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Elise L. Smith

(b ?Alost; fl 1509–55).

Flemish tapestry-maker. He was the son of Pieter van Edingen Aelst, also a weaver of tapestries, and a member of his father’s workshop in Brussels. In 1509 he was cited as a restorer of Margaret of Austria’s collection of tapestries. In 1517 he was paid for tapestries of David and John the Baptist made for Henry VIII, and in 1547 and 1548 he was still listed as a tapestry maker for the court of Charles V. His mark, pva, has been found on four tapestry series, all made in collaboration with others: on five of eight History of Noah tapestries (Kraków, N.A. Cols), part of a series made by six Brussels workshops for the King of Poland; on seven of ten History of Abraham tapestries, after Bernard van Orley (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.); on two of eight History of Odysseus tapestries (Hardwick Hall, Derbys, NT); and on three of six ...


Anna Nilsén

[Albertus Pictor]

(fl c. 1460; d after 1509).

Painter and textile designer, active in Sweden. He was probably of German origin. He married in 1473 and was a burgher of Stockholm, where he ran a workshop for liturgical embroidery. Apparently well-to-do, during the years 1501–7 he paid a higher tax than any other painter in Stockholm. About this time he also seems to have delivered an altarpiece to the Brigittine convent of Naantali (Swed. Nådendal) in Finland. He is last mentioned in 1509, when he played an instrument, probably the organ, at the Corpus Christi Guild of Stockholm.

Albert thus had many talents, but his main field must have been wall painting. His earliest works are in Södermanland and include the signed wall paintings in the church at Lid, where he also painted his self-portrait. It has been conjectured that Albert may have been an apprentice of a Master Peter, whose existence is deduced from a presumed signature in the church at Ösmo, but this theory is very tenuous. About 35 churches with paintings by Albert or his workshop are known in the provinces of Södermanland, Västmanland and Uppland. Some of the best-preserved paintings are in the churches at Floda (Södermanland), Kumla (Västmanland), Härkeberga, Härnevi, Almunge and Odensala (Uppland)....



Gordon Campbell

Spanish centre of carpet production in Murcia. Alcaraz was one of the two principal centres (together with Cuenca) of carpet production in 15th- and 16th-century Spain. The hand-knotted carpets are tied with a single-warp symmetrical knot (known as the Spanish knot) on an undyed woollen foundation. Several surviving 15th-century examples imitate Turkish carpets of the ‘Holbein’ variety, but the colouring is often different (Turkish red being replaced by blue and gold) and in the borders the Kufic inscriptions are replaced by geometrical or floral patterns. In the 16th century the red colouring became less vivid, possibly because of problems with the cochineal dye imported from Mexico. There was considerable variety of design, but in the 15th century the most common pattern consisted of wheels in rectangular compartments; in the 16th century the wheels softened into wreaths and the compartments assumed a variety of shapes or disappeared altogether.

A. Bartolomé Ariza...



Thomas Dacosta Kaufmann

(b ?Milan, 1527; d Milan, July 11, 1593).

Italian painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer, active also in Austria and Bohemia. He came from a distinguished Milanese family that included a number of archbishops of the city; his father was the painter Biagio Arcimboldo. Giuseppe is first documented in 1549, working with his father for Milan Cathedral; he received payments until 1558 for supplying paintings, designs for an altar baldacchino and stained-glass windows for the cathedral: the Story of Lot and the Life of St Catherine in the south transept windows are usually attributed to him. He collaborated with Giuseppe Meda in designing the gonfalone of St Ambrose in Milan, probably sometime soon after 1558. In 1556 he received a commission to paint the south wall and vault of the south transept of Monza Cathedral, also in Lombardy, a work that must have been completed by 1562. Portions of a fresco of the Tree of Jesse on the south wall there can be attributed to him. In ...


Paul Huvenne


(b ?Poperinghe, 1488; d Bruges, bur March 4, 1581).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, designer, architect, civil engineer, cartographer and engraver. He is said to have trained as a bricklayer, and the trowel he used to add as his housemark next to his monogram lab testifies to this and to his pretensions as an architectural designer. In 1519 he was registered as a master painter in the Bruges Guild of St Luke, where he chose as his speciality painting on canvas. The following year he collaborated with the little-known painter Willem Cornu in designing and executing 12 scenes for the Triumphal Entry of Emperor Charles V into Bruges. From then onwards Blondeel received regular commissions, mainly as a designer and organizer. Records of legal actions show that he was sometimes late with commissions; he took seven years to execute a Last Judgement ordered in 1540 for the council chamber at Blankenberge, and in 1545 the Guild of St Luke summoned him for his failure to supply their guild banner on time. Blondeel was married to Kathelyne, sister of the wood-carver ...


