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Article

Stephen Hill

(Margaret Lowthian)

(b Washington, Co. Durham, July 14, 1868; d Baghdad, 11/July 12, 1926).

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in 1905. Her first major travel book, The Desert and the Sown, contains a mixture of travellers’ tales and archaeological information, as does her Amurath to Amurath. Between 1905 and 1914 she made archaeological studies of the Early Byzantine and Early Islamic monuments of Turkey, Syria and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). In 1905 and 1907 she surveyed Binbirkilise with Sir William Ramsay; their book, The Thousand and One Churches, remains the authoritative account of this important site. The architectural recording by survey and photography at Binbirkilise was carried out by Bell and is a lasting monument in its own right. Bell’s interest in Anatolia was inspired by Josef Strzygowski and his book ...

Article

Margaret Medley

(b Ash, Kent, July 28, 1844; d London, Dec 18, 1908).

English art historian. Trained in medicine, he became interested in the history of Chinese ceramics during his years as physician to the British embassy in Beijing (1868–1900). In 1891 he drafted a translation (pubd 1910) of Zhu Yan’s Tao shuo (‘Description of Chinese pottery and porcelain’, 1774), the first comprehensive account of Chinese ceramics written for connoisseurs by a Chinese critic. Bushell’s greatest achievement was his catalogue of the William T. Walters Collection in Baltimore, sumptuously published in ten folio volumes in 1896; its text, published as a single volume in 1899, is the earliest systematic study in English of Chinese ceramics in which the subject is treated chronologically and in which particular aspects such as reign marks, forms, technical matters and decorative motifs are considered separately. Bushell also translated a handwritten copy of Xiang Yuanbian’s Lidai mingci tupu (‘Illustrated description of the celebrated porcelain of different dynasties’, ...

Article

Hiroyuki Suzuki

(b London, Sept 28, 1852; d Tokyo, 1920).

English architect, active in Japan. He was articled to Roger Thomas Smith and then entered the office of William Burges. In 1876 he was awarded the Soane Medallion by the RIBA. In the next year he was appointed the first professor of architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering (now Tokyo University) in Japan, in which role he taught every aspect of architecture and building construction. During this period he was also active as an architect, designing such buildings as the Tokyo Imperial Museum (1877–80; now Tokyo National Museum) and a national banqueting house, Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion), for the Ministry of Public Works. After leaving his academic and governmental posts, Conder went into private practice and designed many residences, including the Iwasaki residence in Kayacho (1896; see Japan, §III, 5), the Shimazu residence (1915) and the Furukawa residence (1917). His style gradually changed from Gothic to more classical. He is often called the father of Western architecture in Japan, not only on account of his designs but also because of his role in establishing the Western method of architectural higher ...

Article

Alan M. Fern

(b Nagasaki, Nov 8, 1867; d St Petersburg, FL, Nov 21, 1944).

American writer and lecturer of Japanese birth. He was born to a Japanese mother and German father and brought up by relatives in Hamburg and, from 1882, in Philadelphia, where he studied art. Under the influence of the poet Walt Whitman, he decided to become a writer. Later he worked as a journalist in Boston, where he launched a literary magazine. When publication ceased, he moved to New York and began his freelance career.

Hartmann’s first article for Camera Notes was published in 1898 by Alfred Stieglitz, and he made regular contributions to Camera Work until 1904, but thereafter he published wherever he could and became a lecturer. He was one of the best-known spokesmen for photography in America, criticizing any work that did not make use of the fundamental qualities of the medium. A severe judge of early American painting, he singled out only Gilbert Stuart and John Vanderlyn for praise. Among later 19th-century American painters he preferred followers of the Barbizon school. His impact as a critic had lessened by the 1920s, although his views on the standards of 20th-century painting and photography attracted renewed attention in the 1970s....

Article

Eizo Inagaki

(b Yonezawa, Dewa Province [now Yamagata Prefect.], 1868; d 1954).

Japanese architectural historian and architect. He graduated from the School of Engineering at Tokyo Imperial University in 1892 and then undertook graduate studies in architectural history. He participated in research on the oldest building in Japan, the temple of Hōryūji at Nara, and carried out a survey of the principal buildings that recorded details of the temple’s proportions, construction and decoration. In 1898 he published the Hōryūji kenchikuron (‘Discourse on the architecture of Hōryūji’), his first lengthy thesis. In 1897 he began to teach at the School of Engineering at the university; in 1901 he received his doctorate and in 1905 he became a full professor in the department where he continued teaching until his retirement in 1928.

In his research Itō was more interested in comparing the civilizations of the East and West, and the influences on them, rather than merely accumulating archaeological information. As he explained in his first thesis, for example, the architecture of Hōryūji was derived from the Gandhara style in India, having been transmitted to the Korean peninsula and then to Japan. At this time, ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[K’ang Yu-wei; zi Nanhai]

(b Nanhai, Guangdong Province, 19 March 1858; d Qingdao, Shandong Province, 31 March 1927). Chinese reformer, scholar and calligrapher. He is best known as the instigator of the Hundred Days Reform, which lasted from 16 June to 21 September 1898, when the Guangxu emperor (reg 1875–1908) accepted Kang’s proposals for far-reaching change. Kang convinced the emperor of the importance of incorporating Western methods into Chinese culture so as to strengthen China against foreign aggression. The profoundly conservative dowager empress Cixi (1835–1908) staged a coup which brought the movement to an end. Kang fled the country and did not return until 1913, after the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

Kang’s formal education in calligraphy and epigraphy began under the tutelage of the eminent scholar, Zhu Ciqi (1807–81). Kang later chose a few models and copied them avidly: the Shimen ming, calligraphy carved into a cliff face in Shanxi Province in ...

Article

Yoshikazu Iwasaki

[Kakuzō]

(b Yokohama, Dec 26, 1863; d Niigata Prefect., Sept 2, 1913).

Japanese administrator, art historian and teacher. In 1880 he graduated from Tokyo Imperial University and entered the Ministry of Education. He later moved from administration to art education, and in 1886–7 he visited Europe and America as a member of an official art research team. In 1890, after his return, he became the head of the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, where he worked to make way for a new Japanese style of painting (Nihonga), which introduced the realistic techniques of Western painting to traditional methods (see Japan §VI 5., (iii)). Okakura was a formative influence on many artists at the centre of the modern Nihonga movement, such as Taikan Yokoyama and Shunsō Hishida. In 1898 he resigned as head of the school because of internal disagreements and formed the unofficial artistic group the Japan Art Institute (Nihon Bijutsuin). In 1904 he became adviser to the East Asian department at the Boston, MA, Museum of Fine Arts, later becoming head of the department....

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Budapest, Nov 26, 1862; d Kabul, Oct 26, 1943).

British scholar, explorer, archaeologist and geographer of Hungarian birth. He was educated in Germany, Hungary and Austria and in 1883 attained a PhD from the University of Tübingen. After further studies in Classical and Oriental archaeology and languages at Oxford University and the British Museum, he was appointed Principal of the Oriental College at Lahore in 1888 and in 1899 Principal of the Calcutta Madrasa. During the years in India he worked on the ancient history and geography of Kashmir.

His discoveries in the course of his first Central Asian expedition (1900–01) at sites such as Dandan-oilik, Niya and Endere, in the Khotan area in the south-west of China’s Xinjiang Autonomous Region, revealed in a startling manner the early history of that region. His second Central Asian expedition (1906–8) resulted in important discoveries at Niya, Miran and Loulan , both in eastern Xinjiang, and at Dunhuang in modern Gansu Province, and led to the removal of documents, paintings, textiles, wooden tablets and other objects. In ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...