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Article

Gordon Campbell

[Fr. point d’Alençon]

Type of lace produced in France. In 1675 a group of 30 Venetian lacemakers was settled in the Norman town of Alençon by Jean-Baptiste Colbert (Louis XIV’s minister of finance). The Venetians instructed local needlewomen in point de Venise, but by the 1690s the distinctive local style known as point d’Alençon had emerged (see alsoLace §2, (iii), §2(iii)). Needlewomen adopted the net ground technique, and invented a series of new stitches.

Lace production was halted at the Revolution because of its association with the ancien régime, but revived under Napoleon (reg 1804–14) and again under the Second Empire. Lace is still produced in Alençon, supported by the Atelier National du Point d’Alençon founded in 1976, and there are good collections of Alençon lace in the Musée de la Dentelle au Point d’Alençon and the Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle.

The term point d’Alençon now denotes a style as well as a place of origin. The style is characterized by a uniform mesh (called the ...

Article

Maria Natália Correia Guedes

Portuguese centre of carpet production; also the name applied to carpets made elsewhere in the same tradition. Arraiolos carpets are embroidered with strands of thick wool, or more rarely silk, on linen, jute or hemp canvas, using a large-eyed needle and a long-armed cross stitch, which gives the effect of braiding. The reverse side of the carpet shows no trace of finishing off and appears to be hatched. The pattern is drawn on squared paper, and then the main points of reference are marked on the canvas by counting the threads. The border and all the motifs are first outlined and then filled; the background is embroidered last. The carpet is finished with a continuous plain or polychrome edging of looped or cut fringe. In the days when natural dyes were used, the colours were predominantly red, blue and yellow, obtained from brazil-wood, indigo, dyer’s weed or spurge respectively. Originally the carpets were used to cover the floor of the hall or bedroom in noble houses and were surrounded by a strip of polished wooden floor....

Article

Jérôme de la Gorce

(b Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, bapt June 4, 1640; d Paris, Jan 24, 1711).

French designer, ornamentalist and engraver. The Berain family moved to Paris c. 1644. Berain’s father, also called Jean Berain, and his uncle Claude Berain were master gunsmiths. In 1659 Berain published a series of designs for the decoration of arms, Diverses pièces très utiles pour les arquebuzières, reissued in 1667. In 1662 he engraved for the guild of locksmiths a series of designs by Hugues Brisville (b 1633), Diverses inventions nouvelles pour des armoiries avec leurs ornements. It would seem that by this date Berain’s skill as an engraver was well known. Around 1667 he decorated and signed a hunting gun (Stockholm, Livrustkam.; see Arms and armour §II 2., (iii)) for Louis XIV, which probably served as his introduction to the court. Through the influence and support of Charles Le Brun, in 1670 Berain was employed by the crown as an engraver. In January 1671 he received 400 livres in payment for two engravings (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.) recording the ceiling decoration by Le Brun of the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre, Paris, for which he also designed the painted stucco grotesques. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of lace made since the 17th century at Binche, near Brussels and Valenciennes, both of whose laces it resembles. It is a heavy lace with decorative grounds, and was used for bedspreads and as a costume trimming. The name has since become the generic term for the type of lace once made at Binche....

Article

Style of silk woven in Europe, especially Italy, France and England, in the late 17th century and early 18th. The bizarre style had its origins in the rich mix of images provided by the goods imported into Europe from the Near and Far East by the Levant Company and the East India companies of France, Holland and England. An insatiable market for novelty and richness had been established at the courts of Louis XIV and Charles II, and other monarchs who followed their lead. The silks woven to satisfy that demand began to appear in the late 1680s; chinoiseries and vegetable forms derived from Indian textiles began to be mixed with European floral sprigs. By the mid-1690s, the plant forms, although still small, were becoming more angular and elongated, with an increasingly vigorous left-right movement. The patterns, typically asymmetrical, were brocaded with metal threads on damask grounds, which were already patterned with even stranger motifs....