Brigitte Volk-Knüttel

[Candido, Pietro di Pietro; Witte, Pieter de]

(b Bruges, c. 1548; d Munich, March 1628).

Netherlandish painter, tapestry designer and draughtsman, active in Italy and Germany. He was one of several Italian-trained Mannerist artists employed by the courts of Europe and was the leading figure in Munich from 1600 to 1628. His versatility led Sandrart to describe him as a ‘universal painter’. When he was about ten years old he emigrated to Florence with his parents—his father, Pieter de Witte (fl c. 1547–62), being a tapestry weaver who found employment in the Medici tapestry factory founded in 1546. The family name later changed to Candido, but the son was usually called Candid north of the Alps, where he returned in 1586. Very little is known about him as a person, and there is no portrait of him. He married and had five children, including a son Wilhelm (fl 1613–25), who was a painter though he later (1625) became a court ...


David Blayney Brown


(b Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1582; d London, 1658).

German painter, designer, illustrator and printmaker. He probably studied first in the Low Countries. He was perhaps in Denmark c.1611, but then spent four years in Italy, mainly in Rome and Venice, where he met the English ambassador Sir Henry Wotton. By 1617 he was living in Copenhagen; an inscribed drawing of Apollo and Marsyas from this period is in the Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen. Between 1618 and 1623 Cleyn was employed by Christian IV at Rosenborg Slot, decorating the King’s writing closet with pastoral landscapes, Venetian views, genre scenes and grotesque designs. Commissions followed for larger subject pictures (which show pronounced Venetian influence) and for similar decorative schemes for the royal castles at Frederiksborg (Fireworks), Christiansborg (Children on their Way to School) and Kronborg. In 1623 Cleyn visited England, with a letter of introduction to Prince Charles (later Charles I) from the English envoy in Copenhagen, Sir Robert Anstruther. In the Prince’s absence in Spain, he was received by James I, who wished to retain his services for himself and sent him back to Copenhagen with a request to Christian IV to release him. Work in progress kept Cleyn in Denmark until late in ...


(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...


Wouter Th. Kloek and Leonard J. Slatkes

Dutch family of artists. With a striking, personal style that sets him apart from his contemporaries, (1) Dirck Crabeth was the most important Dutch stained-glass artist of the 16th century. His younger brother (2) Wouter Crabeth (i) was a less individual designer, whose work has a pleasant spaciousness, but the rendering of detail is not always satisfactory. The impressive windows (1555–71) of the St Janskerk, Gouda, executed largely by the Crabeth brothers, constitute one of the highpoints of Dutch art of that period. Their father was the glass painter Pieter Dircksz., nicknamed Crepel Pier. Van Mander devoted a few lines to Adriaen Pietersz. Crabeth (d 1553), apparently the eldest son and a painter who has so far remained obscure and is said to have been apprenticed to Jan Swart. Wouter Crabeth’s son, Pieter (Woutersz.) Crabeth, fulfilled many important political functions in Gouda, including that of burgomaster. Pieter’s son ...



S. J. Turner

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, Nov 22, 1602).

French painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil at Fontainebleau of Ruggiero de Ruggieri (d after 1597) and was also trained by Martin Fréminet’s father Médéric Fréminet, a rather mediocre painter in Paris. Dubreuil became Premier Peintre to Henry IV and is usually identified as a member of the so-called second Fontainebleau school (see Fontainebleau school), together with Ambroise Dubois and Martin Fréminet. These artists were employed by the king to decorate the royal palaces, their functions being similar to those of Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio earlier at Fontainebleau under Francis I. Dubreuil’s death meant that many of the projects in which he was involved had to be completed by assistants. Despite this and the fact that the majority of his finished work has since been lost, he is considered an important link between the Mannerism of Primaticcio and the classicism of Nicolas Poussin and his contemporaries in the following century....



Erik Duverger

[Flem. Edingen.]

Belgian town in Hainault, approximately halfway between Brussels and Tournai. Tapestry production in Enghien probably began in the late 14th century or early 15th. Michiel Betten is mentioned as early as 1410 as a tapestryworker, and Herman Betten in 1445, although it is not clear whether or not the industry was well established at this time. The weavers of Enghien had, however, already gained a certain reputation: during the first half of the 15th century two tapestryworkers were resident in Brussels who may have originally come from Enghien.

