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Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 12, 1882; d Prague, Aug 1, 1956).

Czech architect, designer, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Josef Zítek, and from 1906 to 1907 he was a student of Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1908 he worked in Jan Kotěra’s studio in Prague. His early work was influenced by the modernism of Wagner and Kotěra, but he perceived a danger of uniformity in a purely rationalist approach to architecture. In 1911, together with Josef Chochol, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964), Emil Filla, Václav Špála, Antonín Procházka, Otto Gutfreund and others, he founded the Group of Fine Artists, which sought a more artistic approach to architecture, and in 1912 he and Gočár founded the Prague Art Workshops for the design of arts, crafts and furniture. Within the Group of Fine Artists, Janák developed the principles of Czech Cubism...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Venice, Aug 23, 1683; d Padua, Nov 15, 1761).

Italian scientist and archaeologist. He is noted for his work as a technical consultant specializing in architectural and hydraulic problems. He began his studies in 1690 in Venice, at the Seminario Patriarcale, Murano, completing them c. 1705 at the school of the Somaschi Fathers at Santa Maria della Salute. In 1708 he was appointed a professor of astronomy at the University of Padua. On 30 November 1710 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, London; this was followed by membership of the most famous Italian academies, as well as those of Berlin (1715), St Petersburg (1735) and Paris (1739). He maintained a continuous correspondence with the most eminent scientists and men of culture, both Italian and foreign, and published numerous works on scientific subjects. In the course of Poleni’s career at the University of Padua, he was professor of philosophy (c. 1715–19...

Article

María Teresa Dabrio González

(b Pontevedra, 1937).

Spanish architect, restorer, theorist and teacher. He studied architecture at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura, Barcelona, where he graduated in 1966 and earned his doctorate two years later. He subsequently developed a career in private practice and also taught architectural design and urban planning at the Escuela de Arquitectura, La Coruña. His interest in the restoration and preservation of the urban environment, especially in Galicia, is reflected in numerous projects in the area, for example the refurbishing of the Casa del Concejo (1982), Brión. Other singular projects that characterize his close identification with this region are competition entries such as his ‘Study of the Natural Elements and Artificial Objects that Make Up the Galician Physical Milieu’ (1983) sponsored by the Ministry of Public Works and City Planning of Madrid, and his design (1989) for a lighthouse in Malpica, Costa de la Muerte. He was also one of the architects invited to design the Spanish Pavilion for the Exposición Universal in Seville in ...

Article

Olgierd Czerner

(b Narva [now in Estonia], Sept 1, 1883; d Kraków, Oct 1, 1948).

Polish architect, designer, restorer, writer and teacher. He studied (1902–9) at the Academy of Fine Arts, St Petersburg, and subsequently studied the history of art in Kraków. His early buildings include a synagogue (1910), Kharkiv, a house (1912), at 7 Mariacki Square, Kraków, and cloisters for pilgrims at a convent in Jasna Góra, in Częstochowa, which reflect the requirement to use national forms of architecture. Above all, however, he was an advocate of a simplified, monumental, academic classicism, notably in the design for the Hotel Bristol (1912) and the house (1913) at 15 Zwierzyniecka Street, both in Kraków, and his design for a ministerial building (1921) in Warsaw. He applied classical ideas magnificently in the National Savings Bank Building (1925), Kraków, and in the building constructed to house its employees. Szyszko-Bohusz’s extensive simplification of classical designs, already evident in the design for the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy (...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Ploieşti, June 28, 1894; d Bucharest, June 21, 1976).

Romanian architect, urban planner, restorer and theorist. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, until 1925, then studied (1926–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome, where he specialized in the problems of restoration. On his return to Romania he worked with the Historical Monuments Commission and in 1931 was appointed a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts ‘Nicolae Grigorescu’, Bucharest. Among his most notable architectural achievements are the Dalles Foundation Building (1932; now altered and known as Sala Dalles), Bucharest, containing exhibition rooms and a concert hall; the replanning of I. C. Brătianu Square (1936; now Nicolae Bălcescu Square), Bucharest, in collaboration with the sculptor Ivan Mes̆trović; the design of the parish building and bell-tower (1939) in the Old Court, Bucharest, which are sympathetically constructed in brick, preserving and blending in with the original character of the site; and the planning of Constanţa, intended to improve the situation of the ancient city of Tomis. As a restorer Teodoru distinguished himself not only by introducing modern techniques but also by his synthesis of the different contributions of the architect, the urban planner, the archaeologist and the art historian, for example in the original restoration of the Old Court (...