Article

Isabelle Denis

French town in the Gironde département, on the River Garonne. A notable tapestry workshop was briefly in existence at the château of Cadillac in the 17th century. The Director, Claude de la Pierre (1605–60), previously head of a workshop in the Faubourg S Marcel, Paris, had been engaged by the Duc d’Epernon (1554–1642) in March 1632. The following year eight other Parisian weavers joined him. With the three workers already there they completed the twenty-seven pieces depicting the Life of Henry III, of which only the Battle of Jarnac (1632–7; Paris, Louvre) still exists. The cartoon maker for these works is unknown. The archaic composition juxtaposes with a certain lack of skill several successive episodes in the action. The weaving is fine and regular, with subdued colours in blue and yellow. The ruin of the House of Epernon led to the closure of the Cadillac workshop in ...

Article

Brigitte Volk-Knüttel

[Candido, Pietro di Pietro; Witte, Pieter de]

(b Bruges, c. 1548; d Munich, March 1628).

Netherlandish painter, tapestry designer and draughtsman, active in Italy and Germany. He was one of several Italian-trained Mannerist artists employed by the courts of Europe and was the leading figure in Munich from 1600 to 1628. His versatility led Sandrart to describe him as a ‘universal painter’. When he was about ten years old he emigrated to Florence with his parents—his father, Pieter de Witte (fl c. 1547–62), being a tapestry weaver who found employment in the Medici tapestry factory founded in 1546. The family name later changed to Candido, but the son was usually called Candid north of the Alps, where he returned in 1586. Very little is known about him as a person, and there is no portrait of him. He married and had five children, including a son Wilhelm (fl 1613–25), who was a painter though he later (1625) became a court ...

Article

David Blayney Brown

[Frantz]

(b Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1582; d London, 1658).

German painter, designer, illustrator and printmaker. He probably studied first in the Low Countries. He was perhaps in Denmark c.1611, but then spent four years in Italy, mainly in Rome and Venice, where he met the English ambassador Sir Henry Wotton. By 1617 he was living in Copenhagen; an inscribed drawing of Apollo and Marsyas from this period is in the Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen. Between 1618 and 1623 Cleyn was employed by Christian IV at Rosenborg Slot, decorating the King’s writing closet with pastoral landscapes, Venetian views, genre scenes and grotesque designs. Commissions followed for larger subject pictures (which show pronounced Venetian influence) and for similar decorative schemes for the royal castles at Frederiksborg (Fireworks), Christiansborg (Children on their Way to School) and Kronborg. In 1623 Cleyn visited England, with a letter of introduction to Prince Charles (later Charles I) from the English envoy in Copenhagen, Sir Robert Anstruther. In the Prince’s absence in Spain, he was received by James I, who wished to retain his services for himself and sent him back to Copenhagen with a request to Christian IV to release him. Work in progress kept Cleyn in Denmark until late in ...

Article

(b ’s Hertogenbosch, bapt May 9, 1596; d Antwerp, Dec 31, 1675).

Flemish glass-painter, draughtsman, painter and tapestry designer. His reputation rests primarily on his drawings and oil sketches, of which several hundred survive, intended mainly as designs for stained-glass windows and prints. He was strongly influenced by the work of other important Flemish artists of the late 16th century and early 17th, notably Rubens, whose motifs and stylistic elements he frequently reworked in his own compositions.

He was the son of the glass painter Jan (Roelofsz.) van Diepenbeeck (d 1619) and first acquired the skills of his trade in his father’s workshop in ’s Hertogenbosch. In 1622–3 he became a master glass painter in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp; it is possible that his move from ’s Hertogenbosch in 1621 was related to the war negotiations that were underway that year, which particularly threatened the northern border provinces of the southern Netherlands, where ’s Hertogenbosch was located....

Article

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Gordon Campbell

Article

S. J. Turner

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, Nov 22, 1602).

French painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil at Fontainebleau of Ruggiero de Ruggieri (d after 1597) and was also trained by Martin Fréminet’s father Médéric Fréminet, a rather mediocre painter in Paris. Dubreuil became Premier Peintre to Henry IV and is usually identified as a member of the so-called second Fontainebleau school (see Fontainebleau school), together with Ambroise Dubois and Martin Fréminet. These artists were employed by the king to decorate the royal palaces, their functions being similar to those of Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio earlier at Fontainebleau under Francis I. Dubreuil’s death meant that many of the projects in which he was involved had to be completed by assistants. Despite this and the fact that the majority of his finished work has since been lost, he is considered an important link between the Mannerism of Primaticcio and the classicism of Nicolas Poussin and his contemporaries in the following century....

Article

C. von Bogendorf Rupprath

(Cornelisz.)

(b Amsterdam, bapt Aug 30, 1599; d Amsterdam, bur Jan 31, 1635).

Dutch painter. Duyster was the eldest of four children of Cornelis Dircksz. and his second wife, Hendrikge Jeronimus, from Gramsberge, Norway. His father is recorded as a textile cutter, house carpenter and minor Amsterdam official. In 1620 the family, which also included two children from Cornelis’s first marriage, moved into a house in the Koningstraat named ‘De Duystere Werelt’ (‘The Dark World’), which gave Duyster and his half-brother Dirck their adopted surname. The family name first appears in a document dated 1 July 1625 concerning a violent quarrel between Duyster and Pieter Codde, a fellow Amsterdam artist. The argument took place at Meerhuysen, a country house rented by Barent van Someren (c. 1572–1632), the painter, dealer and inn-keeper who was a patron of Adriaen Brouwer and a good friend of Frans Hals.

An inventory from 16 October 1631, taken after the death of Duyster’s parents, testifies that the family was financially comfortable and lists several anonymous paintings, mainly of popular biblical and mythological subjects. Although Duyster appears to have been living in the family house at the time the inventory was taken, no mention is made of a studio or any of his works....

Article

Hans Vlieghe

(b Leiden, Sept 22, 1601; d Antwerp, Jan 8, 1674).

Flemish painter and tapestry designer. He was initially a pupil of Caspar van den Hoecke (d 1648). After a period in Italy, sometime after 1618, he joined the workshop of Peter Paul Rubens. He is one of the few artists whose collaboration with Rubens is documented. He is mentioned several times between 1625 and 1628, for example in 1625, when he was involved in the installation of some of the 44 decorative panels (‘the Medici Cycle’) commissioned from Rubens in 1622 by Marie de’ Medici for the Palais de Luxembourg in Paris. He may also have collaborated in painting some of the panels. In 1628 he became a Master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke. Immediately afterwards he left for Paris, where he acquired a considerable reputation, not only as a painter but also as a print publisher. In 1648 he was one of the founders of the ...

Article

Candace J. Adelson

[Pierre]

(b Antwerp, 1579; d Florence, 1669).

Flemish tapestry-weaver. He was working in Paris in 1619, when he was invited by Cosimo II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, to go to Florence to assist in the revival of tapestry-weaving. Fevère, who knew both the high- and low-warp techniques, was given a workshop in the Palazzo Vecchio. In 1630, after the death of Jacopo Ebert Van Asselt (fl 1621–30), head weaver of the Arazzeria Medicea—the Medici tapestry factory—Fevère was named head weaver and moved to the larger workshops at S Marco. His sons Giovanni (d 1700), Francesco, Andrea, Filippo (d after 1677) and Jacopo worked with him.

Under his tutelage, the Arazzeria Medicea enjoyed a period of revived activity. The numerous large tapestries woven in his workshops include seven of the ten tapestries of the Seasons and the Hours (1641–3); five of the seven Stories of St Paul (1646; destr.); two of the five-piece ...

Article

Article

R. A. D’Hulst

(bapt Antwerp, May 20, 1593; d Antwerp, Oct 18, 1678).

