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A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...



[Mir Afżal al-Ḥusaynī al-Tūnī]

(fl Isfahan, 1640–51).

Persian illustrator. Active during the reign of the Safavid shah ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66), Afzal produced manuscript illustrations and single pages for albums in different styles. Most of the 62 paintings he made for the voluminous copy (St Petersburg, Saltykov-Shchedrin Pub. Lib., Dorn 333) of Firdawi’s Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’) presented to the monarch by the head of the royal guard, Murtiza Quli Khan, are scenes of battles and combats in the Metropolitan style that was transferred from Herat to Bukhara (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(c)). Unlike the tinted drawings of his contemporaries, Afzal’s single-page compositions use a rich, sombre palette highlighted with gold. Most depict the standard repertory of languid youths and lovers in the style of Riza, but are more erotic. Bishop with a Crosier (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A., M.73.5.456) is the only known Persian portrait of an Armenian religious figure; it shows a broad-faced, sensitively modelled figure similar in style to those in the ...


[Muḥammad ‛Alī al-Mashhadī ibn Malik Ḥusayn al-Iṣfahānī]

(fl Isfahan, 1645–60).

Persian illustrator. The son of a painter, Muhammad ‛Ali became one of the most popular and prolific painters at the court of the Safavid monarch ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66). Muhammad ‛Ali was a skilled and competent artist who preferred rounded contours and simple forms. Although he was not as innovative in form and style as his contemporary Mu‛in, Muhammad ‛Ali’s figures convey tremendous charm, animation and vitality. Eight of his paintings illustrate his own copy (Baltimore, MD, Walters A.G., MS 649) of Muhammad Riza Naw‛i’s Sūz u gudāz (‘Burning and consuming’). The largest number of the artist’s ink drawings highlighted with colour washes and gold illustrate a copy (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1010) of Hafiz’s Dīvān (collected poetry). His album pages include standard figures of youths, elderly men and lovers as well as more unusual group scenes, such as one of bears imitating a court.

See images tab for additional illustrations....



(b Milan, before 1592; d after Oct 4, 1648).

Italian collector. He is best known for his collection of works by Leonardo da Vinci. He owned 12 small Leonardo notebooks as well as the Codex Atlanticus, which he donated to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, in 1637, and several cartoons, among them the Virgin and Child with St Anne, known as the Burlington House Cartoon (London, N.G.), and a standing Leda (untraced). Inventories of the Arconati collection and Edward Wright’s travel diary (1730) reveal that he had also owned the 11 coloured chalk drawings (e.g. Chapel Hill, U. NC, Ackland A. Mus.; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria) after Leonardo’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie), attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Brown), and also paintings by Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. During the 1630s Arconati corresponded with Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was trying to procure Leonardo manuscripts for the Barberini library and to prepare compilations of Leonardo’s writings for publication. Passages on mechanics, hydraulics, light and shadow and perspective and additional chapters on painting were collected into ‘treatises’ by Arconati with the help of his son, ...



George Kish

Term used to refer to a collection of maps, printed in a set order: world map, maps of the continents, each followed by maps of the several regions within that continent, and with an alphabetical gazetteer, or list of place-names, giving coordinates for the various names of places, rivers, regions etc. The first use of the term ‘atlas’ dates from 1595, with the publication in Duisburg of the Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi et fabricati figura by Gerard Mercator (1512–94). Mercator’s prestige as the premier cartographer of his time made the term part of general usage.

The prototype of modern atlases is the set of maps included with medieval editions of Claudius Ptolemy’s Geographia (2nd century ad). There is no definite evidence showing that the original of the Geographia was accompanied by maps, but there is consensus that the maps accompanying manuscript versions of the work that reached Italy in the early 1400s were designed in the later Middle Ages. Ptolemy’s maps were first printed in ...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1630–45).

French bookbinder who is primarily associated with the pointillé style. He used a distinctive finishing stamp, the profile of a man’s head in dotted outline. Only three surviving bindings are authenticated with a signature; some of the unsigned bindings attributed to Badier may be his work, but many are the work of imitators, some of whom used his finishing stamp....


