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Jan Glier Reeder

French couture house. Established at 24, Rue Thaitbout by three sisters, Marie Callot Gerber, Marthe Callot Bertrand and Regine Callot Tennyson-Chantrelle. The sisters shared an artistic heritage; their mother was a lacemaker and their father an artist and professor who was descended from the master draftsman and etcher Jacques Callot.

Maison Callot Soeurs rapidly became a principal couture house, along with the other great names of the period such as Jacques(-Antoine) Doucet, Jeanne Paquin, Charles Frederick Worth, Rouff and Raudnitz. By 1900 the sisters were already employing 600 workers and had participated in the Parisian couturiers’ famed first joint fashion display at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900. In 1914 they moved address to 9–11, Avenue Matignon and again in 1932, to 41, Avenue Montaigne. In 1917, they opened a London branch at 7 Buckingham Gate. The London branch was closed in 1935 and the business was absorbed into Calvet in ...

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Gordon Campbell

(b Flensburg, March 6, 1866; d Wiesbaden, Jan 5, 1945).

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer.

M. Zimmermann-Degen and H. Christiansen...

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(b Doesburg, Oct 31, 1841; d Laag-Keppel, May 28, 1930).

Dutch decorative artist. He trained as an architect at the firm of L. H. Eberson in Arnhem. From c. 1867 to 1870 he lived in Paris, where he was involved in the preparations for the Exposition Universelle of 1867. After returning to the Netherlands he concentrated increasingly on the applied arts. From 1884 until 1889 he was the artistic director of the Rozenburg delftware factory in The Hague, which was established by W. W. von Gudenberg in 1883. It was not only Colenbrander’s designs of ornamental china that were revolutionary but also the asymmetric, whimsical, but at the same time elegant, decorative patterns, which were applied in bright, transparent colours. His motifs seemed to indicate an awareness of oriental decorations, which he may have seen at Expositions Universelles, although for the most part they were original. After a disagreement with the management, he left Rozenburg in 1889 and spent several years working in different fields within the applied arts, including interior design and textiles....

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Joellen Secondo

(b Peckham Rye, London, Jan 29, 1845; d London, April 18, 1910).

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at Clayton & Bell and by 1870 had joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, for whom he worked on the decoration of Eaton Hall, Ches. In late 1880 Day started his own business designing textiles, wallpapers, stained glass, embroidery, carpets, tiles, pottery, furniture, silver, jewellery and book covers. He designed tiles for Maw & Co. and Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., stained glass and wallpaper for W. B. Simpson & Co., wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co. and textiles for Turnbull & Stockdale where he was made Art Director in 1881.

Day was a founder-member and Secretary of the ...

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A. Ziffer

(b Görlitz, Feb 21, 1871; d Lüneburg, March 10, 1948).

German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in 1901 at the first Ausstellung für Kunst im Handwerk in Munich. In 1902 he founded the Lehr- und Versuch-Atelier für Angewandte und Freie Kunst with the Swiss artist Hermann Obrist, developing a modern co-educational teaching system based on reformist pedagogy and popular psychology. In preliminary courses, classes and workshops, a broad practical training was offered primarily in arts and crafts. This precursor of the Bauhaus encouraged contact with dealers and collectors and was widely accoladed. When Obrist resigned from the school in 1904, Debschitz founded the Ateliers und Werkstätten für Angewandte Kunst and the Keramischen Werkstätten production centres attached to the school. In ...

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Rosamond Allwood

(b Glasgow, July 4, 1834; d Mulhouse, Alsace, Nov 24, 1904).

Scottish designer, Botanist and writer. He trained at the Government School of Design, Somerset House, London, between 1847 and 1854, during which time he was strongly influenced by the design reform efforts of Henry Cole, Richard Redgrave and Owen Jones. In 1854 he began to lecture at the school on botany and in 1856 supplied a plate illustrating the ‘geometrical arrangement of flowers’ for Jones’s Grammar of Ornament. In 1857 he presented a series of lectures at the Royal Institution entitled ‘On the Relationship of Science to Ornamental Art’, which he followed up in a series of 11 articles in the Art Journal (1857–8) on the similar subject of ‘Botany as Adapted to the Arts and Art-Manufacture’. His first three books were on botanical subjects, and in 1860 he was awarded a doctorate by the University of Jena for his research in this area.

Following the International Exhibition of ...

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Ilona Sármány-Parsons, S. Kontha and Ida Bod-Bobrovszky

Hungarian family of artists. The painter (1) Károly Ferenczy was one of the first modern Hungarian artists and a leading figure in the Nagybánya colony. He introduced a generation of young Hungarian artists to plein-air painting and led the reaction against conventional academic art. All of his important works are in Hungary, and he is consequently little known outside his native land. Károly married his cousin, the Austrian painter Olga von Fialka (1848–1930). Their son (2) Béni Ferenczy was primarily a sculptor and medallist. He spent many years in Vienna and his mature work shows a successful reinterpretation of Classical sculpture. His twin sister (3) Noémi Ferenczy specialized in making tapestries and was the greatest influence on Hungarian tapestry in the 20th century. Another son, Valér Ferenczy (b Körmöczbánya, 22 Nov 1885), having studied with his father and with Simon Hollósy at Nagybánya, became a painter and etcher. The ...

