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Mieke van der Wal

(b The Hague, Jan 6, 1876; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1955).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1894–7) and in various sculpture studios. In 1898 he decorated the shop-front of the gallery Arts and Crafts in The Hague after a design by Johan Thorn Prikker, who advised him to set up on his own. From 1901 Altorf exhibited regularly and successfully; he was represented at the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna in Turin in 1902, where he won a silver medal, and at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

Altorf was a leading exponent of Dutch Art Nouveau. His work is characterized by a strong simplification of form. It is often compared with that of Joseph Mendes da Costa but is somewhat more angular and austere. At first Altorf made mainly animal forms from various types of wood, ivory, bronze and ceramic. In firing his modelled figures, he worked with the ceramicist ...


Valerio Terraroli

(b Casale Monferrato, March 15, 1859; d Turin, Sept 2, 1933).

Italian sculptor, painter and writer. The leading Art Nouveau sculptor in Italy, he was the son of Giovanni Bistolfi, a wood-carver. Bistolfi first studied (1876–9) at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, under Giosué Argenti (1819–1901), transferring to the Accademia Albertina, Turin, in 1880 for more advanced work under Odoardo Tabacchi. In 1881 Bistolfi received a commission for the Braida family tomb (Turin cemetery), for which he carved the marble figure the Angel of Death, a commission enabling him to open his own studio. During the 1880s Bistolfi worked mainly on small bronze groups, in which he sought to communicate sentiments that had hitherto been expressed only in painting. Like the artists of I Scapigliati, he depicted literary subjects, such as his bronze Washerwomen (Italian priv. col.), inspired by Emile Zola’s novel L’Assommoir (1877). While influenced by Impressionism and by such artists as Daniele Ranzoni, Tranquillo Cremona and Giuseppe Grandi, Bistolfi produced his ...


Erich G. Ranfft

(b Perleberg-Brandenburg, June 29, 1871; d Berlin, Jan 2, 1938).

German medallist, sculptor and writer. He trained in medal arts and sculpture at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Frankfurt am Main (1891–7) and in Paris (1897–9) at the Académie Julian. He dedicated himself to making medals and assimilated the naturalistic and Impressionist styles current in French art, as in his baptismal medal Let the Child Come to Me (1898–9; Frankfurt am Main, Mus. Ksthandwk). In 1899 Bosselt began to gain considerable public recognition in Germany for his medals, which after 1901 became more stylized and decorative. By 1905 he had produced a large body of work, including medals and several plaques of, mainly commissioned, portraits and exhibition notices. In addition, he promoted the revival of medal arts in Germany through his published writings. He was also widely known as a gifted Jugendstil craftsman as a result of his stay from 1899 to 1903 at the Künstler-Kolonie in Darmstadt, where he developed a close friendship with fellow worker Peter Behrens. Bosselt’s output in Darmstadt consisted of jewellery and domestic items of decorative metalwork, which feature sculpted bronze figurines (e.g. table lamp, ...


(b Paris, June 10, 1856; d Neuilly, Hauts-de-Seine, March 3, 1909).

French sculptor, medallist and designer. After studying with the medal engraver Hubert Ponscarmé, he first exhibited at the Salon of 1879. His first significant work, exhibited in 1883, was a bas-relief, Young Woman Suckling her Child; the final version of this, in marble, was later ordered by the State (Aix-en-Provence, Mus. Granet). This work contained most elements of the artist’s aesthetic—the choice of a familiar subject from life, treated in a natural and robust style, in the manner of Aimé-Jules Dalou. From the start Charpentier had a clear mastery of bas-relief, and his best work is in modelled reliefs—medals, small portrait medallions of great warmth and integrity (e.g. Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), mural decorations and works on a monumental scale, such as the frieze of The Bakers, modelled in 1889 and executed in 1897 in enamelled bricks by the firm of Muller (Paris, Square Scipion).

Charpentier exhibited with the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and later the Salon d’Automne, both in Paris, and from ...


(b Paris, Feb 21, 1865; d 1932).

French medallist. He trained in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, Gabriel-Jules Thomas, Henri-Emile Allouard (1844–1929) and Hubert Ponscarme, winning the Prix de Rome for medal engraving in 1893. His Orpheus at the Entrance to the Underworld, struck for the Exposition Universelle of 1900, was immensely popular and is to this day one of the best known of French ...


(b Paris, May 26, 1860; d after 1913).

