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Article

Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b London, June 18, 1828; d London, Dec 4, 1905).

English sculptor, silversmith and illustrator. He was the son of a chaser and attended the Royal Academy Schools, London. At first he gave his attention equally to silverwork and to sculpture, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1851. An early bronze, St Michael and the Serpent, cast in 1852 for the Art Union, shows him conversant with the style of continental Romantics, and his debut in metalwork coincided with the introduction into England of virtuoso repoussé work by the Frenchman, Antoine Vechte (1799–1868). In the Outram Shield (London, V&A), Armstead displayed the full gamut of low-relief effects in silver, but its reception at the Royal Academy in 1862 disappointed him, and he turned his attention to monumental sculpture. Among a number of fruitful collaborations with architects, that with George Gilbert I Scott (ii) included a high degree of responsibility for the sculpture on the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London. Here Armstead’s main contribution was the execution of half of the podium frieze (...

Article

Kirk Ambrose

(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...

Article

(b Leiden, Oct 19, 1877; d Zoeterwoude, Oct 23, 1933).

Dutch potter and sculptor. He trained as a drawing teacher but took a particular interest in bookbinding, decorative woodcuts and household pottery. From the example of the Arts and Crafts Movement he learnt the value of traditional techniques and craftsmanship. In 1898 he settled in Gouda in order to perfect his technical knowledge of pottery-making. Three years later he started his own ceramics firm in Leiderdorp. His ceramics are characterized by their intentionally plain shapes, combined with mostly geometric linear ornament and frequently with sculptural decoration applied in low relief. His work attracted international attention and gained awards at several exhibitions, including the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902) and the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels (1910). Around 1907 Brouwer began to experiment with large-scale ceramic decoration. His terracotta ornaments and façade sculptures were greatly admired by contemporary architects, who secured him important commissions in this field, for example the ...

Article

Julian Treuherz

(b Chester, March 22, 1846; d St Augustine, FL, Feb 12, 1886).

English illustrator, painter and sculptor. Caldecott worked as a bank clerk in Whitchurch and Manchester and attended evening classes at the Manchester School of Art. He moved to London in 1872 and studied briefly at the Slade School of Fine Art. Through the painter Thomas Armstrong, he was introduced to London editors and publishers. He collaborated with Armstrong and W. E. Nesfield on decorative paintings for aesthetic interiors, notably at Bank Hall (1872–3), Derbys. Caldecott was taught to model by Jules Dalou, later modelling the gilt capitals of birds for the Arab Hall (1877–9) at Leighton House, London. Outstanding among Caldecott’s work were his illustrations to Washington Irving’s books, such as Old Christmas (1875), and the jolly Christmas stories and illustrated letters from abroad commissioned by the Graphic. However, his reputation rests on the frequently reprinted series of 16 picture books for children published between ...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

(b Mont-de-Marsan, Nov 4, 1874; d Paris, Oct 28, 1946).

French sculptor and illustrator. In 1891 he entered the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, where he studied under the French sculptor Hector Lemaire (1846–1933). Two years later he went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where for three years he studied under Louis-Ernest Barrias. He also frequented the Louvre and the Musée des Monuments Français, learning as much there as at the fine art schools. He first exhibited in 1898 at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris with a bust of Joseph Biays and continued to exhibit there until 1900. In 1901 he exhibited his bust of Marc Worms (1901; Paris, Mme Cl. Michel priv. col., see 1974 exh. cat., pl. 4) at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He exhibited there until 1923.

Despiau’s first success at the Salon came with his bust Little Girl from Landes (1904...

Article

Gilles Chazal

(b Strasbourg, Jan 6, 1832; d Paris, Jan 23, 1883).

French illustrator, painter and sculptor. He was born into a cultivated and well-to-do family. By the age of five he was drawing on every piece of paper that came within his reach. He was particularly fond of caricaturing his parents, friends and teachers. In 1838 he was already capable of producing entire series of illustrations such as Mr Fox’s Meeting (1839; priv. col.) and Scenes from the Public and Private Life of Grandville’s Animals (1845; Strasbourg, Mus. B.-A.). By 1843, while studying at the Lycée in Bourg-en-Bresse, he was making brilliant attempts at lithography such as La Martinoire du Bastion (1845; Bourg-en-Bresse, Mus. Ain). In 1847 Charles Philippon, founder of Caricature and Charivari, saw drawings by Doré, who was passing through Paris. He took Doré on, published his Labours of Hercules and urged his parents to set him up in the capital. From then on, while still a pupil at the Lycée Charlemagne, Doré found himself contractually bound to produce a drawing a week for Philippon’s ...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

Stephen Stuart-Smith

(Rowton)

(b Brighton, Feb 22, 1882; d Harefield, Middx [now in London], Nov 17, 1940).