In 1457 Jan de Doeve and Bartholomeus vander Hage were contracted by Jacques de Riva Mertijn, a Spanish merchant in Antwerp, to deliver 160 ells of verdures for which he provided the cartoons. In 1469 Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol and Lord of Enghien, increased the privileges of the tapestry-weavers by setting up an annual fair. The Count was beheaded on the orders of Louis XI in ...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


Jane S. Peters

[Mattis Matheus]

(b Nördlingen, c. 1500; d Lauingen, 1569/70).

German painter, miniature painter, and woodcut and tapestry designer. He was probably the son of Matthias, a Nördlingen shoemaker known as Geiger (d 1521), and probably served an apprenticeship in Nördlingen with Hans Schäufelein. By 1525 he was established as an artist in Lauingen, then part of the Duchy of Neuburg, where he appears annually in the tax register until 1568. From 1531 to 1567 he served as the city’s weighmaster. He was married to Anna Reiser, perhaps the daughter of the Lauingen painter Matthes Reiser (d c. 1519), and they had two sons, Hans (fl 1564/5), a goldsmith in Lauingen, and Ambrosius (fl 1568).

Gerung’s major patron was Otto Henry, later Elector Palatine of the Rhine. Between 1530 and 1532 Gerung illuminated the spaces left empty for New Testament scenes in Otto Henry’s large unfinished 15th-century Bible (divided between Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib. and Heidelberg, Kurpfälz. Mus.). He modelled the Bible’s Apocalypse miniatures on Dürer’s woodcut series from ...




Erik Duverger

[Flem. Geraardsbergen]

Belgian town in East Flanders. Situated in the approximate middle of the triangle created by Oudenaarde, Enghien and Aalst, the town was a centre of tapestry production in the 16th century, although little is known about the industry there. It has been conjectured that at the end of the 15th century Cornelis van Bomberghen (fl 1492–1508), an important Antwerp dealer, had in his stock six tapestry cushions made in Grammont that were decorated with fruit. In the oldest census documents or other records of the period, weavers are not mentioned. Most of them were probably employed in the countryside outside the city gates. They made fallacious use of various city marks, including those of Oudenaarde and Enghien. The general ordinance of 1544 concerning the tapestry industry in Flanders did not mention Grammont. Production did, however, exist: between c. 1540 and 1550 Peter Borremans headed a large workshop in Grammont, although there were complaints about the quality of his work. Between ...


[Nicola; Niccola]

(b ?Brussels; d Mantua, 1562).

Flemish tapestry weaver. From c. 1517 he and his brother Giovanni Karcher (fl 1517–62) were working for the Este court in Ferrara (see Ferrara §3), organizing a large workshop for Ercole II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara and Modena. That same year Nicolas went to Brussels and returned with eight weavers, including Rost [Rosta; Vander Roost; del Rosto; Rostel; Arrost], Jan. Nicolas worked with his brother on the Battle of the Gods and Giants (four pieces; destr.), the cartoons of which were by the Dossi brothers and Giulio Romano. In 1539, however, Karcher was invited to set up his own workshop in Mantua by Federico II Gonzaga, 5th Marchese and 1st Duke of Mantua, and took ten workers with him to Mantua (see Mantua, §3). In October 1545 Karcher moved to Florence. His workshop first wove a trial Lamentation (1546; Florence, Uffizi) and a trial pack-cover (destr.), before a three-year contract was signed by ...


[Campaña; Pedro (de)]

(b Brussels, c. 1503; d Brussels, c. 1580).

South Netherlandish painter, tapestry designer and sculptor, active also in Italy and Spain. His biography is known almost exclusively from Spanish sources. The date of his birth is given as 1503 by Pacheco in the Arte (1649; although this contradicts his earlier Libro de retratos 1599); the same birthdate was provided by Palomino and by Céan Bermúdez, who, unlike the earlier writers, added a death date in Brussels of 1580. Kempeneer belonged to a well-known Brussels family of painters and tapestry designers. Before leaving for Italy, he must have trained as a tapestry designer, under the influence of Raphael’s tapestry cartoons of the Acts of the Apostles, which at this date were in Brussels, and those of the Scuola Nuova from Raphael’s workshop. Kempeneer also trained under Bernard van Orley, in whose workshop he painted the grisailles on the back of a Last Judgement—St Stephen and St Mark Giving Alms...