The expectation that Antichrist would appear as a man in the Last Days to deceive and persecute Christians before the Last Judgement is not biblical, since only contemporary opponents of Christianity are labelled ‘antichrists’ in the Bible (1 and 2 John). Later exegetes, however, interpreted many enemies of God’s people from biblical and apocryphal texts, Early Christian history, and the apocalyptic visions of Daniel and Revelation as prefiguring or symbolizing a tyrannical future Antichrist. Illustrated Apocalypse manuscripts were among the first to depict this human incarnation of evil when representing the Beast from the Abyss attacking the Two Witnesses (Revelation 11:7), as in the Morgan Beatus Apocalypse (c. 940–45; New York, Morgan Lib., MS. M. 644, fol. 151r). The 13th-century Anglo-Norman Apocalypses sometimes supplemented this scene with a brief cycle of images depicting Antichrist’s preaching, bribes, and death, as in the Paris Apocalypse (c. 1255; Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 403, fols 17...
Richard K. Emmerson
Mitchell B. Merback
(b Keighly, Yorks, March 6, 1958; d Chicago, IL, April 29, 2002).
British art historian and medievalist, active in America. He studied English and Art History at the University of Cambridge, graduating with honours in 1980 and then worked towards a PhD (1985) in medieval art under George Henderson and Jean Michel Massing, while reading critical theory with Norman Bryson, who was a key early influence. Hired in 1985 by the University of Chicago, he served as the Mary L. Block Professor until his death in April 2002. Considered among the most innovative medievalists of the 20th century, Camille experimented broadly with literary theory, semiotics and deconstruction, psychoanalysis, gender studies, body history, biographical, and auto-biographical narrative modes. A meteoric streak of provocative and iconoclastic publications, some of them avowedly post-modern, signalled a profound rejection of the 19th century’s romantic and nationalistic vision of the Middle Ages and found audiences far beyond both art history and medieval studies.
Two pioneering articles, coinciding with his arrival in the United States in ...
French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.
CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.
Since 1958 CECSM has published ...
(b Territoire de Belfort, Oct 2, 1917; d Toulouse, Dec 26, 2006).
French art historian. He was born into a modest family in the Belfort region and encouraged by his teacher to pursue studies that would lead him to take the teacher recruitment exams for history and geography. In preparing for the geography degree, by confusing rooms in the Sorbonne, he accidentally discovered the courses of Henri(-Joseph) Focillon, which would determine his profession of art historian. Appointed to the high school in Perpignan in 1945, he discovered the Roman art of the Roussillon region, to which he devoted the first works that brought him to the attention of the academic community. However, it was the Gothic art of the kingdom of Mallorca that was the subject of his thesis, published in 1962, the year of his nomination to the chair of the university of Toulouse, where he taught until 1979. Durliat challenged systemization and was open to all disciplines. His impressive bibliography of more than 400 books and articles demonstrates an unrelenting activity and above all a rigorous methodology. As an historian, he analysed source manuscripts in order to anchor artistic achievements in an era, ‘enraciner dans une vie, une société, un langage, une foi, qui sont une histoire’ (to root them in a life, a society, a language, a faith, which make up a history), and he always proceeded with a clear historiography, based on the assumption that new study always fits into a time period and in relation to what exists. As an architectural historian, the analysis of monuments caused him to realize the length of time necessary for the construction of each building, and the function that determines in part its form. However, it is in the domain of Romanesque sculpture that his oeuvre is immense, notably with ...
Betsy L. Chunko
(b Florence, June 10, 1946; d Fiesole, March 30, 2007).
Italian archaeologist. Francovich began his career as a student at the University of Florence, and from 1975 until his untimely death in 2007 he taught at the University of Siena. He is widely considered one of the most influential archaeologists of medieval Italy, particularly regarding the territory around Siena and Florence. His many publications over his 30-year career have shaped our understanding of the origins and development of hilltop villages in Tuscany. He died in a fall in the forest of Montececeri, near Fiesole.
Francovich completed his studies in history at the University of Florence under Elio Conti in 1971. There he had focused on the subject of deserted villages and local history, an interest which led him to enter the field of archaeology. A fellowship through the Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies in 1972 at the Florentine Villa I Tatti allowed him to undertake his first village excavations....
Betsy L. Chunko
(b Höhr-Grenzhausen, Westerwald, May 8, 1942; d Manchester, March 14, 2008).
German scholar of late medieval and early Renaissance art of northern Europe, active in the UK. Born in Germany, she relocated with her family to Northern Ireland at the age of 12. In 1963, she earned a BA in German from Queen’s University, Belfast. From 1964 to 1972, she worked towards her PhD at the University of Vienna under Otto Pächt and Otto Demus. During this time she spent a year researching at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London on an Austria Council Scholarship. In 1972, she submitted her thesis, which traced the stylistic development of 13th- and 14th-century misericords. Also in 1972, she began a lectureship in the Art History department of Manchester University, which she would maintain for the rest of her career. From 1998, she served as Senior Lecturer at Manchester and in 2004, she was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
Grössinger wrote four monographs and numerous periodical articles over her career. Most of her scholarship concerned medieval church furniture; she was an expert on English misericords—the subject of her best-known work, ...
Debra Higgs Strickland
(b London, Dec 2, 1947; d Edinburgh, Dec 27, 2006).