English sculptor, letter-cutter, typographic designer, calligrapher, engraver, writer and teacher. He received a traditional training at Chichester Technical and Art School (1897–1900), where he first developed an interest in lettering. He also became fascinated by the Anglo-Saxon and Norman stone-carvings in Chichester Cathedral. In 1900 Gill moved to London to become a pupil of William Douglas Caröe (1857–1938), architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. He took classes in practical masonry at Westminster Institute and in writing and illuminating at the Central School of Art and Design, where he was deeply influenced by the calligrapher Edward Johnston. Johnston’s meticulous training was to be a perfect preparation for Gill’s first commissions for three-dimensional inscriptions in stone, the foundation stone for Caröe’s St Barnabas and St James the Greater in Walthamstow, London, and the lettering for the lychgate at Charles Harrison Townsend’s St Mary’s, Great Warley, Essex. Further commissions followed after Gill left Caröe in ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

(b Champsecret, Orne, July 23, 1862; d Paris, May 24, 1934).

French painter, illustrator, and sculptor. He went to Paris in 1878 to study under the painter Emile Bin until 1885, when he entered the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. From 1883 onwards, he exhibited landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits (those of women and children being particularly popular) in oil and pastel at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français.

Léandre also taught drawing until 1897. His fame was due chiefly to the vast number of Symbolist drawings he produced for newspapers and magazines. His first post was as a caricaturist for Le Chat noir, and he later worked for Le Journal, Le Figaro, Le Gaulois, and Le Journal amusant; his most important work was for Le Rire, for which he often illustrated the front page. In 1907 he helped to found the Société des Artistes Humoristes, publishing a magazine, Les Humoristes, in 1910.

Léandre produced posters for the nightclubs of Montmartre, artists’ balls, and chansonniers’ tours, and for the first two exhibitions of the Société des Peintres Lithographes. He illustrated many literary works, of which the most famous was Gustave Flaubert’s ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...

Article

Constance Cain Hungerford

(b Lyon, Feb 21, 1815; d Paris, Jan 31, 1891).

French painter, sculptor and illustrator. Although he was briefly a student of Jules Potier (1796–1865) and Léon Cogniet, Meissonier was mainly self-taught and gained experience by designing wood-engravings for book illustrations. These included Léon Curmer’s celebrated edition of J.-H. Bernardin de Saint-Pierre’s Paul et Virginie (Paris, 1838), the series Les Français peints par eux-mêmes (Paris, 1840–42) and Louis de Chevigné’s Les Contes rémois (Paris, 1858). Such images, typically measuring 60×90 mm and composed of still-life motifs (books or drapery cascading from a chest, intricately arranged and exhaustively detailed), helped form the style for which Meissonier became famous as a painter.

Meissonier’s first painting was the Flemish Burghers (190×250 mm, 1834; London, Wallace), exhibited at the Salon of 1834; thereafter he specialized in very small-scale genre scenes featuring costumes and accessories exquisitely rendered with meticulous detail. He was inspired in part by the work of Dutch and Flemish masters such as Gabriel Metsu and Gerard ter Borch (ii) and French painters and engravers such as Chardin, Gravelot and Greuze, as well as by contemporary romantic theatre and costume design. His subjects include tranquil 17th- and 18th-century artists and musicians (e.g. ...

Article

Robert Hoozee

(b Ghent, Aug 30, 1866; d Laethem-Saint-Martin, Feb 18, 1941).

