1-20 of 22 results  for:

  • Books, Manuscripts, and Illustration x
  • Ceramics and Pottery x
Clear all

Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...

Article

(b Leiden, Oct 19, 1877; d Zoeterwoude, Oct 23, 1933).

Dutch potter and sculptor. He trained as a drawing teacher but took a particular interest in bookbinding, decorative woodcuts and household pottery. From the example of the Arts and Crafts Movement he learnt the value of traditional techniques and craftsmanship. In 1898 he settled in Gouda in order to perfect his technical knowledge of pottery-making. Three years later he started his own ceramics firm in Leiderdorp. His ceramics are characterized by their intentionally plain shapes, combined with mostly geometric linear ornament and frequently with sculptural decoration applied in low relief. His work attracted international attention and gained awards at several exhibitions, including the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902) and the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels (1910). Around 1907 Brouwer began to experiment with large-scale ceramic decoration. His terracotta ornaments and façade sculptures were greatly admired by contemporary architects, who secured him important commissions in this field, for example the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Horsham, 1829; d St John’s Wood, London, March 22, 1904).

English book illustrator and painter. He trained as a surgeon, but never practised, instead working as a writer and illustrator of books on natural history and as a painter of watercolour landscapes. In 1869 Coleman embarked on a new career when he joined Copeland’s (see Spode Ceramic Works) as a painter of china plaques. Later that year he moved to the Minton Ceramic Factory, attracted by the opportunity to work with their well-known turquoise colour. At Minton he designed table services, which were transfer-printed in colour with his scrupulously accurate depictions of flora (e.g. ‘The Naturalist’) and fauna (e.g. ‘Game Place’) and people (a series of dessert services with orientalized ladies). In 1871 he became head of the new Minton’s Art Pottery Studio in Kensington Gore; there he designed porcelain plaques, many of which depict flora, fauna and lighly-clad girls and women. He resigned as director in 1873...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Athens, May 23, 1882; d Athens, March 20, 1966).

French illustrator, printmaker and designer of Greek birth. At a very early age he showed a talent for drawing and soon took to drawing cartoons. He studied mathematics for two years at the National Technical University in Athens, but he finally enrolled at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens, where he studied under Nikiforos Lytras. In 1899, when he was still a student, he won first prize in a competition for cartoons run by the Paris newspaper Le Journal. Upon graduation he went to Paris on a scholarship and studied for some time at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon. He continued to draw cartoons for the Greek magazines Pinakothiki and Panathinea; he also worked for the German periodicals Simplicissimus and Lustige Blätter, and on the strength of this was invited to go to Germany, where he stayed from 1907 to 1909.

In 1914 Galanis joined the Foreign Legion, took out French nationality and was transferred to an infantry regiment. In the course of his postings during World War I he was sent to Corfu in ...

Article

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese family of artists. They were established in Kyoto by the mid-14th century as sword experts in the service of the military aristocracy, for whom they engaged in the decoration, maintenance and connoisseurship of swords. In the late 15th century they emerged as leaders of the machishū, the group of upper-class Kyoto merchants who took over control of the city in the wake of the devastating Ōnin Wars (1466–77). By 1600, however, the power of the machishū had been broken, and many of its members turned their energies to cultural activities. (1) Hon’ami Kōetsu played a prominent role in this movement, and, with the painter Tawaraya Sōtatsu (see Tawaraya Sōtatsu, §1, (i)), he formed the foundation of the school of decorative painting and design later known as Rinpa (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)). His grandson (2) Hon’ami Kōho continued this tradition.

(b Kyoto...

Article

Article

Article

David Blayney Brown

(b London, Jan 31, 1769; d Oxford, Oct 5, 1847).