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Sandra Sider

Folk art, or vernacular art (specific to a group or place), developed in Colonial America out of necessity when individual households produced most of the utilitarian objects required for daily life. Using traditional tools and techniques, many of these makers created pieces in which aesthetics came to play a substantial role, through form, ornamentation, or both. In some groups, notably the Shakers, function was emphasized, with pure form evoking an aesthetic and spiritual response. Religious beliefs have informed American folk art, such as the saints and other figures (Santos) carved and painted by Catholic settlers in the Southwest as early as 1700. Although the majority of folk art is now anonymous, the oeuvre of numerous individual artists can be determined by their distinctive styles or marks. Folk art is often considered within the field of ‘material culture’, with an emphasis on the object’s context rather than its creator. Most American folk art falls within three categories: painting and cut paper, textiles and fibre, and three-dimensional work such as furniture, carvings, metalwork, ceramics, and outdoor installations....

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E. A. Christensen

(b Bexley, Kent, June 8, 1855; d 1924).

English designer and painter. He was the son of George Haité, a textile designer. Among his numerous publications on design, the most important is Plant Studies for Artists, Designers, etc. (London, 1884). Comprised of 50 plates of plant ornament, the book also contains a detailed life history of each plant. Using conventionalized motifs derived from a study of nature and Japanese art, he created ceiling designs for J. Tollman & Co., wallpapers for Arthur Sanderson & Sons and Essex & Co., and fabrics for G. P. & J. Baker. He designed small decorative objects; for example, his interior fittings (1896) for the studio of Mr E. Davis included metallic electroliers decorated with leaves and flowers, and four copper repoussé grilles representing the Four Seasons (for illustrations see White).

Haité was instrumental in founding the Society of Designers in 1896 and served as its first president. He produced landscapes in oil and watercolour, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy, London. An enthusiastic member of the Langham Sketch Club and the London Sketch Club, he was known for his rapid sketching ability....

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John Mawer

(b Bodiam, E. Sussex, Feb 17, 1849; d London, Aug 21, 1930).

English designer. He was educated at Marlborough College and New College, Oxford, where he studied drawing under John Ruskin. Although he took Holy Orders in 1873, he continued to practise as a designer and eventually gave up his clerical duties in 1882, the year in which Arthur Mackmurdo founded the Century Guild of Artists, London. In 1883 Mackmurdo and Image opened the Century Guild Workshops. Image painted panels and inscriptions and designed inlaid decoration for furniture made by the Guild and also produced the title-page woodcut for its magazine The Hobby Horse, first published in 1884, which he co-edited from 1886 to 1892. The Guild itself was dissolved in 1888. He undertook design commissions in several fields—stained glass, typography, mosaic and embroidery (for the Royal School of Needlework). He also became active within the Art Workers’ Guild, London, of which he became master in 1900. In the same year he began working for the Glasgow furniture manufacturers ...

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Ilona Sármány-Parsons

In 

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Lourdes Font

(b Paris, Jan 1, 1867; d Paris, July 6, 1946).

French fashion designer. The oldest name in contemporary French fashion, Lanvin began her career in 1889 as a milliner. Her career spanned almost 60 years and ended only with her death at the age of 79. Lanvin was a designer whose talent was nourished by a rich artistic sensibility she worked hard to nurture. In her combined office and studio, she surrounded herself with works of art, books, textiles and costumes, synthesizing diverse sources of inspiration to create her own style of decorative modernism. In the 1920s she was known for full-skirted robes de style embellished with unique embroideries, in the 1930s for sophisticated evening wear, and always for the finest, painstaking workmanship. Lanvin’s reputation for ladylike refinement, epitomized by her daughter the Comtesse de Polignac, won the house many high society clients. In 1936, she was made an officer of the Légion d’Honneur.

Lanvin, the daughter of a Parisian journalist, was apprenticed at the age of 13 to a milliner or dressmaker and at 16 was trimming hats at the Maison Félix, a rival to the House of Worth. In ...

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[Christiaan]

(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).

Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.

Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...

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M. W. F. Simon Thomas

(b Amsterdam, Nov 28, 1864; d Vreeland, May 20, 1945).

