Pugin Family: Catalogue of the Drawings Collection of the RIBA (Farnborough, 1977)A. Wedgwood: A. W. N. Pugin and the Pugin Family: Catalogue of Architectural Drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London, 1985)

Alexandra Wedgwood

(b Paris, 1769; d London, Dec 19, 1832).

Architect, illustrator, painter, draughtsman, designer and teacher. He probably came from an artistic family with claims to nobility, and he settled in England during the French Revolution, although the exact circumstances or date of his arrival are not known. On ...

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Bernd Euler-Rolle and Gerhard Schmidt

Augustinian abbey near Linz, Austria. The present Baroque monastic complex was begun in 1686 with the rebuilding of the Gothic collegiate church and early Baroque buildings (1628–32) and was completed in the mid-18th century. The original abbey was built in the 9th century on the site of St Florian’s grave and became an Augustinian foundation in 1071.

Bernd Euler-Rolle

The complex is clearly articulated, with a regular system of closed courtyards, and the church is situated in the traditional location at the northern edge. On the south side of the church is the simple, rectangular conventual courtyard, which was divided into two by the insertion of a theatre in 1731; adjoining this to the south is the large, square prelatial courtyard. The Leopoldine wing between the two was retained from the early Baroque structure.

A presentation sketch of the whole complex by the first architect of the rebuilding project, ...

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R. Windsor Liscombe

(b Norwich, Aug 31, 1778; d Cambridge, Aug 31, 1839).

English architect, writer and collector . A ‘profound knowledge of the principles both of Grecian and Gothic architecture’ generated the career of Wilkins, who was also remembered as ‘a most amiable and honourable man’. He promoted the archaeological Greek Revival in Britain and a Tudor Gothic style. More intellectual than imaginative, his architecture was distinguished by a deft and disciplined manipulation of select historical motifs, a refined sense of scale and intelligent planning, outmoded by the time of his death. Besides his architecture and extensive antiquarian writings, Wilkins assembled an eclectic art collection and owned, or had a financial interest in, several theatres in East Anglia.

The theatres and Wilkins’s architectural bent were inherited from his father, a Norwich architect also called William Wilkins (1751–1815), who assisted Humphry Repton from 1785 to 1796 and established a successful domestic practice, mainly in the Gothick style. His eldest son was educated at Norwich School, then at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, from which he graduated Sixth Wrangler in ...