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Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Bucharest, Oct 27, 1902; d 1994).

Romanian restorer, architect and architectural historian . He studied (1922–8) at the High School of Architecture, Bucharest, under Petre Antonescu and Paul Smărăndescu. In 1928 he obtained a two-year bursary to study at the Accademia di Romania, Rome, where he specialized in architectural restoration. He attended the courses of Gustavo Giovannoni at the faculty of architecture at the Università La Sapienza, Rome, and studied Italian restoration projects. From 1930 he worked for the Historical Monuments Commission in Bucharest. Among his early restoration projects were the 18th-century churches of Kretzulescu (1932–9) and Antim (1945), Bucharest, and during this period he also designed a number of original works, such as the Gordon Hayward Villa (1936–7) in Cîmpina, the church in Balcic, and the Pherekyde and Constantinescu houses (1938), also in Balcic. Notable later restorations include the 17th-century monastery church (1943–4) at Iası, the church (...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

V. P. Tsel’tner

[Mikhail]

(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Iaşi, Dec 12, 1869; d Bucharest, Dec 16, 1943).

Romanian architect, restorer, architectural historian and teacher. He studied engineering (1889–93) at the School of Roads and Bridges, Bucharest, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Victor Laloux, where he obtained a diploma in 1901. After 1906 he was active in the Romanian Historical Monuments Commission, researching the ancient historical architecture of Romania. He was among the promoters of the ‘neo-Romanian’ style, along with Ion Mincu, Petre Antonescu, Constantin Iotzu (1884–1962) and Grigore Cerchez (1850–1927). Ghika-Budeşti’s most significant building is the Museum of National Art (1912–38; now the Romanian Peasant Museum), Bucharest. Built of traditional stone, brick and tiles, it is remarkable both for a compositional balance characteristic of traditional Romanian architecture and for its monumental dimensions. At the same time the human scale is retained by the incorporation of various decorative elements: dogtooth motifs, mouldings, niches, balustrades and ornamental tendrils reminiscent of the Brâncoveanu period (...

Article

(b London, 1808; d Paris, April 27, 1878).

French archaeologist and architectural historian. He came from a noble family of royalist, Catholic lawyers, and studied law himself before embarking on a career in the civil service. At the same time he followed courses at the Sorbonne and Bibliothèque Royale and pursued a career as a scholar and archaeologist. He submitted reports to the Comité des Arts et Monuments, which was drawing up an inventory of French monuments. In 1855 he was asked to record inscriptions in France dating after the 5th century ad, and he spent the rest of his life on this work, which was published from 1873. Guilhermy also published numerous articles dealing mainly with the iconography of medieval historical and literary figures; in other articles he discussed the dispersed collections of the old Musée des Monuments Français (Petits-Augustins).

Guilhermy was admitted to the Commission des Monuments Historiques only in 1860, but very soon he became associated with a number of major restoration workshops. At Saint-Denis Abbey he advised Eugène Viollet-le-Duc on the restoration of the crypts, having joined Charles Lenormant, Prosper Mérimée and Louis Vitet in deploring the anachronisms and incorrect restorations of François Debret. At the Sainte-Chapelle he collaborated with ...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 12, 1882; d Prague, Aug 1, 1956).

Czech architect, designer, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Josef Zítek, and from 1906 to 1907 he was a student of Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1908 he worked in Jan Kotěra’s studio in Prague. His early work was influenced by the modernism of Wagner and Kotěra, but he perceived a danger of uniformity in a purely rationalist approach to architecture. In 1911, together with Josef Chochol, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964), Emil Filla, Václav Špála, Antonín Procházka, Otto Gutfreund and others, he founded the Group of Fine Artists, which sought a more artistic approach to architecture, and in 1912 he and Gočár founded the Prague Art Workshops for the design of arts, crafts and furniture. Within the Group of Fine Artists, Janák developed the principles of Czech Cubism...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

(b Arad [now in Romania], Dec 15, 1889; d Budapest, Jan 12, 1980).

Hungarian architect, architectural historian, urban planner, teacher and restorer. He received his architectural degree (1911) and doctorate (1918) from the Imperial Joseph Technical University, Budapest, and then taught planning and architectural history there in 1919 and again from 1926 until 1949. Following study trips to Germany and Italy, he wrote several books on the styles of the Italian Renaissance. In 1925–7 he designed the Franciscan monastery and church at Zalaegerszeg using 18th-century Transdanubian Baroque architectural forms. His design for the Biological Institute (1926–7), Tihany, is eclectic with restrained ornament and evokes Mediterranean architecture with its slightly inclined roofs, terraces and open arcaded galleries and stairways. Other buildings, such as the Regnum Marianum Church (1926–30; destr. 1948), Budapest, are in a neo-Romanesque style, while his Roman Catholic church (1932–3) at Balatonboglár, near Fonyód, is one of the first examples of Modernism in Hungarian church architecture. Next to the reinforced concrete church, which is planned on the shape of a simple horizontal volume, is an asymmetric square tower capped with a graceful cylindrical spire. Kotsis’s houses are influenced by the traditionalist Stuttgart school, primarily Paul Schmitthenner. Although not eclectic, they show a respect for tradition while linking certain modern architectural aspirations with conservatism, as in the family villas (1940s) on Orló Street and Árvácska Street, Budapest. In his restoration (...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, March 19, 1807; d Vichy, July 15, 1857).

