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A. Wallert

Medieval treatise containing a collection of chemical recipes, with descriptions on the preparation and application of pigments and dyes. It is a parchment codex written by different hands in the late 8th or early 9th century. The manuscript (Lucca, Bib. Capitolare, Cod. 490) is sometimes called the ‘Lucca manuscript’ but is better known as Compositiones ad tingenda, from the title of its first publication by Muratori, or Compositiones variae. The Compositiones is not a systematically organized treatise. It contains instructions for different craft practices in 157 recipes. Its subjects include the coloration of artificial stone for making mosaics; dyeing of skins, textiles, and other materials; the making of various chemical substances; and metallurgical operations.

The Compositiones has descriptions that make it of extreme interest for the history of painting techniques. It contains recipes for the preparation of mineral pigments and organic colorants and for gilding and gold inks. It has the first description of the making of ...


Ulrich Kuder, Carola Hicks, Matthias Exner, Florentine Mütherich, G. Reinheckel and Charles T. Little

Term used to describe the art produced in the Holy Roman Empire from c. ad 955 until the late 11th century.

The term is derived from the names of three successive German rulers from Saxony (see Saxony, House of family). Otto I the Great, who became king in 936, defeated the Hungarians at the battle of Lechfeld in 955 and extended his rule into Italy, being crowned emperor in 962. His son Otto II succeeded him as king in 961, and was crowned emperor in 973; Otto III, who succeeded as a minor in 983, was crowned emperor, after attaining his majority, in 996. For the purposes of art history the concept has been extended beyond Otto III’s death in 1002 to include the last Saxon ruler, Henry II (reg 1002–24) and the first Salians, Conrad II (reg 1024–39), Henry III (reg 1039–56; see Salian, House of family, §1...