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Judith Zilczer

[International Exhibition of Modern Art]

Exhibition of art held between 17 February and 15 March 1913 in New York at the 69th Regiment Armory, Lexington Avenue, Manhattan (see fig.), from which it derived its nickname. The exhibition then travelled to the Art Institute of Chicago (24 March–16 April) and Copley Hall, Boston (28 April–19 May). This first large-scale show of modern art held in the USA (see United States of America, §III, 3) resulted from the independent campaign of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, a group of progressive artists formed in 1912 to oppose the National Academy of Design and to broaden exhibition opportunities for American artists. Davies, Arthur B(owen), the president of the group, and Kuhn, Walt were determined to present an international survey for the first in what was to have been a series of exhibitions. The Armory Show was modelled on the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne (...


Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (see also Investment).

The first major development has been the spread of art price information and art price indexes over the last half-century. After a few difficult decades, art price levels and public interest in the art market were going up again in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of books on the history of the art market and on art investment that were published around that time—Le Vie Etrange des Objets (1959) by Maurice Rheims, Art as an Investment...


M. Sue Kendall

(b Philadelphia, PA, Jan 2, 1872; d Chester County, PA, July 24, 1951).

American chemist and collector. Barnes made his fortune after discovering the drug Argyrol in 1902. By 1907 he had become a millionaire. He and his wife moved to the suburb of Merion on Philadelphia’s affluent Main Line and with his new income began to collect paintings of the Barbizon school. In 1910 he renewed contact with a former school friend, William J. Glackens, who introduced him to the works of Maurice Prendergast, Alfred H. Maurer and Charles Demuth, and who encouraged Barnes to collect Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings instead of Barbizon works. In 1912 Barnes gave Glackens £20,000 to go to Paris and buy whatever art he saw fit. Glackens, with the help of Maurer, acquired for Barnes works by Renoir, Degas, van Gogh, Cézanne, Monet, Gauguin, Pissarro, Sisley and Seurat. In Paris, Glackens introduced Barnes to Gertrude and Leo Stein, through whom he became familiar with the work of Picasso and Matisse....


Malcolm Gee

(b Berlin, Jan 6, 1914; d Paris, Feb 23, 2007).

German American art dealer and collector, active in France. Berggruen came from a middle-class Jewish family. He immigrated to the USA in 1937, and was granted American citizenship in 1941. He served in the army between 1942 and 1945. After a period working as a journalist in Munich and in the museum section of UNESCO, he set up as an art dealer in Paris in 1948, based from 1950 onwards in a modest gallery on the Rue de l’Université. The Berggruen Gallery specialized in modern graphic art, including Pablo Picasso, and was the principal source in Paris of the work of Paul Klee. Berggruen retired in 1980 and focused on his personal collection of classic modern art. In 1996 Berggruen was invited to put his collection on public display in Berlin in what was originally barracks for the Gardes du Corps, designed by Friedrich August Stüler, where it was known as the Berggruen Collection. In ...



Anne McClanan

American collectors. Robert Woods Bliss (b St Louis, MO, 5 Aug 1875; d Washington, DC, 19 April 1962) and his wife, Mildred Bliss (née Barnes) (b New York City, Sept 1879; d Washington, 17 Jan 1969), developed their interest in art while living abroad, where Robert Bliss served as a diplomat until his retirement in 1933. They were particularly concerned with the then neglected areas of Pre-Columbian and Byzantine art. Their Byzantine collection included coins, icons, ivories, mosaics, jewellery, and textiles; their Pre-Columbian collection was similarly wide-ranging. In 1920 Robert and Mildred Bliss purchased Dumbarton Oaks, a large house in the Georgetown area of Washington, DC. Although they lived there intermittently for only seven years, they extensively renovated the house and over 53-acre garden. Lawrence Grant White (1887–1956), who had worked at McKim, Mead & White (where his father, Stanford White, was a founding partner), was the architect responsible for adding the music room in ...



Molly K. Dorkin

[Jones and Bonham; Bonhams & Brooks; Bonhams & Butterfields; Bonhams & Goodman]

Auction house established in London 1793 by William Charles Bonham, a book dealer (also recorded as Walter Bonham), and George Jones, from a gallery founded by Thomas Dodd (1771–1850), a dealer in antiquarian prints. Bonhams originally specialized in sales of prints in the 18th and 19th centuries, at which time the market was robust. By the 19th century Bonhams was also holding sales of antiques, which were advertised in the London press alongside similar offerings from Christie’s and Phillips. In the 1820s Dodd and fellow print dealer Martin Colnaghi catalogued the print collection belonging to Horace Walpole prior to its sale. Dodd and Colnaghi also catalogued the 50,000 works in the collection of Francis Douce for their donation to the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. By the 1850s Jones’s son Henry and Bonham’s son George had taken over the business, which became known as Jones and Bonham. Paintings had been offered in their sales alongside print collections since the 1840s....


