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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

[Osmanlı]

Islamic dynasty that began to rule in Anatolia in 1281; at its greatest extent in the 16th century the Ottoman empire also included the Balkans, the Crimea, Iraq, Syria, the Hijaz, Egypt and North Africa. It lasted until the promulgation of the Constitution of the Turkish Republic in 1924.

Çigdem Kafesçioglu

The Ottomans claimed descent from the eponymous Osman (‛Uthman), a Turkish ruler active in north-west Anatolia at the end of the 13th century and beginning of the 14th. His small emirate grew at the expense of the declining state of the Saljuqs of Anatolia ( see Saljuq family, §2 ). Ideologically based on the concept of religious warfare (Turk. gaza, from Arab. ghazw), the state expanded rapidly to the west over Byzantine territory in Thrace and the Balkans, and to the east over the Turkish principalities of Anatolia ( see Beylik ). The first major expansion took place under Osman’s son Orhan (...

Article

Sa‛di  

Marianne Barrucand

[Sa‛dī]

Islamic dynasty that ruled Morocco between 1511 and 1659. Like their ‛Alawi successors, the Sa‛dis were sharīfs (descendants of the prophet Muhammad) and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. The Sa‛dis came from Arabia and settled in the Sus region of southern Morocco in the late 14th century. Taking advantage of the political chaos in Morocco at the beginning of the 16th century, they seized power and established their capital in Marrakesh. Their most brilliant sovereign, Ahmad the Golden (reg 1578–1603), repulsed a Portuguese invasion and contained Ottoman attempts at domination, while his armies took Moroccan rule as far south as Timbuktu and the Niger. After Ahmad’s death the dynasty’s authority declined rapidly until it was recognized only in Marrakesh, which was taken by the ‛Alawis in 1659.

Sa‛di architectural patronage (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) was concentrated in Marrakesh, where they built numerous mosques, madrasas and shrines, as well as the royal city within the Almohad walls. The most noteworthy religious buildings to have survived are those forming the dynastic necropolis set against the southern wall of the Kasba Mosque. Outside Marrakesh the only remarkable works are the pavilions added to the courtyard of the ...

Article

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

[Speculatie]

(b Nijmegen, bapt May 23, 1648; d before 1709).

Dutch etcher, engraver, draughtsman, inventor and professor of philosophy and mathematics. From 1679 he travelled in Italy, Egypt, the Holy Land and Malta, where he drew ‘modern’ fortifications. After a journey to Berlin in 1683, he probably settled in the province of Holland. Between 1683 and 1688 he developed a method of making colour impressions from a single copperplate (see Prints §III 6.), for which the States of Holland granted him a 15-year patent in 1688. Teyler moved his colour-print workshop to Rotterdam, where he published Architectura militaris. It is probably Jan van Call (1689–after 1748), one of Teyler’s assistants, who passed on the latter’s invention to Pieter Schenck and Gerard Valck, while Mattheus Berckenboom (1667–c. 1722), possibly an assistant in Rotterdam, made colour impressions in Nijmegen between c. 1700 and 1722. In 1698 Teyler’s copperplates were auctioned in Rotterdam. It is difficult to distinguish Teyler’s hand from that of his assistants in the 300–350 or so colour prints that have come down from his workshop....