English painter, illustrator and designer. He studied for seven years under Philip Reinagle, one of whose daughters he later married, and entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1788. His ambitions were as a history painter in the manner of Reynolds. His Caractacus (untraced), which won a gold medal in 1790, was highly praised by Reynolds, then almost blind. In 1791 Howard went to Rome, where he became a close friend of John Flaxman whose Neo-classical figural style helped to form his own. In 1794, after three years study, he returned to England via Vienna and Dresden. Howard’s exhibiting career began at the Royal Academy in 1794, and from 1806 to 1844 he also showed at the British Institution. His portraits and especially his historical compositions based on classical and literary themes, relatively late manifestations of the traditions of Reynolds, Fuseli and Flaxman combined in a diluted form, proved extremely popular. He was made an ARA in ...

Article

Gitte Valentiner

(Andreas)

(b Oldenburg, Jan 25, 1846; d Copenhagen, July 28, 1906).

Danish painter, illustrator and ceramicist of German origin. He trained in Copenhagen at the Akademi, graduating in 1868. In his early years as an artist he was much in demand as a portrait painter: his skill is clear in examples such as Partikulier Kunze and his Son (1871; Copenhagen, Hirschsprungske Saml.). The subjects of this and later portraits are clearly marked by their environment, their way of life and their occupations. Jerndorff also painted historical portraits, such as the full-length figures of officers from the war of 1848–50 and the war of 1864: Claude du Pat (1855), General Bülow (1890), Colonel Lunding (1892) and General Rye (1895; all Hillerød, Frederiksborg Slot). Jerndorff’s biblical compositions are rather arid and academic, but his landscapes, such as Autumn on the Heath (1895; Randers, Kstmus.), seem fresh and spontaneous in treatment. Most of Jerndorff’s landscape paintings are small, intimate studies with careful rendering of flowers and plants. He was also an imaginative illustrator, notably for editions of Danish folk tales. He also produced ceramics, working together with the ...

Article

Mitsuhiko Hasebe

[Fusajirō]

(b Kyoto, March 23, 1883; d Kanagawa, Dec 21, 1959).

Japanese potter, calligrapher and medallist. At an early age he taught himself seal-carving and calligraphy, for which he won a prize in 1904; soon after he became a commercial calligrapher and medallist. In 1915 he had his first experience of decorating pottery at a kiln in the district of Hokuriku. In 1919 he opened an art shop in Tokyo, and in 1920 he founded the Gourmet’s Club on the second floor of the store, serving food in traditional ceramic vessels that he had himself collected. Kitaōji soon began to produce his own pottery, creating forms drawn from studying the vessels that he used for his cuisine. In 1925 he opened the Gourmet’s Club Hoshigaoka Restaurant in Tokyo. In 1926 he established a studio and kiln known as Hoshigaokayō in Kita Kamakura. He often surpassed the classical forms on which his works were based, becoming well known for his simple but original designs. He used red enamels and gold in his work and was influenced by blue-and-white wares and coloured porcelain from the Ming period (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1711; d 1781).

German porcelain painter. He worked at Meissen Porcelain Factory (see Meissen §3) from 1726 to 1746, using the illustrations in ornithological, entomological and botanical books as the patterns for his scrupulous paintings; he is particularly associated with the technique of using shadows beside his pictures of birds, insects and plants to achieve a ...

Article

(b Paris, Oct 31, 1883; d Paris, June 8, 1956).

French painter, stage designer and illustrator. After studying porcelain painting at the Sèvres factory (1901) and drawing in Paris under the French flower painter Madelaine Lemaire (1845–1928), in 1903–4 she studied at the Académie Humbert in Paris, where she met Georges Braque and Francis Picabia. In 1907 she first exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants, met Picasso at Clovis Sagot’s gallery and through Picasso was introduced to the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. Laurencin and Apollinaire were soon on intimate terms, their relationship lasting until 1912.

Laurencin became a regular associate of the painters and poets associated with the Bateau-Lavoir, who included Picasso, Braque, Gris, Max Jacob and André Salmon. She was present at the banquet given by Picasso in honour of Henri Rousseau in 1908 and produced the first version of Apollinaire and his Friends (1908; Baltimore, MD, Mus. A.) in a highly simplified style, in which she pictured herself and the poet with Picasso and his companion Fernande Olivier. Both this and a larger version with additional figures (...

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...