Simon Pepper

(b Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov 25, 1835; d Lenox, MA, Aug 11, 1919).

American industrialist and patron of Scottish birth. Aged 11, Andrew Carnegie immigrated with his parents to Allegheny, near Pittsburgh, PA, where he educated himself while working as an office messenger and telegraph operator, before rising to enormous wealth through railroads, oil, and the iron and steel industries. During his lifetime he gave more than $350 million to a variety of social, educational, and cultural causes, the best known being his support for public libraries, which he believed would provide opportunities for self-improvement without ‘any taint of charity’. Here communities had to pay for the building site and the books, and to commit at least 10 per cent of Carnegie’s initial gift in annual support. As Carnegie struggled to give away money—for ‘to die rich was to die disgraced’—music, fine art, archaeology, and technical schools also became beneficiaries, together with programmes for the education of minorities in recognition of civilian heroism and world peace (still a central concern of the Carnegie Foundation)....


Titia Hulst

(b Trieste, Austro-Hungarian Empire [now Italy], Sept 4, 1907; d New York City, Aug 21, 1999).

American art dealer. Leo Castelli opened his eponymous gallery in 1957 and he gave Jasper Johns his first solo show in 1958, which established both the artist’s and the dealer’s reputations as Castelli sought to identify the successor generation to the Abstract Expressionism; the gallery’s stable included Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Lee Bontecou, and Pop artists Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, and Andy Warhol. After the Green Gallery closed in 1965, the Minimalist artists Robert Morris, Larry Poons, Donald Judd, and Dan Flavin joined as well, establishing Leo Castelli as the pre-eminent dealer in American avant-garde art.

Leo Castelli obtained a law degree from the University of Milan in 1924 and started his career in banking and insurance. He married Ileana Shapiro, the daughter of a wealthy Romanian industrialist in 1933 (they divorced in 1959), and moved to Paris in 1934. He partnered in 1939 with interior designer René Drouin to open the Galerie d’Art Décoratif. A childhood friend from Trieste, the artist ...


Joseph R. Givens

(b Hartford, CT, July 9, 1952).

American art dealer, curator, and critic. Deitch is best known for transforming the American art market with the introduction of post-industrial business practices. A Connecticut native, he studied art history at Wesleyan University (1970–74) and opened his first gallery in 1972 at the Curtis Hotel in Lenox, MA. He studied the economics of art at Harvard Business School, and earned an MBA in 1978. His 1980 essay, The Warhol Product, was one of the first publications to address the post-modern phenomenon of art as commodity. In 1979 Deitch helped guide financial institutions into the business of art investment services by co-developing Citibank’s Art Advisory Service, a comprehensive service model that provided élite clients with loans, strategic collection consultation, historical information, and shipping and insurance management. After transitioning to a full-time, self-employed art dealer in 1988, Deitch brokered the secondary market sale of Jasper Johns’s White Flag (...


Sally Webster

(b West Overton, PA, Dec 19, 1849; d New York, Dec 2, 1919).

American industrialist, collector, and museum creator. Frick received little formal education and went to work at an early age as a bookkeeper. By the early 1870s he had earnt enough money to buy up coke fields in Western Pennsylvania, processing the coke in his own ovens. In a few short years he was the major supplier of fuel for Pittsburgh’s iron and steel industries and by the time he was 30 had earned his first million. In celebration he travelled to Europe with Andrew Mellon who, in 1937, would donate his collection and money for the establishment of Washington’s National Gallery of Art. In London they visited the Wallace Collection, which would later serve as prototype for Frick’s New York house–museum. After marrying Adelaide Howard Childs (1859–1931) on 15 December 1881, Frick bought and expanded Clayton, a 23-room home, now part of the Frick Art and Historical Center, Pittsburgh....


Joseph R. Givens

(b Los Angeles, CA, April 19, 1945).

