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Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Kent, ?1427; d London, 1492).

English printer, publisher, translator, and merchant. In 1437–8 he entered the London Mercers’ Company, apprenticed to wool merchant Robert Large after whose death (1441) he moved to Bruges, where he established a position of considerable prestige in the English trading community; in 1462 he became governor of the settlement of English merchants in Bruges known as the English Nation and subsequently entered the service of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. Several documents refer to Caxton’s diplomatic activities. In 1469 he began a translation of Raoul Le Fèvres’s Recueil des histoires de Troye, which he completed in 1471 in Cologne, where he also learnt the trade and art of printing; however, his first books were probably printed in Bruges, to which he returned probably in early 1473. On his return to England he set up the first printing press in the country in the precincts of Westminster Abbey. His earliest dated London work is an ecclesiastical indulgence dated ...

Article

Scholarly organization in New York dedicated to the promotion and study of medieval art. In 1956 the International Center of Romanesque Art (ICRA) was founded in New York as the US committee of the Centre international d’Etudes romanes (CIER). Renamed in 1966 as the International Center of Medieval Art (ICMA), it has been headquartered at The Cloisters in New York City since 1969. From its early focus on French Romanesque art, ICMA has evolved into an important scholarly association advocating and promoting the study of European art, including the Mediterranean and Slavic regions, from c. ad 300 to c. 1500.

ICMA publishes Gesta, a biannual and the only journal in English dedicated to medieval art; a newsletter (three times a year), a series of censuses of medieval sculpture in American public collections and other monographs on medieval titles. Since 1998 ICMA has maintained an active website offering digital resources (e.g. International Census of Doctoral Dissertations in Medieval Art, ...

Article

(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....