French medallist and sculptor. He studied under the French sculptors Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, Emile Thomas (1817–82), Hippolyte Moreau and Léon Delhomme (1841–95). He started exhibiting at the Salon Champs-Elysées in 1887 and was made a Sociétaire des Artistes Français in 1896. At the turn of the century be became a professor at the Ecole Supérieure Professionelle Estienne in Paris. Deschamps’s output consists mainly of relief plaques and medals depicting allegorical subjects and portraits, such as the relief plaque of a young girl ...


Elizabeth Lunning


(b Rådvad, nr Copenhagen, Aug 31, 1866; d Copenhagen, Oct 2, 1935).

Danish silversmith and sculptor. He was the son of a blacksmith, and at the age of 14 he was apprenticed to the goldsmith A. Andersen in Copenhagen. In 1884 he became a journeyman and in 1887 he enrolled at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, where he studied sculpture with Theobald Stein (1829–1901), Bertel Thorvaldsen’s successor; a bronze cast of his Harvester of 1891 is in the courtyard of the Georg Jensen silversmithy in Copenhagen. After graduating in 1892 Jensen took up ceramics, working with Joachim Petersen (1870–1943), and in 1900 his work was awarded an honourable mention at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. In the same year he received a grant to travel in France and Italy; it was during this trip that he became interested in the applied arts. On his return to Copenhagen, Jensen worked for the silversmith Mogens Ballin, and in 1904 he opened his own workshop, primarily making jewellery. His brooch of ...


Penelope Curtis

(b Saint-André-de-Cubzac, Gironde, Oct 22, 1860; d Paris, June 2, 1912).

French sculptor. The son of an ornamental sculptor, Larche entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1878. His teachers there were François Jouffroy, Eugène Delaplanche and Alexandre Falguière. He worked in most branches of sculpture but specialized in that of the ‘art-edition’. The founders Siot-Decauville cast many of his statuettes and objets d’art such as vases, ashtrays and lamps. His statuette of Loïe Fuller is the most famous of these editions, and her swirling drapery epitomizes the Art Nouveau style of Larche’s sculpture. The Sèvres factory also reproduced his work in porcelain. Whether mythological, pastoral or religious, Larche’s subject-matter was frequently sentimental. He executed large statues of Joan of Arc (marble; Paris, La Madeleine) and St Anthony (stone; Paris, St Antoine) and undertook a small number of decorative sculptures for Parisian façades, notably for the Grand Palais (1900). His output in all branches of sculpture other than the ‘art-edition’ was modest, though he entered several competitions for monuments, winning the commissions for those to ...


Sandra L. Tatman

(b Brooklyn, NY, Sept 28, 1863; d New York, March 22, 1937).

American sculptor and painter. Frederick MacMonnies, a leading figurative sculpture of the American Renaissance of the late 19th century, was trained in France and often produced public sculpture that translated a French sculptural style, not always understood by his American audience. Born in 1863 to William David MacMonnies and Juliana Eudora West, the young Frederick MacMonnies was so talented that he was accepted into the studio of Augustus Saint-Gaudens in 1880. There he rose from apprentice to assistant, and Saint-Gaudens introduced him to the American Renaissance painters and architects who would later provide commissions for his sculpture. In the evenings during this early period he studied at the Cooper Union (earning a prize in 1882) and the National Academy of Design; but in 1884, encouraged by Saint-Gaudens, he set out for Paris and further instruction. Initially, in Paris, he took classes at the Académie Colarossi, supplemented by sketching critiques at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Although he also spent time in Munich, drawing and painting, Paris would become his school, his workplace, and his home away from the USA. In Paris he studied with Alexandre Falguière, sculptor of the quadriga group, ...


Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...


Sibylle Einholz

(b Wscherau, nr Pilsen, Nov 18, 1870; d Berlin, March 24, 1919).

German sculptor. After starting an apprenticeship in stonemasonry in Pilsen in 1886, he worked as an assistant to various sculptors (1890–94). He worked predominantly in Saxony, spending time in Zwickau and Dresden, where he attended an evening class at the Kunstgewerbeschule, as well as in Altenburg and Leipzig. He continued his training on study trips to Paris and Italy. In 1894 he went to Berlin, where he founded his own studio in 1896. He first worked predominantly for the royal porcelain factory. His designs were soon distinguished by a very personal style, which might be broadly defined as a combination of Symbolism and Jugendstil. At the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 Metzner achieved artistic recognition with these works. At the same time his sculptures were arousing the interest of the public and critics. Inspired by the work of Georg Minne, he produced sculptures couched in a peculiar idiom with tectonic and ...


