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Francesco Quinterio

(b ?1438; d Florence, 1503).

Italian mason and architect. He is first recorded in Pisa (1462–3) with other Lombard stonecutters employed to carve the marble tracery for the Gothic windows of the Camposanto (cemetery), adjacent to the cathedral. From 1472 he is recorded as a master mason, responsible for the completion of the church of Santo Spirito, Florence (begun 1436), in accordance with the design by Brunelleschi; Salvi was also responsible for the supply of materials and the repair of tools. In 1475 he was appointed principal mason for the outstanding decorative work of the church, including the upper cornice of the nave, the dome and the façade. He constructed a working model of the dome of Santo Spirito, based on the original model by Brunelleschi, for the office of works. This was the first dome in Florence to have a hemispherical external profile. In May 1482 Salvi was commissioned to decorate the interior of the façade of Santo Spirito, and in ...

Article

Lisa Zeiger

(b Watford, Herts, April 21, 1861; d New York, Jan 27, 1940).

English designer and maker of stained glass, metalwork and enamel. In the mid-1870s he was apprenticed to the London firm of Burlison & Grylls, makers of stained glass in the Gothic Revival style. He later joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, the firm of stained-glass manufacturers and painters founded by his father, Clement Heaton (1824–82), whom he succeeded as a partner in 1882. In 1884 he left London for Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he collaborated with Paul Robert on the decoration of the monumental staircase (in situ) of the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, experimenting with cloisonné enamel as an enrichment for the pilasters, mouldings and cornices. On his return to England in 1885 Heaton executed enamel designs for A. H. Mackmurdo and provided designs for metalwork and lamps for the Century Guild of Artists. Following a dispute in 1885, Heaton left Heaton, Butler & Bayne and established Heaton’s Cloisonné Mosaics Ltd, which produced plaques, book covers and lamps. After ...

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Stephen Murray

Term applied to a particular phase of French Gothic architecture (c. 1230s–1300s) by 19th-century historians who were attempting to divide Gothic into distinct sub-styles based on the changing forms of window tracery. Its general acceptance into the vocabulary of architectural historians resulted from the writings of Enlart, Lasteyrie, Focillon, and (most important in English) Robert Branner. Originally intended to refer to the radiating spokes of the enormous rose windows characteristic of the period (e.g. Saint-Denis Abbey, the transepts of Notre-Dame, Paris), ‘Rayonnant’ came to designate a phase of architectural design and construction involving reduced mass and scale: the prodigious structural and spatial speculations of High Gothic (e.g. the cathedrals of Chartres, Bourges, Amiens, and Beauvais) were ignored in favour of concentrating on the delicate two-dimensional effects to be gained through the application of tracery patterns, not just to windows, but also to building structures, to give a brittle, calligraphic texture to the surface of the building. (The term is also applied to a type of ceramic decoration popular in 18th-century France that used radiating symmetrical motifs.)...

Article

(fl 1434–65).

French glass painter. He was a local artist working at the court of René I, Duke of Anjou (reg 1409–80), and was one of the great exponents of the last phase of Gothic stained glass in France. From 1434 to 1448 he was charged with the regular repair of the glass in Angers Cathedral, and his name constantly appears in the cathedral registers until 1454. When a fire in 1451 destroyed much of the original 13th-century glass in the transepts, Robin was made responsible for replacing the rose windows and several of the lancets. Surviving contracts provide limited documentation of the subjects of the original windows and those designated for the 15th-century replacements. Robin was to incorporate the Last Judgement into the north rose and the Signs of the Zodiac into the south. He enlarged the theme of the Last Judgement to include the apocryphal series of the Fifteen Signs of Doomsday...

Article

Receptacle for table salt. In medieval Europe, when salt was a rare commodity, its container attained a position of great significance on the dining-table. The few extant 15th-century examples are mostly of hour-glass form with Late Gothic ornament or, like the Huntsman (or Giant Salt, c. 1470; Oxford, All Souls Coll.), illustrate the Late Gothic taste for fantastic human or animal forms.

In the 16th century most households possessed a salt of some kind, although there were marked distinctions in size, materials and decoration between the grandiose salts of state, those for informal use and the more modest versions. Large and impressive standing salts symbolized wealth and status and were admired for their craftsmanship and rare and precious materials; a notable example is the gold figural salt (c. 1540–43; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.; see fig.) that Cellini made for Francis I. Most were covered, with a shallow and comparatively small area assigned to the salt. The bodies of 16th-century English salts are predominantly of cylindrical, square or hexagonal section. Refined and expensive decorative techniques were favoured, for example grisaille enamelling and ...

Article

Tazza  

[It.: ‘cup’]

A vessel, used for serving wine or sweetmeats, with a shallow bowl and footed stem, without handles and rarely covered. Made in precious metals, glass and maiolica, it was a feature of court life in Gothic Europe. By the 16th century it had become an elaborate showpiece, commissioned in sets, sometimes of as many as 12 (e.g. the Aldobrandini tazza, one of a set of 12 made for Cardinal ...

Article

Tracery  

Allan M. Brodie and Nicola Coldstream

Stone framework to hold sheets of glass in place within a window opening. Tracery is a particularly characteristic feature of Gothic architecture, appearing first in the late 12th century as a means of creating enlarged window openings. The term is derived from the stage in the construction process in which a window pattern was traced out on a bed of plaster laid on a tracing floor (see Tracing floor), as can still be seen at York Minster (see York, §III, 1, (i)). Individual tracery bars were then cut and laid in position on this surface before being inserted into the window-frame. By the early 13th century the patterns created for windows were extended to decorating wall surfaces. Construction techniques were perfected by c. 1230, allowing architects to concentrate on developing increasingly complex patterns. Tracery remained in widespread use until the end of the 16th century. Though initially and primarily a technique in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b, c. 1450; d before 1519).

Swiss glass stainer. His workshop in Zurich produced small heraldic panels in the Gothic style; the fine detail was achieved by scratching flashed glass with a quill. There are examples of his glass in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum in Zurich and (since 2000) in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....