English art historian and epigrapher. Higgitt earned degrees at Oriel College, Oxford University (BA Hons, 1969), and the Courtauld Institute of Art (MA, 1972). He taught History of Art at the University of Edinburgh from 1974 until his death in 2006. He is best known for his progressive work on medieval epigraphy and its functions in his contributions to numerous edited anthologies, eight volumes of the Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture, as well as in several separately published studies on early medieval sculpture, patronage, and inscriptions. He also edited three important volumes dedicated to art historical and epigraphical analysis of the early medieval standing stones of the British Isles and Ireland. As an advocate for ancient and medieval Scottish art, he served on the Ancient Monuments Board for Scotland and on the archaeological advisory body for Historic Scotland. Motivated by his particular concern with conservation issues relevant to Scotland’s sculptural heritage, he helped to found, and also chaired, the National Committee on the Carved Stones of Scotland, which oversees the conservation of regional carved monuments from prehistoric rock art to contemporary gravestones....
American library in Saint John’s University, Collegeville, MN, founded in 1965. The Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML; formerly the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library) contains over 115,000 microfilm and digital images of medieval, Renaissance, early modern and Eastern Christian manuscripts. To fulfil its mission of preserving endangered manuscripts and making them more accessible to scholars, HMML photographs entire manuscript libraries that lack the resources to preserve their own collections, are inaccessible to researchers, or are in immediate danger of destruction. Until 2003, HMML photographed entire manuscripts on black and white microfilm and shot selected illuminations in colour. When the Library switched to digital photography in 2003, it shot entire volumes in colour and recorded codicological information.
The vast majority of HMML’s holdings reproduce texts predating 1600. Nearly half of HMML’s Western manuscripts derive from libraries in Austria and Germany, but HMML also houses significant collections from Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and England. The Maltese collections are particularly important and include the Archives of the Knights of Malta. HMML has photographed collections of Eastern Christian manuscripts since the 1970s, and its collections of Armenian, Syriac, and Christian Arabic manuscripts are becoming the most significant resource for the study of Eastern Christian manuscripts in the world. HMML has by far the world’s largest collection of Ethiopian manuscripts preserved on microfilm and in digital form....
(b Jerusalem, Dec 14, 1926; d Jerusalem, June 29, 2008).
Israeli art historian of Jewish art. Educated first at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, he moved to London and earned an MA in art history at the Courtauld Institute (1959) and a PhD at the Warburg Institute (1962). Returning to Jerusalem, Narkiss rose steadily through the ranks from 1963 when he began teaching at the Hebrew University and, in 1984, was appointed Nicolas Landau Professor of Art History. He also held fellowships and visiting positions at: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies in Washington, DC (1969–70); the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1979–80); the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University (1983), Brown University in Providence, RI (1984–5); the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris (1987–8); the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts in Washington, DC (Samuel H. Kress Professor ...
Charles T. Little
(b Paris, 1931; d May 1, 2009).
French art historian of medieval art. As Professor of the University of Paris IV (Paris-Sorbonne) from 1981 until 1998, she was a leading specialist in French architecture and stained glass. She was president of the French section of Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi from 1980 to 1988. Studying at the Ecole du Louvre, she wrote initially on the sculpture of Reims, followed by a study on Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux. Her doctoral dissertation for the Sorbonne, under the direction of Louis Grodecki (1910–82), became an important monograph on St Remi at Reims. This was later followed by several books on Chartres Cathedral that stand out as classic studies. Aside from technical studies of the origin and development of the flying buttress, she was able to determine building sequences for a number of monuments by utilizing dendrochonological analysis of wooden beams. Her interest in Gothic architecture lead to a new series devoted to the Gothic monuments of France by Editions Picard. Her important contribution to Zodiaque publications included books on the ...
(b Bayonne, Jan 7, 1935; d Aug 10, 2009).
French medieval art historian and archaeologist. Pressouyre studied history and geography as well as archaeology and art history at Bordeaux (1960) and received his doctorate from Strasbourg in 1979. He taught at the Sorbonne as well as at Yale and Michigan universities. Pressouyre was renowned as a stimulating lecturer and supportive teacher. His medieval archaeology seminar brought together students and specialists, influencing many in the field for more than 20 years. His students’ admiration was expressed in a festschrift, Utilis est lapis in structura (2000).
Pressouyre’s early publications focused on 12th-century sculpture, particularly on the rich ensemble from the cloister of Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne (formerly Châlons-sur-Marne), which he excavated and for which he created an on-site museum. Among the more than 80 articles he had published in major journals, his studies on stylistic trends in 12th-century sculpture in the Champagne region, and on the iconography of the medieval cloister, remain standards in the field....
(b Budapest, 1927; d Paris, 2008).
Art historian and scholar of Jewish and Christian art, active in France. Known as the ‘grande dame’ of Jewish art, Sed-Rajna came to Paris in 1948. She became Director of the Hebraic Section of the Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) and then taught at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and at the Institut d’Etudes Juives of the Université Libre in Brussels. In 1976 she founded with Bezalel Narkiss the Jerusalem Index of Jewish Art and became President of the European Association for Jewish Studies. She published six pioneering books and numerous articles, scrutinizing the role played by the artistic heritage of the Jewish people.
In all her works the visual expression of the Jewish tradition was envisioned in the larger framework of the history of arts. Her immense knowledge of both texts and images led her to publish in ...
(b Stara Osota, now Ukraine, Sept 12, 1915; d London, Sept 8, 2008).
Polish art historian of medieval sculpture, active in England. Zarnecki received an MA from the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, in 1938 and where he also worked until 1939 at which stage the outbreak of war disrupted his academic career. His distinguished military career led to him being awarded the Polish Cross of Valour and later the French Croix de Guerre. He was interned in Spain after escaping from a prisoner of war camp where he was held from 1940 to 1942. After serving with the Polish Army in Britain he joined the Courtauld Institute of Art in 1945 where he became Deputy Director (1961–74) and where he was based until his retirement in 1982.
It was in London that Zarnecki began his university career afresh in 1945. He did so with little previous standing as a scholar outside Poland. The two chief experiences of his immediate past were his intellectual training in Kraków from ...