Robert Hoozee

(b Ghent, Aug 30, 1866; d Laethem-Saint-Martin, Feb 18, 1941).

Belgian sculptor, draughtsman and illustrator. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Ghent (1879–86) and worked in Ghent (until 1895) and Brussels (1895–9) before settling in Laethem-Saint-Martin, a village near Ghent. His first works were delicate sculptures and sparse drawings of grieving and injured figures. The emotional power of these works was recognized by many Symbolist poets including Maurice Maeterlinck, Charles Van Lerberghe and Grégoire Le Roy, who saw in them an expression of their own pessimistic view of life. He illustrated several of their collections of poetry (e.g. Grégoire Le Roy: Mon Coeur pleure d’autrefois (Paris, 1889); Maurice Maeterlinck: Serres chaudes (Paris, 1889)). From 1890 he was involved with the progressive element among the artists and authors of Brussels. He exhibited for the first time that year under the auspices of the avant-garde society Les XX in Brussels, and two years later he participated in the ...


Christopher Long

(b Lemberg [now Lviv, Ukraine], Dec 21, 1858; d Vienna, April 6, 1927).

Austrian architect, painter and sculptor. The son of an architect in imperial government service, he studied architecture with leading historicists Max von Ferstel (1859–1936) and Karl König (1841–1915) at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna (1877–82), and later with Ferdinand von Schmidt at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. After completing his studies (1885), he taught at the Staatsgewerbeschule in Vienna and in 1889 took a post at the School of Applied Arts in Prague. Although he established a reputation as one of the leading interpreters of the neo-Baroque, Ohmann became an early adherent to the style of the Viennese Secession and designed the first Jugendstil building in Prague, the Café Corso (1897–8). Like most Austrian architects of the period, however, Ohmann never wholly rejected the past and much of his later work blended neo-Baroque and Jugendstil forms.

In 1899 Ohmann was called back to Vienna to oversee the construction of the new wing of the Hofburg, the imperial palace. He resigned in ...


Peter Stasny

(b Judenburg, Sept 18, 1871; d Vienna, Jan 4, 1954).

Austrian decorative artist and sculptor. He received training as a potter in his father’s business from 1885 to 1889, concluding this training with the firm of Sommerhuber in Steyr from 1890 to 1891. After attending the Fachschule für Thonindustrie in Znojmo [Ger. Znaim], southern Moravia (now Czech Republic) (1891–4), he studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule (now the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst) in Vienna. From 1894 to 1901 he produced sculpture and modelling work with August Kühne (1845–95), Josef Breitner (1861–1927), Otto König (1838–1920) and Arthur Strasser (1854–1927), and from 1903 to 1906 he was assistant to the sculptor, Franz Metzner. The Kunstgewerbeschule, which at that time strongly reflected the impact of the Secession, had a decisive effect on his work.

As a member of the arts and crafts association, Wiener Kunst im Hause, from 1901, Powolny showed, at their Christmas exhibition of ...


Anne Pingeot

[Massignon, Pierre-Henry-Ferdinand]

(b Paris, Aug 2, 1855; d Paris, Jan 18, 1922).

French painter, sculptor, medallist and designer. While studying medicine and chemistry he took up drawing and model-making, and then became interested in painting; from 1873 to 1878 and again in 1889 he was registered at the Académie Julian, Paris, receiving advice on painting from Alfred Roll, and exhibiting at the Paris Salon from 1884 to 1889. A competition in 1888 for a monument to Danton inspired him to try his hand at sculpture. The boldness of his entry (drawing, Lyon, Mus. B.-A.; plaster fragment, Troyes, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.) brought him to the attention of Jules Dalou, who encouraged him. Roche went on to produce a number of fountain figures, including April (exh. 1893; executed in bronze and pâte de verre, 1906; Paris, Mus. Galliéra, gardens) and Hercules Diverting the River Alpheus (executed in lead, by the firm of Thiébaut, and glazed earthenware, 1900; Paris, Luxembourg Gardens).

Roche was fascinated by the possibilities of different new materials and invented a kind of relief colour print that he called ‘...


Stefania Frezzotti

(b Turin, Dec 8, 1871; d Rome, Jan 16, 1954).