American art dealer. Gagosian is considered a catalyst for the globalization of the art market. Raised in Los Angeles by a middle-class family, Gagosian did not recall visiting an art museum until he was in college. After studying literature at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), from 1963 to 1969 he worked in several entry-level office jobs before making the transition to entrepreneur with a kitsch poster business near UCLA. Within a year, Gagosian transformed the poster business into a frame shop and art gallery, and over the course of the following three decades, he became the sole owner of a powerful art empire.

Realizing the limited sales potential in Los Angeles, he moved to New York and opened a gallery in SoHo with business partner Annina Nosei. In 1980 he returned to Los Angeles and arranged shows that rivalled New York dealers, including a notorious Jean-Michel Basquiat residency in April of ...


Lillian B. Miller

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b New York, April 14, 1840; d Boston, MA, July 17, 1924).

American patron, collector, and museum founder. The daughter of a wealthy New York merchant and wife of a prominent Boston banker, John L. Gardner jr (1837–98), she bought her first important painting in 1873—a small landscape by the Barbizon painter Charles Jacque. (All works cited are in Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.) In the 1870s she also began to collect rare books, manuscripts, autographs, and etchings, under the influence of Charles Eliot Norton. Although she continued to buy such pieces until her death, after the 1880s books took second place to art. During a trip to Europe in 1886, she visited the London studios of James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent, both of whom painted her portrait, and it was at that time that she decided to give serious thought to collecting art.

Gardner purchased her first Old Master painting in 1888—a Madonna by Francisco de Zurbarán, which became her personal altarpiece. A summer visit to Venice that year kindled her interest in Venetian architecture, and subsequent travels provided her with the opportunity to study important paintings in London and Paris, while strengthening her enthusiasm for collecting. She became friendly with Bernard Berenson, whom she had met when he was a young Harvard student in ...


Joseph Givens

(b Minneapolis, MN, Dec 15, 1892; d Sutton Place, nr Guildford, Surrey, June 6, 1976).

American businessman, collector, and patron. Son of a self-made insurance executive turned frontier oil barren, George Getty (1855–1930), J. Paul Getty grew his family’s oil investments into the largest private fortune in the world. J. Getty was born in Minneapolis, MN, but the family relocated to Bartlesville, OK, in 1904 after George Getty was seduced by prospects of oil prosperity. After amassing a sizeable fortune in Oklahoma, the Gettys relocated to Los Angeles, CA, in 1906. J.

Paul Getty’s capricious approach to academic pursuits led him to Harvard Military Academy, University of Southern California, University of California at Berkeley, and finally Oxford University. Getty joined the family business in 1916, but his proclivity for speculative investment caused his risk-averse father to place strict limits on his commercial dealings. The penchant for bargain hunting that guided his early success in business would come to define his approach to art collecting....


[emerging art markets]

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew 2014). Works of art made by modern and contemporary artists from all four countries regularly fetch more than $1 million at auction.

The rise of the BRICs has coincided with the global integration of what used to be local art markets: demand for and supply of particular artists or artistic movements may now be dispersed across the globe. The boom which global art markets have witnessed in the new millennium can be attributed partially to new buyers from countries like China and Russia developing an interest in art, both old and new. In describing the emergence of the BRICs, the focus in this article will be on modern and contemporary art, since that is where market development has been most significant, both qualitatively and quantitatively....


A. Deirdre Robson

American family of collectors. In the late 19th century Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905), an immigrant Swiss Jew, established a family fortune based on the mining and smelting of ore (particularly copper). Two of Meyer’s sons became patrons of the arts: (1) Solomon R. Guggenheim and Simon Guggenheim (1867–1941). The latter, a senator from 1907 to 1913, founded in 1925 the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation with an endowment of $3,000,000 to help young scholars, scientists, and artists; from 1939 his wife, Olga Guggenheim, gave the Museum of Modern Art, New York, a renewable purchase fund of $50,000 (gradually increased to $150,000 by the 1960s) for the purchase of major works of art, such as Henri Rousseau’s Sleeping Gypsy (1897). A third son, Benjamin Guggenheim (1865–1912), was the father of (2) Peggy Guggenheim.

P. Cabanne: The Great Collectors (New York, 1963) A. Saarinen: The Proud Possessors...


Kathryn Bonomi

(b New York, May 21, 1898; d Los Angeles, Dec 10, 1990).