Flemish painter, tapestry designer and draughtsman. In the context of 17th-century Flemish art, he emerges as a somewhat complicated figure. His oeuvre, the fruit of a continual artistic development, is characterized by great stylistic versatility, to which the length of his career contributed. His religious, mythological and historical representations evolved from the rhetorical prolixity of the Baroque into a vernacular, sometimes almost caricatural, formal idiom. The lack of idealistic treatment in his work is undoubtedly the factor that most removed Jordaens’s art from that of his great Flemish contemporaries Rubens and van Dyck. Jordaens’s officially commissioned works included many paintings in which the sublimity of the subject-matter clashed with the vulgarity of some of his figures. Unlike Rubens and van Dyck, both of whom were knighted in the course of their careers, Jordaens was, in fact, completely ignored by the courts of Spain and Brussels, and he did not receive a single significant commission from Italy, France or England. Only once did Charles I of England grant him a commission, and then under less favourable circumstances (...

Article

[Christof]

(bapt Frankfurt am Main, May 23, 1667; d Paris, May 15, 1741).

German printmaker, painter and tapestry manufacturer, active in the Netherlands, England and France. He was the son of the engraver and bookseller Christoph Le Blon II (1639–after 1706), whose mother was a daughter of Matthäus Merian (i), granddaughter of Johann Theodor de Bry and half-sister of Maria Sibylle Merian. Between 1696 and 1702 Le Blon was in Rome and was perhaps a pupil of Carlo Maratti. He then moved to Amsterdam in 1702, where he worked as a miniature painter until 1717. He visited London in 1710 and lived there from 1718 to 1734. He began experimenting with colour-printing in 1710, and in 1719 was granted a privilege by George I to reproduce pictures and drawings in full colour (see Prints, §III, 6). However, the company he set up failed in 1725. In that year he published Coloritto: Or the Harmony of Colouring in Painting, in which he presented his theory that any colour as well as black could be achieved by mixing in varying proportions just three colours (red, yellow and blue—not, as has been suggested, based on Newton’s colour theory). In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

The name of two types of bobbin lace said (with little evidence) to have originated in Milan. One type, dating from the mid-17th century, has Baroque floral scrolls with individual motifs either linked by brides or, in particularly dense designs, linked directly to each other. The other type, dating from the late 17th century and early 18th, had thin, scrolled designs on a regular ground-mesh which was often diamond-stamped....

Article

Diana Fowle

English tapestry factory on the River Thames at Mortlake (nr London) in Surrey. It was established in 1619 by Sir Francis Crane (c. 1579–1636), on the instigation of James I and his son Charles, Prince of Wales (later Charles I), and inspired by the workshops set up by Henry IV in Paris. The workshop initially wove copies of old cartoons and was run by Flemish workers including Philip de Maecht (d 1655), who was appointed master weaver. Charles took great interest in the factory and organized the purchase of the Acts of the Apostles cartoons (London, V&A) by Raphael, from which several sets were woven. Cleyn [Clein], Francis was employed at the factory to create new tapestry designs and in 1626 was appointed chief designer. Despite the patronage of the Crown and such eminent patrons as George Villiers, Marquis of Buckingham (later 1st Duke of Buckingham), the factory had financial difficulties. With the accession of Charles I (...

Article

Louise S. Milne

South Netherlandish family of tapestry weavers (see fig.). Pieter de Pannemaker (fl 1517–32), like Pieter Coecke van Aelst, furnished the palaces of Europe with sumptuous tapestries in gold and silver threads and expensively dyed fine silks and wools from his shop in Brussels. In 1520 Pieter de Pannemaker contracted Bernard van Orley to make tapestry cartoons for his shop. A lovely fragment, probably designed by Bernard and woven by Pieter, shows an Allegory of the Four Winds (Paris, Mus. Cluny). Margaret of Austria, Regent of the southern Netherlands, bought a series of the Passion in four scenes (Madrid, Patrm. N.); two similar sets by de Pannemaker are connected to a drawing by van Orley (Stuttgart, Staatsgal.). In 1523 Margaret ordered a magnificent dais of three tapestries from Pieter, later used in the abdication ceremony of Emperor Charles V. In 1527 Pieter de Pannemaker and van Orley, with ten other weavers, appeared before the Inquisition at Leuven, charged with sheltering a Protestant preacher. Pieter was fined, but by ...