Italian sculptor, medallist and printmaker. He studied ornamental modelling at the Accademia Albertina in Turin under Odoardo Tabacchi and first exhibited in 1891 at the Turin Promotrice, where he continued to show his work almost every year. From 1896 to 1898 he worked in the studio of Leonardo Bistolfi, who had a strong influence on his development. In 1898 he received his first important commission, a decorative group representing the Dora River for the Fountain of the Months in the Parco del Valentino, Turin. At the Esposizione Internazionale di Arte Decorativa held in Turin in 1902, Rubino created decorative groups representing Dance, Sculpture and Painting (destr.; repr. in Thovez) for the pavilion designed by Raimondo D’Aronco, in an Art Nouveau style close to that of Bistolfi; they earned him the gold medal. He exhibited at the Venice Biennale (1899, 1903, 1905, 1907) and at the Amatori e Cultori in Rome (...


Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, Nov 10, 1859; d Paris, Dec 13, 1923).

French illustrator, printmaker, painter and sculptor, of Swiss birth. After studying at the University at Lausanne and working as an apprentice designer in a textile factory in Mulhouse, Steinlen arrived in Paris in 1881 and quickly established himself in Montmartre, where he lived and worked for the rest of his life. In 1883 the illustrator Adolphe Willette introduced him to the avant-garde literary and artistic environment of the Chat Noir cabaret which had been founded in 1881 by another Swiss expatriot, Rodolphe Salis. Steinlen soon became an illustrator of its satirical and humorous journal, Chat noir, and an artistic collaborator with writers such as Emile Zola, poets such as Jean Richepin, composers such as Paul Delmet, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec and, most important, the singer and songwriter Aristide Bruant, all of whom he encountered at the Chat Noir. Bruant’s lyrics incorporate the argot of the poor, the worker, the rogue, the pimp and the prostitute, for whom Steinlen’s empathy had been awakened on reading Zola’s novel ...


Petr Wittlich

(b Nová Paka, Bohemia, Nov 12, 1866; d Prague, May 5, 1916).

Bohemian sculptor. He came from a family of sculptors from north-east Bohemia. He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Prague (1886–92) under Josef Myslbek, and he taught modelling (from 1892) and later sculpture there (from 1899). He taught medallion design at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts (from 1915).

From early in his career Sucharda was dedicated to national folklore, but he soon conceived his work with a greater accent on the dramatic. Since he was engaged in ornamental sculpture he inevitably collaborated closely with architects, which affected his style. His cooperation with the architect Jan Kotěra in the early 20th century was significant in this respect, as together they were instrumental in asserting the Czech version of Art Nouveau, as in the decoration of the District House, Hradec Králové, east Bohemia (1904). Sucharda was among the founder-members of the journal ...


Aleksandr U. Grekov

Russian estate lying 18 km from Smolensk. It was acquired in 1893 by Prince Vyacheslav Tenishev (1843–1903) and his wife Mariya Tenisheva. In the 19th century and the early 20th Princess Tenisheva, with the help of her husband’s capital (he was a leading industrialist and businessman), turned Talashkino into a unique artistic centre in the forefront of the revival of peasant handicrafts. She founded various workshops for joinery, ceramics, wood-carving, wood painting, metal chasing and fabric dyeing, where local craftsmen and apprentices from the peasantry worked under professional artists. They manufactured different objects for everyday life, including towels, clothes, wooden bowls, plates and toys. This took place in the context of the mutual enrichment of folk crafts and professional Art Nouveau in Russia at that time. Tenisheva formed a large collection of objects from traditional folk life, and of artistic products. Originally they were housed on the estate, where a museum, Russkaya Starina (‘Russian antiquity’), was opened to all in ...


Marja Supinen

[Wallgren, Carl Wilhelm]

(b Porvoo, Dec 15, 1855; d Helsinki, Oct 13, 1940).

Finnish sculptor. He began studying sculpture in Helsinki as a pupil of Carl Eneas Sjöstrand. In 1877 he moved to Paris, which was to prove much more significant for his studies. During his years there Vallgren followed the instruction of Pierre-Jules Cavelier at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Vallgren’s progress was leisurely. He spent the early part of the 1880s sketching figures and practising portrait sculpture. He was clearly attracted by the realist tendencies of the decade, as well as by the study of movement. The life-size marble sculpture Echo (1885; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.) marks a turning point in his work; it combines the familiarity of drawing-room realism with the serenity of a lyrical depiction of nature. Towards the end of the 1880s Vallgren was greatly influenced by Auguste Rodin, and at the same time he moved closer to both decorative and Symbolist expression. His works dating from this period, such as the reliefs ...