Dutch decorative artist and designer. He first trained as an art teacher at the Rijksnormaalschool in Amsterdam between 1887 and 1891, but afterwards he devoted himself almost exclusively to decorative art and design. His designs included furniture, batiks, upholstery fabrics and carpets. Because of their imaginative, often capricious, decorations they occupied a special place within the Nieuwe Kunst movement. From 1889 until 1906, with T. W. Nieuwenhuis and Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, he worked for the furniture workshop E. J. Wisselingh & Co. in Amsterdam (see Netherlands, Kingdom of the, §VI, 5). In addition, from 1901 he ran his own Atelier voor Versieringskunst (Studio for Decorative Art) in Vreeland. He collaborated with Nieuwenhuis on the sumptuous interiors designed c. 1901–12 for the lawyer G. T. Dentz van Schaick in Amsterdam; each artist was responsible for the design of his own room. The panelling and furniture are richly decorated with low-relief carving and are inlaid with oak and ivory. The woollen carpets and the gilded leather and parchment ceiling were also designed by Lion Cachet. A reconstruction of the interior can be seen at the Centraal Museum, Utrecht....

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Pamela Elizabeth Grimaud

[née Melinotte, Louise; Boulanger, Louise]

(b 1878; d 1950)

French fashion designer. Louiseboulanger is credited with introducing a number of innovations, such as longer hemlines in 1927, and is recognized as one of the leading couturières of the late 1920s and 1930s. At age 13 she was apprenticed to a dressmaker, later becoming a première at the House of Chéruit. In 1927 she married Louis Boulanger and opened her own house at 3 Rue de Berri. She closed it in 1933, after which she briefly designed for Callot Soeurs until re-establishing her own house in 1934 at 6, Rue Royale. A stylish woman who utilized exquisite colour-sense and deft cutting, she created clothes for a sophisticated clientele, including the actresses Spinelly, the milliner Agnès and the socialites Mrs Reginald (Daisy) Fellowes and the duchesse de Gramont.

In February 1927, Louiseboulanger announced the opening of her house and the showing of her first collection with a full-page advertisement in L’Officiel de la Couture...

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Lucile  

Molly Sorkin

[Sutherland, Lucy Christiana, Lady Duff Gordon]

(b London, June 13, 1863; d London, April 20, 1935).

English fashion designer, active also in Paris and the USA. Lucile was the professional name of Lady Duff Gordon, who began her career as a London dressmaker and achieved success as an international couturière. Lucile believed in fashion as self-expression. She was gifted with an artist’s sense of colour and designed in a broad range of styles, creating clothing that was romantic, exotic and modern (see fig.). An innovative entrepreneur, she pioneered modern business practices and used her own fame to promote her couture house. She also played a critical role in the development of the fashion show and the profession of fashion model.

Lucile’s artistic talent was evident early in life and realized in the clothes she made for herself and her younger sister, who would later become the romantic novelist Elinor Glyn. Lucy married James Wallace in 1884 and the following year gave birth to her only child, Esmé. By ...

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Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...

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(b Paris, May 21, 1846; d Paris, Nov 14, 1920).

French painter and illustrator. He was the son of the painter and art critic Charles-Olivier Merson (1822–1902) and trained initially at the Ecole de Dessin in Paris under Gustave Adolphe Chassevent (1818–1901) and then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils. He made his début at the Salon in 1867 and won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1869 with the melodramatic work, the Soldier of Marathon (1869; Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). As a prizewinner he then spent five years in Italy, where he was impressed and influenced by the works of the Italian Primitives, as is apparent in such works as St Edmund, King and Martyr (1871; Troyes, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.), with its muted colours and rigid composition. In the Salon of 1875 he exhibited Sacrifice for the Country, St Michael, which had been commissioned as a design for a ...

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(b Paisley, Renfrewshire, 1864; d Corfe Castle, Dorset, 1948).

Scottish embroiderer and designer. She was the eldest child of William Rowat, a successful shawl manufacturer, and was educated in Paisley and Edinburgh. In 1882 she visited Italy where she was impressed by the mosaics at Ravenna and by peasant craftwork. On her return she attended the Glasgow School of Art, where she studied life drawing and anatomy, later taking a design course in stained glass and textiles. In 1889 she married the school’s principal, Francis H. Newbery (1853–1946), and in 1894 began giving embroidery classes that laid the foundation of the department whose innovative work won international acclaim.

Newbery rebelled against the over-elaborate, stereotyped, poorly designed embroidery predominant at the time, preferring instead to encourage originality and individuality. She stressed that the quality of embroidery was not dependent on intricate stitches and laborious execution: ‘I try to make the most appearance with least effort, but insist that what work is ventured on is as perfect as it may be’ (Gleeson White, p. 48). She believed that embroidery should be an art form available to all social classes: because it was as effective on cheap fabrics, such as linen and calico, as on silks and velvets, it was appropriate for utilitarian as well as decorative items. Most of her embroidery was applied to practical items such as furnishings, collars and belts. As a result of her teaching, embroidery was seen as a specialist subject linked to the other arts....