(b Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], Dec 28, 1630; d Amsterdam, 6–7 Nov, bur Nov 12, 1708).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker of German origin. He was the son of Gerhard Backhusz. (Backhusen) of Emden, and he trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practised calligraphy throughout his life (examples in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM). During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde (ii) the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbour (Amsterdam, Kon. Coll. Zeemanschoop), others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway (Amsterdam, Ned. Hist. Scheepvaartsmus.)...


[Benig; Beninc; Bieninc; Binnink].

South Netherlandish family of illuminators. No documented work is known by (1) Sanders Bening, but he was undoubtedly a successful artist. Work previously attributed to various unknown masters has now provisionally been accepted as by him. He married Kathelijn van der Goes, probably a sister or niece of the painter Hugo van der Goes, and his own sister married Goswijn van der Weyden. Sanders and his wife had two sons, (2) Simon Bening, who was trained in his father’s craft, and Paul Bening, whose profession is unknown. For Simon Bening, unlike his father, there is not only documentary evidence from numerous sources but also a reconstructed oeuvre that distinguishes him as one of the finest illuminators of his time. Both names have been mentioned as among the artists who produced illustrations for the Grimani Breviary (Venice, Bib. N. Marciana, MS Lat. I.99). Simon was twice married; by his first wife, Katherine Scroo (...


Brian North Lee


Engraved or printed mark of ownership affixed to a book. The earliest, woodcuts from c. 1470, were for Hans Igler, called Knabensberg, with a hedgehog as a pun on his name, and two that recorded gifts to the Carthusian monastery of Buxheim by Wilhelm von Zell and Hildebrand Brandenburg. Usage spread quickly in Germany, encouraged by the participation of Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach (i), the Little Masters of copper-engraving and others. Their works inspired some fine bookplates of later centuries; but though many distinguished artists have subsequently lent their talents to bookplate-making, until the latter part of the 19th century most bookplates were the work of trade engravers.

In the 16th century, although western Europe adopted bookplates, significant contemporary styles emerged only as usage developed, from c. 1650 in France and c. 1700 in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. Earlier, notably in France, gold or blind stamping of bindings was more favoured. Many early ...


(b Lauingen, nr Ulm, July 9, 1580; d Strasbourg, May 17, 1651).

German engraver, painter, calligrapher and designer. He probably trained with his father, Georg Brentel (c. 1525/30–1610), who painted mainly heraldic miniatures. Friedrich’s earliest signed work, a pen-and-wash copy of a Netherlandish Mannerist print, is dated 1596 (among 530 drawings by Brentel in Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle). Other early works show the influence of Tobias Stimmer and Wendel Dietterlin, as well as the detailed engraving skills of Etienne Delaune.

In 1601 Brentel became a citizen of Strasbourg and married. For his masterpiece he painted an untraced Crucifixion in opaque colours on parchment. Until 1620 he devoted himself mainly to printed graphic work and designs for cabinet panes. His first etching was produced in 1601 (see Wegner, no. 1). In 1610 he received an important commission: to depict the ceremonies in Nancy for the funeral of Duke Charles III and the oath of allegiance to Duke Henry II of Lorraine in large-format etchings. The sketched notes for these (Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle) are noteworthy, like other sketches for etchings by Brentel, for not being reverse images of the prints. The resulting five-part ...


Tadeusz Chrzanowski

(fl 1670; d Jan 30, 1707).

Polish goldsmith, engraver and writer. He produced engraved frontispieces for J. Liberius’s book The Blessed Virgin Mary’s Sea Star (1670) and his own work St Elegius’s Life … (1687). He is noted in the guild records from 1689. Few of his silver pieces have been identified, as he did not use name marks. The impressive monstrance in St Mary’s church in Kraków is attributed to him. Works that are certainly by him include the ‘robes’ on the painting of the Holy Virgin in the Dominican church in Kraków and the small plate from the tabernacle in St Anne’s, Kraków. Ceypler’s most important work is an octagonal reliquary for the head of St Jan Kanty (1695; Kraków, St Anne), signed in Latin. It was designed by King John III’s court painter, Jerzy Eleuter Szymonowicz-Siemiginowski (c. 1660–1711), and was executed by Ceypler with the help of his pupil, ...


Anand Krishna

(fl c. 1580–c. 1604).