American art collector and dealer. He was the eldest son of Julius Hammer, a descendant of Russian Jewish immigrants and a member of the Socialist Labor Party. By the age of 23, Armand had become a millionaire by reviving his father’s failing pharmaceutical business and selling it to his own employees; he had also completed medical school. When an epidemic of typhus broke out in the USSR in 1923 he volunteered his services, but once there determined that starvation was the country’s most severe problem. He hit on the idea of trading grain with the USSR in exchange for furs. He stayed in Russia for nine years, establishing successful pencil and asbestos concessions and representing 36 American companies there.

Hammer’s interest in art was stimulated by finding at flea markets in Moscow vast quantities of tapestries, silver and other goods abandoned by the Russian nobility. With his brother Victor Hammer (...


Joseph R. Givens

(b Los Angeles, CA, May 3, 1932; d Los Angeles, CA, March 20, 2005).

American dealer, curator, and museum director. Hopps pioneered international awareness of Pop art and helped to establish Los Angeles as an internationally recognized art centre. He opened museum doors to contemporary art and paved the way for the explosion of the contemporary art market in the 1980s.

As a teenager, Hopps was introduced to modern art through frequent visits to the famous collection of Walter and Louise Arensberg. Hopps went to college to study medicine at the behest of his parents, first at Stanford University then at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), but classes in art history, jazz concert promotion, and the creation of Syndell Studio eclipsed his science curriculum. Hopps’s ambition for a large-scale exhibition of West Coast Abstract Expressionism outgrew Syndell’s salon-style space. In 1953 he arranged Action 1, one of the first exhibitions of action painting outside New York. Hopps’s partnership with artist Edward Kienholz...


Darryl Patrick

(b Cherryville, PA, July 23, 1863; d New York, Sept 22, 1955).

American businessman and collector. The successful development of a chain of variety stores in the southern and western states provided the wealth necessary to fund his art collecting, and his frequent business and pleasure trips to Europe gave him access to art and art dealers. He started to acquire works of the Italian Renaissance, relying initially on the advice of the Florentine collector and dealer Conte Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi and soon adding medieval and Baroque works through the assistance of Joseph Duveen and Bernard Berenson. In 1929 he established a foundation to assist purchase of European works of art by American museums and funded the cost of restoring several important buildings in Italy, including the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua and the church of S Giovanni Evangelista in Ravenna. In 1939 he donated works of art valued at more than £25 million to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, and in ...


Laurence B. Kanter and Patrick Le Chanu

American family of bankers and collectors. Philip Lehman (b New York, 9 Nov 1861; d New York, 21 March 1947) was director of Lehman Brothers, an investment banking firm, and initially began collecting early Italian Renaissance paintings. His purchases were particularly extensive between 1914 and 1920 when he bought Renaissance ceramics, furniture, tapestries, and such paintings as Memling’s Annunciation (1482; New York, Met.). Bernard Berenson numbered among his friends. Philip’s son Robert Lehman (b New York, 29 Sept 1892; d New York, 9 Aug 1969) was already an enthusiastic collector while a student at Yale University, New Haven, CT (graduated 1913). In 1928 he published a catalogue of the paintings collected by his father and became head of Lehman Brothers investment bankers. He retained this post for over 40 years, turning the firm into one of the pillars of the economy and of American culture. Its headquarters were moved in ...


[tribal art]

The market for ‘tribal art’ emerged in the first decades of the 20th century. By way of avant-garde artists and pioneering dealers, African and Oceanic art slowly became accepted as ‘art’—with its inclusion in the Musée du Louvre in Paris in 2000 as a decisive endorsement. Initially, it was referred to as ‘primitive art’—alluding to an early ‘primitive’ stage in human development; later replaced by the equally biased ‘tribal art’. While still used widely among dealers and collectors (for want of a better word and being conveniently short), the term ‘tribe’, or its derivative ‘tribal’, is frowned upon by the scholarly community.

The foundations of the tribal art market were laid at the turn of the 20th century. European powers colonized large overseas territories in both Africa and Oceania and, along with other commodities, there arrived ethnographic artefacts. Europeans had conducted coastal trade with many African regions over centuries, but systematic explorations of the continental hinterland did sometimes not take place until the first decades of the 20th century. These resulted in the discovery of previously unknown cultures whose ritual objects, such as masks, were displayed during world’s fairs and colonial exhibitions. Many of these objects ended up in newly established museums, such as the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, outside Brussels. Vigorous competitors in the collection of ethnographic objects in both Africa and Oceania, these museums became the leading players in the early phases of the tribal art market’s development. Next to these large-scale official collecting activities, colonial, military, or missionary personnel also brought home exotic objects....