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Article

M. J. T. M. Stompé

(b Lohr, c. 1525).

German architect, engraver and writer. After training as an architect in his native town, Hans Blum left Lohr because two architects were already working there: Peter Volckner (fl 1539–48) and Jost Wenzel (fl 1548–70). He then moved to Zurich, where he married Ragali Kuchymeister in 1550. Their eldest son Christoffel Blum (bapt 21 Jan 1552) was named after the publisher Christoffel Froschauer (?1490–1564), who later published Hans Blum’s treatises on architecture.

Hans Blum is primarily known as the author of Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio atque delinaeatio cum symmetrica (1550), a book on the five orders of architecture. He based his work on the fourth volume of Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (Venice, 1537), a German edition of which was published in 1542. The second source for Blum’s book was Gualtherus Rivius’s edition of Vitruvius, published in 1548 and illustrated by Peter Flettner (...

Article

Ugo Ruggeri

[il Cremonese]

(b ?Cremona, c. 1595; d Ferrara, 1660).

Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. His artistic formation was complex. He knew contemporary Emilian art, from Giacomo Cavedoni to Lionello Spada and Guercino, and was intensely interested in 16th-century painters from Venice and the Po Valley, ranging from Giorgione to Titian, from Altobello Meloni to Romanino and of course Dosso Dossi. Caletti was mainly interested, as was Pietro della Vecchia, in a revival of 16th-century Venetian art, and, like della Vecchia, although at times he produced forgeries of 16th-century pictures, he more often interpreted such sources with irony and powerful emotion, as in the St Sebastian (Cento, Taddei priv. col.), which is modelled on Titian’s figure of St Sebastian in the Averoldi polyptych of the Resurrection (1522; Brescia, SS Nazaro and Celso).

In a rare public commission, a depiction of St Mark (c. 1630; Ferrara, Pin. N.), Caletti grew closer to Guercino. He was attracted by the bold Venetian colour of Guercino’s early manner, the influence of which is apparent in this work and in ...

Article

(b Paris, c. 1604; d Laluque, Landes, March 29, 1678).

French painter, engraver and print publisher. Although it was as a painter that he was received (reçu) in 1663 by the Académie Royale, it is as an engraver that he is now remembered. His earliest known print is dated 1630, and he later made many plates, particularly reproductive engravings after his contemporaries Jacques Blanchard and Claude Vignon. He was one of Simon Vouet’s best interpreters, and Vouet himself commissioned from him at least 11 plates after his own paintings. Daret’s most important projects were the engraving of plates for and the publication of M. de Gomberville’s La Doctrine des moeurs (Paris, 1646) and the monumental collection of over 100 portraits in the Tableaux historiques où sont gravez les illustres français et estrangiers (Paris, 1652). His translation of Vasari’s life of Raphael, Abrégé de la vie de Raphael Sansio d’Urbin (Paris, 1651), is celebrated as the first monograph on an artist published in France....

Article

Michèle-Caroline Heck

[Grapp, Wendling]

(b Pfullendorf, nr Konstanz, 1550–51; d Strasbourg, 1599).

German painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of a Protestant pastor and spent his childhood in Lissenheim before moving to Strasbourg with his widowed mother. On 12 November 1570 he married Catherina Sprewer, and in 1571 he obtained Strasbourg citizenship. In 1575 he painted frescoes on the façade of the Brüderhof (destr. 1769). He was at Hagenau in 1583 and at Oberkirch in 1589. Also in 1589, he worked on the decoration of the Neu Bau (now Chambre de Commerce) in Strasbourg; the frescoes, known from engravings of the building (e.g. by Jean-Martin Weiss) and from descriptions, combined mythological and biblical scenes in an interesting iconographical relationship and emphasized the architectural structure of the façade. Dietterlin’s only authenticated easel painting is the signed and dated Raising of Lazarus (?1582 or ?1587; Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle), which has the characteristics of northern Mannerism: the centre of the composition, towards which the figures look, is deliberately brought out of symmetry to the right; the scene is viewed from below, and the ample gestures of the figures cause them to mingle and intertwine, creating arbitrary rhythmic connections. The intensity of these deliberately complicated movements and tensions is not accentuated by contrasted effects of light. The painting as a whole shows the influence of the Netherlands, while the bright colours are typically German, although some of the figures reveal an Italian influence, probably mediated through German art; others are taken directly from earlier German paintings or inspired by Tobias Stimmer. The only figure looking at the viewer may be a self-portrait (see Martin)....

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Villena, Alicante, c. 1645; d Madrid, June 28, 1717).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He began his training in Murcia with Nicolás de Villacis (c. 1618–94) and Mateo Gilarte (c. 1620–after 1680), who both worked in a naturalist and tenebrist style. He travelled to Rome in the 1660s and came into contact with the Italian Baroque, especially the work of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti. On his return he was first in Valencia, where the work of Jerónimo Jacinto Espinosa became a strong influence. Towards 1674 he established himself in Madrid, where he entered the circle of Juan Carreño de Miranda.

García Hidalgo’s numerous paintings were frequently signed, and he painted a good many for the Augustinian Order in Madrid, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Santiago de Compostela and Sigüenza (e.g the Vision of St Augustine, 1680; Sigüenza Cathedral), and for the Carmelite Order in Alba de Tormes, Peñaranda de Bracamonte and Segovia (e.g. the ...

Article

Kai Budde

(b Cologne; fl Strasbourg, 1590s).