Indian miniature painter. Not to be confused with the contemporary master Farrukh Beg, he was a middle-rank, prolific painter who contributed to most of the major illustrated manuscripts produced for the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), starting from the Dārābnāma (‘Story of Darab’; c. 1580; London, BL, OR 4615) and ending with the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’; c. 1590; London, V&A, IS.2:1896). His personal style can be detected in certain leaves of the Hamzanāma (‘Tales of Hamza’). He seems to have been a disciple (chela) in Akbar’s new religion, the Tauhid-i Ilahi. He sometimes used the epith khurd (‘younger’), which would distinguish him from another Farrukh with the epithet kalan (‘elder’), presumably Farrukh Beg.

Like other painters of Akbar’s court, Farrukh Chela must have been fully trained in the given style when he entered the imperial studio, yet he retained his personal (perhaps traditional) style, which is well projected in his paintings. A single-handed painting from the ...


Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...


David Blayney Brown


(b Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1582; d London, 1658).

German painter, designer, illustrator and printmaker. He probably studied first in the Low Countries. He was perhaps in Denmark c.1611, but then spent four years in Italy, mainly in Rome and Venice, where he met the English ambassador Sir Henry Wotton. By 1617 he was living in Copenhagen; an inscribed drawing of Apollo and Marsyas from this period is in the Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen. Between 1618 and 1623 Cleyn was employed by Christian IV at Rosenborg Slot, decorating the King’s writing closet with pastoral landscapes, Venetian views, genre scenes and grotesque designs. Commissions followed for larger subject pictures (which show pronounced Venetian influence) and for similar decorative schemes for the royal castles at Frederiksborg (Fireworks), Christiansborg (Children on their Way to School) and Kronborg. In 1623 Cleyn visited England, with a letter of introduction to Prince Charles (later Charles I) from the English envoy in Copenhagen, Sir Robert Anstruther. In the Prince’s absence in Spain, he was received by James I, who wished to retain his services for himself and sent him back to Copenhagen with a request to Christian IV to release him. Work in progress kept Cleyn in Denmark until late in ...


Tereza-Irene Sinigalia

(b Suceava, ?mid-16th century; d Dragomirna Monastery, Moldavia, 1629).

Romanian calligrapher, illuminator and writer. He was Metropolitan of Moldavia (1608–17; 1619–29) and the founder of Dragomirna Monastery (1609), where he initiated a scriptorium remarkable for the stylistic unity of the work produced over two decades. The great similarity of the works has caused them to be attributed to Crimca, although some scholars have disputed this. The accepted opinion is that nine codices can be attributed to him: five of these are at Dragomirna Monastery, three are in Bucharest, and the Acts of the Apostles (1610) is in Vienna (Österreich. Nbib.)

Crimca assimilated elements from the copyists’ tradition, from Moldavian mural painting of the time and from apocryphal and popular texts, and in so doing he widened the thematic repertory and adopted the formula of full-page narrative illustration interspersed with the text. He replaced plastic modelling with a graphic device based on groups of parallel lines arranged in various ways, with the extensive use of gold to enhance the whole page. The finesse of the drawing and general decorativeness of the images make Crimca’s work, and that of the ...



Wen Fong

[Tao-chi; zi Shitao, Shih-t’ao]

(b Guilin, Guangxi Province, 1642; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1707).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. In modern Western writing he is most commonly referred to as Daoji or Shitao, although he himself preferred the name Yuanji. He was a descendant of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) imperial Zhu family. In 1645, in the face of invading Manchu troops, a family servant fled with Daoji to nearby Quanzhou, Guangxi Province, and in 1647 they found refuge in Buddhist monastic life. A large number of the many sobriquets Daoji adopted sprang from his connection with Buddhism.

Around 1650 Daoji and his servant left Quanzhou, travelling by boat and on foot around Hubei, Hunan, northern Jiangxi, Anhui and Zhejiang. At this time, c. 1655, Daoji began to paint, beginning with subjects such as orchids. In 1664, at Mt Kun, Songjiang, Jiangsu Province, he became the disciple of a powerful Chan Buddhist priest, Lüan Benyue, who in 1665 instructed him to resume his wandering life. After a visit to Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Daoji visited Mt Huang, Anhui Province, in ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Alcázar de San Juan, c. 1565; d Madrid, 1636).