Article

Éva Bajkay

(b Kaposvár, June 10, 1899; d Pécs, April 11, 1986).

Hungarian painter, sculptor, designer and illustrator. He spent his childhood in Kaposvár in the house of the Secessionist painter József Rippl-Rónai. His early works are figurative. During the 1920s he painted arcadian scenes, but he was soon influenced by Surrealism, often combining experienced events with subconscious visions. Martyn lived in Paris from 1926 to 1940 and moved towards abstraction, joining the Cercle et Carré group, and then in 1931 Abstraction-Création, taking part in their exhibitions. He painted cityscapes and portraits, and was influenced by Constructivism. His non-figurative works were painterly and expressive of his Hungarian temperament and used the rhythm of expansive arched forms. He can be seen as an intermediary between the Ecole de Paris and Hungarian art; he often returned to Budapest to organize exhibitions of Hungarian abstract painters living in Paris.

Martyn’s abstract work largely derived from his experience of Paris, southern French towns, Mediterranean landscapes, the sea, bird life, and his frequent visits to Spain and Hungary. His horror at World War II was seen in ...

Article

Giulio V. Blanc

(b Yaguajuay, nr Placetas, Jan 5, 1896; d Havana, April 8, 1968).

Cuban painter, ceramicist and illustrator. She studied under Leopoldo Romañach (1862–1951) at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana, where she was influenced by Impressionism. She graduated in 1924 and lived in Paris from 1927 to 1933, studying at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole du Louvre. She also studied composition and colour with the Russian Constructivist and stage designer Alexandra Exter. She held an individual exhibition at the Galerie Zak in Paris in 1933 and in 1934 returned to Cuba.

Peláez applied her Parisian experiences, particularly of Cubism and of her apprenticeship to Exter, to a personal style based on the forms and colours of the luxuriant tropical vegetation and the Baroque colonial architecture of Cuba. Like Víctor Manuel, she combined modernism with native elements in a style at once Cuban and cosmopolitan in paintings such as Still-life in Red...

Article

Giulio V. Blanc

(b Havana, Feb 14, 1912; d Havana, Apr 7, 1985).

Cuban painter, ceramicist, and illustrator. Although he attended some classes at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana, he taught himself to paint by studying the work of a number of artists, especially Picasso, without allowing these influences to dominate his own strong personality. Like many of his Cuban contemporaries he portrayed local scenes in combination with cosmopolitan elements. Portocarrero’s earliest important paintings, the interiors of the old Havana Cerro quarter, were painted in the 1940s. In colourful, baroque still-lifes and in interiors with figures such as Interior (1943; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.), the horror vacui of Cuban colonial architecture and interior decoration is exploited to the fullest. During the late 1940s and early 1950s Portocarrero produced abstract and semi-abstract paintings that stressed colour and geometry. He also produced a series of pen-and-ink drawings entitled Masks depicting, for example, a couple in formal dress (Havana, Mus. N. B.A.). Other series from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s include cityscapes, cathedrals, Afro-Cuban deities, women, and the carnival. All these series are characterized by strong colour, a love of the fantastic, and complex lines and forms, as seen in ...

Article

Karen M. Gerhart

[Ōtagaki Nobu]

(b Kyoto, 1791; d Kyoto, 1875).

Japanese poet, calligrapher, potter and painter. Shortly after her birth, she was adopted by Ōtagaki Mitsuhisa who worked at Chion’in, an important Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple in Kyoto. In 1798 she was sent to serve at Kameoka Castle in Tanba, where she studied poetry, calligraphy and martial arts. She returned to Kyoto in 1807 and was married to a young samurai named Mochihisa. They had three children, all of whom died shortly after birth; in 1815 Mochihisa also died. In 1819 Nobu remarried, but her second husband died in 1823. After enduring the tragic loss of two husbands and all her children, Nobu, only 33 years old, cut her hair off and became a nun, at which time she adopted the name Rengetsu (‘lotus moon’). She lived with her stepfather, who had also taken vows, near Chion’in. After his death in 1832 Rengetsu began to make pottery, which she then inscribed with her own ...