German cabinetmaker, writer and engraver. He is recorded as a cabinetmaker and citizen of Strasbourg from 1596. He appears to have been a pupil of the architect Johann Schoch, who designed Schloss Gottesau, near Karlsruhe (c. 1587), and the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Schloss (c. 1601–7). Guckeisen, in collaboration with Veit Eck (fl Strasbourg, 1587), wrote a Kunstbüchlein (Strasbourg, 1596) dedicated to masons and cabinetmakers. He also wrote a similar work, Etlicher Architectischer Portalen, Epitapien, Caminen Und Schweyffen, published in the same year in Cologne. They were followed in 1599 by a series of engraved designs for six chests, also published in Cologne. In collaboration with the cabinetmaker and etcher Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Guckeisen also produced the Schränke (1598), Seilenbuch (1598), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Portalen Reisbetten Undt Epitaphien (1599) and Schweyfbuch (1599), the last dedicated to the cabinetmaker Jacob Riedel in Strasbourg. As a designer of ornament, Guckeisen was familiar with the whole repertory of Renaissance decoration, using it in varied combinations....

Article

(b nr Vigevano, ?1495; d after Aug 14, 1567).

Italian architect, engraver and writer. He is thought to have been in Rome by 1507, but the first specific record of him dates from 1526 when, together with Antonio da Sangallo (ii), Pier Francesco da Viterbo and Michele Sanmicheli, he worked for Pope Clement VII on the fortifications of Parma and Piacenza. After the sack of Rome in 1527, he was as much involved with restoration efforts as he was with recording antique monuments and participating in new building projects. Many existing drawings, some of them from the collection of Vasari (Florence, Uffizi), relate Labacco’s work to that of Sangallo, who commissioned him in 1539 to execute the large wooden model, now in the Vatican Museum, of his design for St Peter’s, Rome. The model required at least seven years to execute, and it was finished only after Sangallo’s death in 1546. Between 1546 and 1548 Labacco also published three engravings of Sangallo’s design....

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Saragossa, Dec 6, 1600; d Saragossa, Jan 6, 1682).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He was a son of the Flemish painter Daniel Martínez (d 1636), with whom he first trained, following late Mannerist trends. In 1623 he went to Italy, and in 1625 he was in Rome, where he met Guido Reni, Domenichino and, shortly afterwards in Naples, Jusepe de Ribera. This contact with Italian classicism and naturalism influenced his work, and he always maintained a preference for classical balance and structure. He combined this with chromatic tones and a chiaroscuro that became progressively softer. The extensive documentation on Martínez deals only intermittently with his paintings, and it is not always possible to trace his stylistic development. His earliest recorded work is the series of five engravings on the Life of St Pedro Nolasco (c. 1625), which were engraved in Rome by Johann Friedrich Greuter (d 1662) after Martínez’s drawings (untraced). In ...

Article

Peter Boutourline Young

(b Eisenach, 1832; d Nuremberg, May 28, 1895).

German architect, architectural historian, lithographer and writer. He was in Rome for a few months in 1855–6. In the early 1860s he produced Ornamente der Renaissance aus Italien (1861), a collection of 24 lithographs of drawings taken from life, as well as Entwürfe zu Grabdenkmalen (1861) and two further collections, Ornamentenschule (1861) and Ornamente griechischen und römischen Stils (n.d.). In 1864 he published his collection of designs for shop-fronts, the Zeichnungen zu Schaufenstern, Waarenauslagen und Ladenvorbauen, in Weimar, where in 1866, together with F. Jaede, he founded the Atelier für Architektur und Kunstgewerbe (Studio for architecture and arts and crafts) and, the following year, the weekly review Kunst und Gewerbe. In 1873 Stegmann became Director of the Bayerisches Gewerbemuseum at Nuremberg. He also supervised work on the construction (1861–8) of the new building for the Ducal Museum (now Landesmuseum) in Weimar, designed by ...

Article

James Clifton

(b Lucca, 1612; d Rome, March 1, 1650).

Italian draughtsman, printmaker, painter and writer. Most of his relatively brief career was spent in Rome in the circle of artists and scholars interested in Classical ideals, who grouped around Cassiano dal Pozzo. Although his public paintings were largely unsuccessful, he was among the finest and most renowned Italian printmakers and draughtsmen of the 17th century. The content of several of his etchings and a planned treatise provide evidence of his intellectual approach to the practice and theory of art.

The son of a dealer in secondhand goods in Lucca, by the mid- to late 1620s Testa was in Rome, where he was known as ‘il Lucchesino’. The German painter and artists’ biographer Joachim von Sandrart, who was then in Rome supervising the project to engrave the ancient statues in the collection of Vincenzo Giustiniani (published c. 1631 as Galleria Giustiniani), claimed to have discovered Testa drawing among the ancient ruins of the city and put him to work making preparatory drawings for the Giustiniani engravings. An inventory of ...

Article

Madeleine Van De Winckel

[Jan] [Frisio, Johan]

(b Leeuwarden, 1527; d ?Antwerp, ?1606).

Dutch designer, architect and painter, active in the southern Netherlands and throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Though an artist of many talents, it was through his engravings that he most influenced his contemporaries. The distribution of his works by the publishers of Antwerp made him one of the leading and best-known exponents of Mannerist decoration and the instigator of a new urban vision in northern and central Europe.

He first studied drawing in his native Leeuwarden in Friesland for five years with Reijer Gerritsz., a glass painter from Amsterdam, who moved to Leuven c. 1544. Vredeman de Vries then spent two years in Kampen, before moving to Mechelen, where he learnt to paint in watercolour on canvas, a technique typical of that town. In 1549 he assisted Pieter Coecke van Aelst on the decoration of the triumphal arches constructed for the ceremonial entry into Antwerp of Charles V and his son, the future Philip II. On Vredeman de Vries’s return to Friesland, he was briefly in Kollum, where he is reported to have applied himself ‘night and day’ to copying the works of Sebastiano Serlio and Vitruvius from editions published and translated by Coecke van Aelst. Vredeman de Vries returned to Mechelen to stay with the painter and art dealer ...