Spanish calligrapher and woodcutter. He lived in Toledo from 1591 and settled in Madrid in 1612. Renowned as a calligrapher, he devised a new system for teaching writing, the Arte nueva de escribir. In collaboration with Adrian Boon (fl 1602–18) he produced a series of plates for this work, showing ornate examples of calligraphy. These were realized using a woodcut technique, usually in negative, as a white image on a black background. Interpersed with human figures, animals, birds, fish and ornamental lettering, they are the last Spanish examples of didactic woodcuts, a technique that was to become relegated to portraying popular subjects. A copper-plate engraving of the Sea of Love, signed Morante and dated 1636, may be by a son of the same name.

Arte nueva de escribir, 5 vols (Madrid, 1616–31) Ceán Bermúdez E. Cotarelo y Mori: Diccionario de calígrafos españoles (Madrid, 1914–16) J. Ainaud de Lasarte...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Ippō; Shiin; San’unsuigetsu Shujin; Ryūkōkaku; Gyokujundō; Seishūken]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1665; d Edo, 1737).

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with Sakakibara Kōshū (1655–1706); his close friends included such seal-carvers as Hosoi Kōtaku (also a distinguished calligrapher) and Imai Junsai (1658–1718). His seal album Ittō banshō (‘One blade, a myriad images’; 1713; Japan, N. Mizuta priv. col.; see Japan, §XVII, 20) was the forerunner of artistic seal albums in Japan. It is in four volumes, the first two showing 328 seals carved in different styles, based on the Senjimon (the ‘Thousand-character’ Chinese classic); the third is a collection of the impressions of 170 private seals in Dōun’s own collection. Prefaces from major scholars and Koreans and Chinese resident in Japan, as well as Dōun’s own prefatory remarks, are bound together in another volume. Only 100 copies of the ...


Laurence Guilmard Geddes

French family of miniature painters. Alexandre du Guernier I (c. 1550–c. 1628) worked in Paris as a painter on vellum, decorating devotional books. His son Louis du Guernier I (b Paris, 14 April 1614; d Paris, 16 Jan 1659) was probably his father’s pupil but also studied with Simon Vouet. In 1648 he was one of the founders of the Académie Royale de Peinture in Paris. In 1655 he was appointed professor, and he became conseiller the following year. His portrait by his brother-in-law Sébastien Bourdon was engraved by his pupil Jacques-Samuel Bernard. Du Guernier’s surviving miniatures reveal a delicate and flowing hand and include portraits of Louise Henriette of Orange (1643; Dutch Royal Col.), John Cecil, 4th Earl of Exeter (Burghley House, Cambs) and James, Duke of York (1656; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), the future James II, King of England (reg 1685–8). Also attributed to du Guernier is a portrait miniature of ...


Stephen Addiss


(b Hijishio, Kanagawa Prefect., 1568; d Lake Hamana, Shizuoka Prefect., 1654).

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. He entered the Shingon-sect temple Kansōji at the age of four or five, transferring to the Sōtō-sect Zen temple Chōgenji a few years later. Around the age of 16 he moved to the leading Sōtō temple in eastern Japan, Sōrinji. After completing his Zen training, perhaps in 1596, Fūgai spent two decades on pilgrimage. In 1616 he became abbot of Jōganji in Sagami Province (now part of Kanagawa Prefect.), but after only a few years he gave up his position to live in mountainside caves, which earned him the nickname Ana Fūgai (‘Cave Fūgai’). This practice may have been in emulation of Bodhidharma (Jap. Daruma, the first Zen patriarch), who was reputed to have meditated in front of a wall for nine years; but such rejection of temple life was rare for a 17th-century Japanese monk. While living in the Kamisoga Mountains, Fūgai is said to have made ink paintings of Daruma, which he would hang at the entrance to his cave, so that farmers could leave rice for the monk and take the paintings home. Many such works remain, darkened by incense, in farmhouses of the region. After some years Fūgai moved to a small hut in the village of Manazuru, south of Odawara, where he continued his ink painting and calligraphy. Besides Daruma, he also depicted the wandering monk Hotei (Chin. Budai; one of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune) and occasionally brushed self-portraits and landscapes in ink on paper....