French city in Haute-Loire. Best known for its Romanesque sculpture, surviving work includes the cathedral of Notre-Dame with its baptistery and cloister, the chapels of St Clair and St Michel d’Aiguilhe, and the church of St Martin, Polignac. The cathedral, an imposing structure with a rectangular choir, projecting transept, and aisled nave of six bays, dominates the city. St Michel d’Aiguilhe, which stands on a volcanic peak near by, has a square core, with apses on three sides, that was enlarged in the Romanesque period with an irregularly shaped ambulatory and short nave. St Clair, located within the precinct of the former hospice of St Nicolas, in the same suburb, is an octagonal chapel with a semicircular eastern apse. The parish church of St Martin, Polignac, situated some 6 km north-west of Le Puy, was originally a dependency of Pébrac Abbey. Four bays of the Romanesque nave remain, terminated by a choir with triple apses. Fragments of sculpture found along the perimeter of the cathedral, which derive from other no longer identifiable structures, are preserved in the Musée Crozatier. The most common material is a local variety of soft-grained sandstone, which resists erosion poorly, with the occasional use of a local basalt. The study of the development of this sculpture is impeded by the virtual absence of secure documentary evidence and the substantial alterations to the appearance and fabric of the buildings made during the extensive 19th-century restorations....
María Dolores Díaz Vaquero and M. C. Lacarra Ducay
Spanish city, capital of the old kingdom and present province of Navarre, situated in the north-east of Spain in the foothills of the Pyrenees. It is especially known for its Romanesque cathedral and for its roles as an ecclesiastical centre, on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela, and as a powerful fortress town that defended the northern approaches to Spain.
María Dolores Díaz Vaquero
The city of Pompaelo was founded near the town of Iruña, now part of Pamplona, by the Romans in 74
French town in Burgundy, known for its Romanesque basilica. The church is now dedicated to the Sacré-Coeur. The counts of Chalon founded a monastery dedicated to the Virgin and St John the Baptist at Paray-le-Monial in
Town in south-west Hungary. Now an industrial and cultural centre with several university institutes, it has significant medieval remains, including fragments of the sculptural programme of its Romanesque cathedral. There are also several museums, including the Csontváry Museum, which houses works by the painter Tivadar Csontváry.
Remains from the Neolithic period onwards have been discovered, but the first significant settlement was the Roman town of Sopianae, whose street-plan underlay the western part of the medieval city. Three of the 4th-century Early Christian mausolea contain wall paintings. During the Migration period the ruined town was occupied by nomadic peoples. Pécs became an episcopal see in 1009, after the foundation of the Hungarian state (c. 1000), and the town remained in the possession of the bishop until the second half of the 18th century. The Turkish occupation of Pécs from 1543 to 1686 caused great destruction as well as a cultural break, and many of the medieval monuments are known only from drawings and excavations....
Alessandra Anselmi, Rossella Caruso, Antonio Caleca, Anabel Thomas and John Richards
Italian city in Tuscany. An important medieval trading port at the mouth of the River Arno, Pisa was the centre of a distinctive and influential style of Romanesque architecture, and its wealth, derived from commercial activity all over the Mediterranean area, attracted a number of important artists to the city.
The city’s name, Etruscan in origin, means ‘mouth’ or ‘outlet’. The earliest settlement grew up near the sea, probably in the 6th century
The settlement was conquered by the Romans in 230
Barbra Ruckriegel Egerváry
[formerly Ger. Weitzen]
Town in Hungary 35 km north of Budapest on the left bank of the Danube. In the 11th century an episcopal see was established there by Stephen I (reg 997–1038), who built a fortified Romanesque castle and cathedral. After the town was invaded by the Mongols in 1241, Béla IV (reg 1235–70) rebuilt the castle and had the fortifications strengthened. In the 14th century the cathedral was rebuilt in Gothic style, and at the end of the 15th century Bishop Miklós Báthori had the town redesigned in Renaissance style and a new cathedral built. From 1544 to 1686 Vác was ruled by the Turks. After they were driven out, the ruined town was again rebuilt in the 18th century by the bishops of Vác.
Plans for the 18th-century cathedral, the most important building in Vác, were drawn up by Franz Anton Pilgram under the direction of Bishop Károly Esterházy. Although construction did not begin until ...