French architect, designer, architectural historian and restorer. He began his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but interrupted them to enter the studio of Henri Labrouste. He was among the first of his generation to oppose the hegemony of the Académie and the teaching curriculum based on Greco-Roman tradition. Having become known through the exhibition of several of his projects at the Salon, including a reconstruction (1833) of the Palais des Tuileries as intended by Philibert de L’Orme, and proposed restorations of the Sainte-Chapelle (1835) and the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs (1836), all in Paris, Lassus began his career as an architectural historian, architect and restorer. One of his earliest works was the restoration (1835) of St-Séverin, Paris. In direct contrast with the committed classicists epitomized by Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, Lassus developed a programme based on the assumption that the Early Gothic period produced a rational and functional architecture that marked the high point of national architecture; that later Gothic represented a decline and that the Renaissance introduced foreign and pagan influences; that restoration of Gothic buildings should respect their formal and structural authenticity; and that architects of the 19th century should apply the precepts of Early Gothic in order to find the way towards a new architecture....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Wiesbaden, 1908; d. Heidelberg, 4 April, 1999).

Art historian of Viennese birth. She studied at Vienna University with Josef Strzygoswki, submitting her thesis on Sasanian silver in 1933. The following year she volunteered at the Islamic department of the State Museum in Berlin under Ernst Kühnel, who had succeeded Friedrich Sarre as director three years earlier. In the spring of 1935 Otto-Dorn went to Turkey, working with the German Archaeological Institute on the ceramics of Iznik and excavating at Kahta in southeast Anatolia. World War II forced her to return to Europe, and in 1948 she began teaching at Heidelberg University, while also excavating at Rusafa in northeastern Syria and then at Kubadabad on Lake Beyşehir. In 1954 she returned to Turkey, where she established the chair of Islamic art and archaeology at Ankara and trained many Turkish students. In 1964 she returned to Heidelberg, but unable to find a position in Germany, she took up the position of professor of Islamic Art at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she taught from ...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Venice, Aug 23, 1683; d Padua, Nov 15, 1761).

Italian scientist and archaeologist. He is noted for his work as a technical consultant specializing in architectural and hydraulic problems. He began his studies in 1690 in Venice, at the Seminario Patriarcale, Murano, completing them c. 1705 at the school of the Somaschi Fathers at Santa Maria della Salute. In 1708 he was appointed a professor of astronomy at the University of Padua. On 30 November 1710 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, London; this was followed by membership of the most famous Italian academies, as well as those of Berlin (1715), St Petersburg (1735) and Paris (1739). He maintained a continuous correspondence with the most eminent scientists and men of culture, both Italian and foreign, and published numerous works on scientific subjects. In the course of Poleni’s career at the University of Padua, he was professor of philosophy (c. 1715–19...

Article

María Teresa Dabrio González

(b Pontevedra, 1937).

Spanish architect, restorer, theorist and teacher. He studied architecture at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura, Barcelona, where he graduated in 1966 and earned his doctorate two years later. He subsequently developed a career in private practice and also taught architectural design and urban planning at the Escuela de Arquitectura, La Coruña. His interest in the restoration and preservation of the urban environment, especially in Galicia, is reflected in numerous projects in the area, for example the refurbishing of the Casa del Concejo (1982), Brión. Other singular projects that characterize his close identification with this region are competition entries such as his ‘Study of the Natural Elements and Artificial Objects that Make Up the Galician Physical Milieu’ (1983) sponsored by the Ministry of Public Works and City Planning of Madrid, and his design (1989) for a lighthouse in Malpica, Costa de la Muerte. He was also one of the architects invited to design the Spanish Pavilion for the Exposición Universal in Seville in ...

Article

Olgierd Czerner

(b Narva [now in Estonia], Sept 1, 1883; d Kraków, Oct 1, 1948).