Belgian sculptor, draughtsman and illustrator. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Ghent (1879–86) and worked in Ghent (until 1895) and Brussels (1895–9) before settling in Laethem-Saint-Martin, a village near Ghent. His first works were delicate sculptures and sparse drawings of grieving and injured figures. The emotional power of these works was recognized by many Symbolist poets including Maurice Maeterlinck, Charles Van Lerberghe and Grégoire Le Roy, who saw in them an expression of their own pessimistic view of life. He illustrated several of their collections of poetry (e.g. Grégoire Le Roy: Mon Coeur pleure d’autrefois (Paris, 1889); Maurice Maeterlinck: Serres chaudes (Paris, 1889)). From 1890 he was involved with the progressive element among the artists and authors of Brussels. He exhibited for the first time that year under the auspices of the avant-garde society Les XX in Brussels, and two years later he participated in the ...

Article

Alasdair A. Auld

[Noël]

(b Dunfermline, Fife, 1821; d Edinburgh, Dec 25, 1901).

Scottish painter, illustrator, sculptor and collector. From his earliest years he drew avidly, seeking inspiration from ancient history, the Bible and from tales of romance and legend. His father was a keen antiquarian, and his habit of collecting items of historical interest and artistic merit was inherited by his son who amassed a collection, which included arms and armour, now in the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh. He used items from the collection in a large number of his paintings such as ‘I wonder who lived in there?’ (1867; Mrs Eva Noël Findlay priv. col.), the Fairy Raid (1867; Glasgow A.G. & Mus.), In die Malo (1881) and Oskold and the Ellé Maids (1874). After three years as head designer in one of the biggest sewn-muslin factories in Paisley, Strathclyde, Paton went to London in 1842. Although he did not take a studentship at the Royal Academy Schools, it was there that he met John Everett Millais, and they became lifelong friends. He won prizes in the Westminster Hall competitions in ...

Article

W. C. Foxley

(Sackrider)

(b Canton, NY, Oct 4, 1861; d Ridgefield, CT, Dec 26, 1909).

American painter, sculptor, illustrator, and writer. In 1878 he began his studies at the newly formed School of the Fine Arts at Yale University in New Haven, CT, remaining there until 1880. This, along with a few months at the Art Students League in New York in 1886, was his only period of formal art training. In 1881 he roamed through the Dakotas, Montana, the Arizona Territory, and Texas to document an era that was fast vanishing. He returned east and in 1882 had his first drawing published (25 Feb) in Harper’s Weekly. Further commissions for illustrations followed, including that for Theodore Roosevelt’s Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (New York, 1888). He became a business partner for a bar in Kansas City, MO, but its failure, coupled with his continued success as an illustrator, convinced him that he would do better to record the West visually rather than help to develop it financially....

Article

Emily Braun

(b Sassari, Sardinia, May 12, 1885; d Milan, Aug 13, 1961).

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, stage designer and illustrator. He was brought up in Rome where his family moved in 1886. In 1902 Sironi enrolled in the Engineering Faculty of the University of Rome, but after a long illness abandoned his studies to devote himself to painting. In 1903 he attended the Scuola Libera del Nudo at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome and frequented the studio of Giacomo Balla. Following a short spell in Milan in 1905–6, he travelled to Paris in 1906 and shared a room with his close friend Umberto Boccioni. Several family and self-portraits painted in a divisionist technique (see Divisionism) date from this period. Sironi also visited Germany several times between 1908 and 1911, where he was exposed to contemporary Expressionist currents. He lived in Rome from 1909 until he moved to Milan in late 1914 or early 1915.

Sironi experimented with Futurism from ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, Nov 10, 1859; d Paris, Dec 13, 1923).

French illustrator, printmaker, painter and sculptor, of Swiss birth. After studying at the University at Lausanne and working as an apprentice designer in a textile factory in Mulhouse, Steinlen arrived in Paris in 1881 and quickly established himself in Montmartre, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life. In 1883 the illustrator Adolphe Willette introduced him to the avant-garde literary and artistic environment of the Chat Noir cabaret which had been founded in 1881 by another Swiss expatriot, Rodolphe Salis. Steinlen soon became an illustrator of its satirical and humorous journal, Chat noir, and an artistic collaborator with writers such as Emile Zola, poets such as Jean Richepin, composers such as Paul Delmet, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec and, most important, the singer and songwriter Aristide Bruant, all of whom he encountered at the Chat Noir. Bruant’s lyrics incorporate the argot of the poor, the worker, the rogue, the pimp and the prostitute, for whom Steinlen’s empathy had been awakened on reading Zola’s novel ...