Polish architect, designer, restorer, writer and teacher. He studied (1902–9) at the Academy of Fine Arts, St Petersburg, and subsequently studied the history of art in Kraków. His early buildings include a synagogue (1910), Kharkiv, a house (1912), at 7 Mariacki Square, Kraków, and cloisters for pilgrims at a convent in Jasna Góra, in Częstochowa, which reflect the requirement to use national forms of architecture. Above all, however, he was an advocate of a simplified, monumental, academic classicism, notably in the design for the Hotel Bristol (1912) and the house (1913) at 15 Zwierzyniecka Street, both in Kraków, and his design for a ministerial building (1921) in Warsaw. He applied classical ideas magnificently in the National Savings Bank Building (1925), Kraków, and in the building constructed to house its employees. Szyszko-Bohusz’s extensive simplification of classical designs, already evident in the design for the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy (...

Article

Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Ploieşti, June 28, 1894; d Bucharest, June 21, 1976).

Romanian architect, urban planner, restorer and theorist. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, until 1925, then studied (1926–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome, where he specialized in the problems of restoration. On his return to Romania he worked with the Historical Monuments Commission and in 1931 was appointed a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts ‘Nicolae Grigorescu’, Bucharest. Among his most notable architectural achievements are the Dalles Foundation Building (1932; now altered and known as Sala Dalles), Bucharest, containing exhibition rooms and a concert hall; the replanning of I. C. Brătianu Square (1936; now Nicolae Bălcescu Square), Bucharest, in collaboration with the sculptor Ivan Mes̆trović; the design of the parish building and bell-tower (1939) in the Old Court, Bucharest, which are sympathetically constructed in brick, preserving and blending in with the original character of the site; and the planning of Constanţa, intended to improve the situation of the ancient city of Tomis. As a restorer Teodoru distinguished himself not only by introducing modern techniques but also by his synthesis of the different contributions of the architect, the urban planner, the archaeologist and the art historian, for example in the original restoration of the Old Court (...

Article

Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b Carmarthen, Dec 27, 1882; d Newton Abbot, Devon, Jan 11, 1952).

English art historian, writer, and conservator. He trained under Professor W. R. Lethaby at the Royal College of Art, London, and rose to become Professor of Design there from 1925 until his retirement in 1946, when he was made Professor Emeritus. He was an acknowledged expert on medieval wall paintings, particularly their preservation, although his technical methods are now known to have been unsound. He was also a highly influential teacher on the subject and did much to bring the interest and value of medieval painting to public attention. He worked on the preservation and restoration of wall paintings at Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster, and Eton College (Berks), among other sites, and in the cathedrals of Norwich, Exeter, Winchester, and Christchurch, Oxford, as well as on the Pre-Raphaelite murals in the Oxford Union Library. He gave a large collection of his drawings of medieval wall paintings to the ...

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Burgos, 1843; d Madrid, July 31, 1923).

Spanish architect and art historian. He was one of the best-qualified exponents of late 19th-century architecture in Spain. Although his training had a historical bias, he was influenced by contemporary developments in European architecture. His work had links with that of the Belgian Joseph Poelaert, and he also assimilated aspects of the aesthetic of John Ruskin, introducing into his architecture red brick, with its various hues, and strips of polychrome ceramic, generally fabricated by Daniel Zuloaga (1852–1921). He was also acquainted with the Dutch architecture of the school of P. J. H. Cuypers. He drew extraordinarily well, and it was for this reason that he took part in the expedition to the Far East of the frigate Arapiles. His merits were soon recognized, and he was to become the favourite architect for state projects. In 1881 he obtained the chair of history of art in the Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid, becoming a director of this centre from ...

Article

(b Feldhausen, Dec 31, 1893; d Cologne, May 25, 1978).

German art historian and conservator . He wrote his dissertation in Bonn on Early Renaissance art on the Lower Rhine, and from 1928 to 1951 he was in charge of conservation for the Rhineland. In 1933 he began teaching the care of monuments and Rhenish art at the Universität Bonn, where he was appointed honorary professor in 1939. During World War II Metternich was responsible for the protection of movable works of art in the Rhineland and in France, where he did extremely valuable work pursuant to the Hague Convention. After 1950 he worked for the West German Foreign Office to recover art works that had been taken abroad, and from 1952 to 1962 he was Director of the Bibliotheca Hertziana in Rome. Metternich’s scholarly work was dedicated to the art of the Rhineland. His special interests included Romanesque architecture and murals, such as Bonn Minster, Schwarzrheindorf, St Georg and St Aposteln in Cologne; Gothic churches such as Cologne Cathedral; Renaissance buildings (for example Schloss Rheydt) and such Baroque estates as Schloss Brühl. At the Bibliotheca Hertziana he devoted himself to architecture in Rome from the 15th to the 18th century and especially to problems concerning Bramante and the building of St Peter’s, Rome....